The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community and historical region of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain. Located east of Gijón and west of Bilbao, the city has a population of 172,000. Santander houses the headquarters of multinational bank Banco Santander, is the location of the founding of the namesake company; the origin of the earliest human settlements in the current Santander is not easy to establish because there is little written and archaeological data. However, there would appear to be good practical reasons for ancient settlers to have chosen the north side of the bay, sheltered from it and safer from the storms of the Bay of Biscay, on the north side of the promontory of Somorrostro and along the ancient Becedo estuary. Moreover, the hillside provided good visibility for spotting potential attackers, making this the ideal place for the foundation of a stable settlement, to evolve throughout the Middle Ages. Although it is mentioned for the first time in 1068, in a draft document made by King Sancho II, in the 9th century Alfonso II the Chaste founded the Abbey of the Holy Bodies in the existing chapel on the hill of Somorrostro, housing as holy relics the heads of Saint Emeterius and Saint Celedonius and the graves of other unknown martyrs, giving the abbey its name.
During the 12th and 13th centuries the population was contained within the walls of two different pueblas. La Puebla, the oldest, on the hill overlooking the city facing the bay, included the old castle, the Abbey of the Holy Bodies and the cloister, it had three rows of houses, separated by Rua Carnicerias and Rua Mayor, where the homes of prominent people of the town were, as well as those of the Abbot's canons. Meanwhile, the Puebla Nueva contained the convent of Santa Clara and San Francisco, which gave its name to one of the main streets; the two pueblas were joined by a bridge over the river that divided Becedo and flowed down to the shipyards, which were ordered by the king to take timber from the Cantabrian forests for shipbuilding. The villa was required to give the monarchy a ship per year; the city owes its existence to the excellent harbour of the Bay of Santander. Santander was an important port for Castile in the Middle Ages, for trade with the New World, it became a city in 1755.
See also: Incendio de Santander Santander fell victim to a great fire in 1941. Fanned by a strong south wind, the fire burned for two days; the fire started in Cádiz Street, next to the Cathedral and the medieval quarter. The fire destroyed the Old Town Hall, Jesús de Monasterio and Vargas streets and Atarazanas square buildings, it led to a major change in the architecture of Santander, away from the older small stone and wood buildings with balconies to the enormous blocks of flats built during the reconstruction. There was only one casualty of the fire, a firefighter from Madrid killed in the line of duty, but thousands of families were left homeless and the city was plunged into chaos; the fire destroyed the greater part of the medieval town centre and gutted the city's Romanesque cathedral. The city is located on the northern side of the Bahia de Santander; the city of Santander has an oceanic climate, the annual thermal oscillation of the average monthly temperatures reaching around 10°C.
The maximum temperature reached in Santander Airport was 37.8 °C on 27 June 2009, the minimum temperature −5.4 °C on 21 January 1957. The warmest maximum daytime average for a month was in August 2003, with 27.1 °C. Warm months are however rare. Sunshine hours are low by comparison with the rest of mainland and southern Spain. Compared with other areas of northern Spain, such as Galicia, which have much more sunshine hours in coastal cities such as Vigo or Pontevedra. With just around 1650 hours of sunshine, Santander is about as sunny as London and Paris, quite a bit less sunny than most of England's south coastal regions; the bars and restaurants of the old town are popular with tourists, as well as the El Sardinero beach a couple of kilometres away. The Cathedral of Santander: The lower temple, called "cripta del Cristo" was built around 1200 on other earlier Roman buildings, it is 18 wide, organised into three naves. Its style is a transition from romanesque to gothic; the Lighthouse of Cabo Mayor presides over the entrance to the Bay of Santander.
Parque de la Vaguada de las Llamas is one of the largest parks in northern Spain, covering 11 hectares of the city. Santander is pilot for a Smart city, it is embedded with 12,000 sensors. The PP were the leading party in the municipal elections of 1999, 2003 and 2007; as a service centre at the regional level, Santander contains important public institutions and private organisations with a large number of employees, including Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, the University of Cantabria and Grupo Santander. Activities related to culture and tourism are an important part of the city's economy, the regional and municipal authorities look to augment the summer tourist trade with additional offerings, including conventions, cultural festivals and cruises. Banco Santander, Spain's largest bank and corporation, is headquartered here, it has a ferry service from Plymouth operated by Brittany Ferries. University of Cantabria is the largest university in Cantabria. European University of the Atlantic is a private university founded in 2013.
Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo specializes in teaching S
2002 UEFA Champions League Final
The 2002 UEFA Champions League Final was the final match of the 2001–02 UEFA Champions League, Europe's primary club football competition. The show-piece event was contested between Bayer Leverkusen of Germany and Real Madrid of Spain at Hampden Park in Glasgow, Scotland on Wednesday, 15 May 2002, to decide the winner of the Champions League. Leverkusen appeared in the final for the first time, whereas Real Madrid appeared in their 12th final; each club needed to progress through two group stages, two knockout rounds to reach the final. Real Madrid won their group and moved into the second group stage, which they won, before facing the defending champions Bayern Munich and Barcelona in the knockout stage. Bayer Leverkusen finished second in their group behind Barcelona and progressed to the second group stage. There, they won their group, before beating the likes of Liverpool and Manchester United to progress to the final. Before the match, a minute of silence was held in honour of Ukrainian manager Valeriy Lobanovskyi, who died two days earlier.
Real Madrid were regarded as favourites before the match and took the lead in the eighth minute through Raúl. Lúcio equalised five minutes before Zinedine Zidane scored the winning goal on the stroke of half-time, a left-footed volley into the top corner that has since gone down as one of the greatest goals in the history of the competition, to secure Real Madrid's ninth European Cup; the match pitted Leverkusen, who had beaten Manchester United in the semi-finals to deny Sir Alex Ferguson a homecoming to Glasgow, against Real Madrid. Real Madrid won 2–1, clinching their ninth European Cup title, their third in five years. However, the match is remembered as a close one. Real Madrid's Spanish forward Raúl opened the scoring in the eighth minute, five minutes Brazilian defender Lúcio levelled the scores with a header that beat goalkeeper César, but in the 45th minute, one of the greatest goals in UEFA Champions League history was scored. In the 68th minute, César had to be replaced by 21-year-old Iker Casillas.
With the young Casillas between the posts, Real Madrid managed to hold their ground against a attacking Leverkusen side, until the final whistle from referee Urs Meier. In the 2001-02 season, Bayer Leverkusen finished second in the Bundesliga and lost in the 2002 DFB-Pokal Final. After the match, Leverkusen manager Klaus Toppmöller expressed his disappointment on finishing this strong season without a title, stating: "the disappointment is huge – you don't always get the rewards you deserve in football, no-one knows that better than us after what we have been through. "We must seek consolation. Doing what we have done means we have had a good season – but what has happened to us is difficult and makes us feel bitter."Five Leverkusen players, Michael Ballack, Hans-Jörg Butt, Oliver Neuville, Carsten Ramelow, Bernd Schneider went on to add a fourth silver medal at the 2002 FIFA World Cup. However, the gold medal winning Brazil squad included a Leverkusen player in Lúcio. 2001–02 UEFA Champions League Real Madrid CF in international football competitions 2001–02 UEFA Champions League season at UEFA.com
FC Dinamo București
Fotbal Club Dinamo București known as Dinamo București, or as Dinamo within Romania, is a Romanian professional football club based in Bucharest. Founded in 1948, it has spent its entire history in Liga I, the top tier of the Romanian football league system. Domestically, Dinamo București is one of the two most successful teams in Romania, having won 18 Liga I titles, 13 Cupa României, two Supercupa României, one Cupa Ligii. In the 1983–84 season, they became the first Romanian club to reach the semi-finals of the European Cup. Dinamo's traditional home colours are white red, while the current crest is a modified version of the one adopted in the 1998. Dinamo is playing its home matches on Stadionul Dinamo and the important matches on the Arena Națională; the club holds a strong rivalry with neighboring FCSB, with matches between the two being referred to as "the Eternal Derby". Dinamo was founded on 14 May 1948, when "Unirea Tricolor MAI" – newly entered, in January 1948, under the umbrella of the Communist regime's Internal Affairs Ministry – merged with "Ciocanul București".
The sporting club represented the above-mentioned institution. The "Dinamo" name was used for the first time on 1 May 1948; the real debut of Dinamo was in the 1947-48 Divizia A edition. Some of the team's players were Ambru, Angelo Niculescu, Siclovan, Sârbu. In 1955, Dinamo won their first championship. With Angelo Niculescu as head coach, Dinamo impressed in the offensive, with an attack formed by Ene I, Neaga and Suru; the defense, with players like Băcuț I, Băcuț II, Szoko, Călinoiu, was the best in the championship – only 19 goals against. In the fall of 1956, the team made its debut in the European Champion Clubs' Cup. Dinamo was the first Romanian team to play in the European competitions; the debut game was played on 26 August 1956, in front of 32,000 spectators. Dinamo defeated Galatasaray, 3–1. In the second leg, Dinamo lost in Istanbul 1–2, moved forward. In following years, Dinamo met famous teams in Europe, such as Real Madrid, Inter Milan and Feyenoord: 0–3 and 0–2. In 1973, in the European Cup, Dinamo surpassed Northern Ireland's Crusaders Belfast.
The 11–0 home game against Northern Ireland's team is still the biggest margin of victory in the history of the European Cup. The autumn of 1983–84 was going to represent a valuable step into the international arena; the "European Champions Cup campaign" started with Kuusysi Lahti. The second round pushed Dinamo against the current champion, Hamburger SV – team of Stein and Magath. At Bucharest, Augustin and Orac scored for 3–0; the thrilling second leg finished 3–2. In order to accede to the semi-finals of CCE, Dinamo had to defeat another top team: Dinamo Minsk, with Aleinikov and Gurinovich; the first leg was 1–1, it was followed by a 1–0 victory at Bucharest. Dinamo was the first Romanian team to reach the European Champions Cup semi-finals, where it met Liverpool F. C.. Dinamo lost 1–0 at Anfield and 2–1 in Bucharest, as Liverpool progressed to the 1984 European Cup Final. In 1986 Dinamo won the Cup against Steaua, the team that only a few days before won the European Cup. In the summer of 1990, Dinamo – with Mircea Lucescu as coach – conquered a new national title, the 13th.
The team won the Cup final, against Steaua: 6–4. But the Romanian Revolution from 1989 opened the doors for the Romanian footballers to leave and play abroad and Dinamo lost its entire team, thus a downfall regarding the results came the following years. Dinamo managed to win the title in 1992, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2007, but failed to reach the final phases of the European competitions. In 2013, the team changed ownership. Businessman Ionuț Negoiță promised to revive the golden years. On May 6, 2016, player Patrick Ekeng was diagnosed with a heart attack, he was declared dead at the hospital 2 hours later. Since the beginning, Dinamo's colours were white; the current team's badge includes two red dogs, a nickname given to the club when the Nunweiller brothers played here and Ion, in the 1960s and 1970s. Dinamo plays its home games at Stadionul Dinamo; the arena was built in 1951, for the official inauguration Dinamo played a game against Locomotiva Timișoara. The stadium capacity was 16,000, but following the installation of seats, it decreased to 15,032 places.
The stadium is part of a larger complex which contains another smaller stadium, Stadionul Florea Dumitrache, where the second team, Dinamo II, used to play its matches. It is used by CS Dinamo București rugby team. There is a sports hall and a swimming pool; the stadium is nicknamed "Groapa", because it was built by digging a hole, rather than by raising its stands. Dinamo's fans use the North stand, named Peluza Cătălin Hîldan, after a former Dinamo player who died in 2000 at the age of 24. Dinamo plays home and away matches against their biggest rivals, Steaua, as well as other major fixtures at Arena Națională. Dinamo has an estimated 11% support in Romania, making them the second most supported Romanian club, after Steaua; the largest concentration of fans is in Bucharest in the northeast and central areas of the city. The club has important fan bases inside and outside the country; the roots of the Dinamo ultras movement can be found in 1995 when groups like Dracula and Rams Pantelimon
Italy national football team
The Italy national football team has represented Italy in association football since their first match in 1910. The squad is under the global jurisdiction of FIFA and is governed in Europe by UEFA—the latter of, co-founded by the Italian team's supervising body, the Italian Football Federation. Italy's home matches are played at various stadiums throughout Italy, their primary training ground is located at the FIGC headquarters in Coverciano, Florence. Italy is one of the most successful national teams in the history of the World Cup, having won four titles and appearing in two other finals, reaching a third place and a fourth place. In 1938, they became the first team to defend their World Cup title, due to the outbreak of World War II, retained the title for a further 12 years. Italy had previously won two Central European International Cups. Between its first two World Cup victories, Italy won the Olympic football tournament. After the majority of the team was killed in a plane crash in 1949, the team did not advance past the group stage of the following two World Cup tournaments, failed to qualify for the 1958 edition—failure to qualify for the World Cup would not happen again until the 2018 edition.
Italy returned to form by 1968, winning a European Championship, after a period of alternating unsuccessful qualification rounds in Europe appeared in two other finals. Italy's highest finish at the FIFA Confederations Cup was in 2013, where the squad achieved a third-place finish; the team is known as gli Azzurri. Blue is the traditional colour of the national teams representing Italy and it comes from the border colour of the royal House of Savoy crest used on the flag of the Kingdom of Italy; the national team is known for its long-standing rivalries with other top footballing nations, such as those with Brazil, France and Spain. In the FIFA World Ranking, in force since August 1993, Italy has occupied the first place several times, in November 1993 and during 2007, with its worst placement in August 2018 in 21st place; the team's first match was held in Milan on 15 May 1910. Italy defeated France by a score of 6–2, with Italy's first goal scored by Pietro Lana; the Italian team played with a system and consisted of: De Simoni.
First captain of the team was Francesco Calì. The first success in an official tournament came with the bronze medal in 1928 Summer Olympics, held in Amsterdam. After losing the semi-final against Uruguay, an 11–3 victory against Egypt secured third place in the competition. In the 1927–30 and 1933–35 Central European International Cup, Italy achieved the first place out of five Central European teams, topping the group with 11 points in both editions of the tournament. Italy would later win the gold medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics with a 2–1 victory in extra time in the gold medal match over Austria on 15 August 1936. After declining to participate in the first World Cup the Italian national team won two consecutive editions of the tournament in 1934 and 1938, under the direction of coach Vittorio Pozzo and the performance of Giuseppe Meazza, considered one of the best Italian football players of all time by some. Italy hosted the 1934 World Cup, played their first World Cup match in a 7–1 win over the United States in Rome.
Italy defeated Czechoslovakia 2–1 in extra time in the final in Rome, with goals by Raimundo Orsi and Angelo Schiavio to achieve their first World cup title in 1934. They achieved their second title in 1938 in a 4–2 defeat of Hungary, with two goals by Gino Colaussi and two goals by Silvio Piola in the World Cup that followed. Rumour has it, before the 1938 finals fascist Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini was to have sent a telegram to the team, saying "Vincere o morire!". However, no record remains of such a telegram, World Cup player Pietro Rava said, when interviewed, "No, no, no, that's not true, he sent a telegram wishing us well, but no never'win or die'." In 1949, 10 of the 11 players in the team's initial line-up were killed in a plane crash that affected Torino, winners of the previous five Serie A titles. Italy did not advance further than the first round of the 1950 World Cup, as they were weakened due to the air disaster; the team had travelled by boat rather than by plane. In the World Cup finals of 1954 and 1962, Italy failed to progress past the first round, did not qualify for the 1958 World Cup due to a 2–1 defeat to Northern Ireland in the last match of the qualifying round.
Italy did not take part in the first edition of the European Championship in 1960, was knocked out by the Soviet Union in the first round of the 1964 European Nations' Cup qualifying. Their participation in the 1966 World Cup was ended by a 0–1 defeat at the hands of North Korea. Despite being the tournament favourites, the Azzurri, whose 1966 squad included Gianni Rivera and Giacomo Bulgarelli, were eliminated in the first round by the semi-professional North Koreans; the Italian team was bitterly condemned upon their return home, while North Korean scorer Pak Doo-ik was celebrated as the David who killed Goliath. Upon Italy's return home, furious fans threw fruit and rotten tomatoes at their transport bus at the airport. In 1968, Italy participated in their first European Championship, hosting the European Championship and winning their first major competition since the 1938 World Cup, beating Yugoslavia in Rome for the title. Th
Defender (association football)
In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals. There are four types of defenders: centre-back, full-back, wing-back; the centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations. A centre-back defends in the area directly in front of the goal, tries to prevent opposing players centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, intercepting passes, contesting headers and marking forwards to discourage the opposing team from passing to them. With the ball, centre-backs are expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defender's goal. Due to the many skills centre-backs are required to possess in the modern game, many successful contemporary central-defensive partnerships have involved pairing a more physical defender with a defender, quicker, more comfortable in possession and capable of playing the ball out from the back.
During normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. However, when their team takes a corner kick or other set pieces, centre-backs may move forward to the opponents' penalty area. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions; some centre-backs have been known for their direct free kicks and powerful shots from distance. Brazilian defenders David Luiz and Naldo have been known for using the cannonball free kick method, which relies more on power than placement. In the modern game, most teams employ three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper; the 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs. There are two main defensive strategies used by centre-backs: the zonal defence, where each centre-back covers a specific area of the pitch; the sweeper is a more versatile centre-back who "sweeps up" the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line. This position is rather more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents.
Because of this, it is sometimes referred to as libero. Though sweepers may be expected to build counter-attacking moves, as such require better ball control and passing ability than typical centre-backs, their talents are confined to the defensive realm. For example, the catenaccio system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s, employed a purely defensive sweeper who only "roamed" around the back line; the more modern libero possesses the defensive qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. The Fundell-libero has become more popular in recent time with the sweeper transitioning to the most advanced forward in an attack; this variation on the position requires great fitness. While seen in professional football, the position has been extensively used in lower leagues. Modern libero sit behind centre-backs as a sweeper before charging through the team to join in the attack; some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles.
If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery and run back into their position. In modern football, its usage has been restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position; the position is most believed to have been pioneered by Franz Beckenbauer, Gaetano Scirea, Elías Figueroa, although they were not the first players to play this position. Earlier proponents included Alexandru Apolzan, Ivano Blason, Velibor Vasović, Ján Popluhár. Other defenders who have been described as sweepers include Bobby Moore, Franco Baresi, Ronald Koeman, Fernando Hierro, Matthias Sammer, Aldair, due to their ball skills and long passing ability. Though it is used in modern football, it remains a respected and demanding position. A recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greece's manager, during UEFA Euro 2004. Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greece's sweeper to great success, as Greece became European champions.
Although this position has become obsolete in modern football formations, due to the use of zonal marking and the offside trap, certain players such as Daniele De Rossi:, Leonardo Bonucci, Javi Martínez and David Luiz have played a similar role as a ball-playing central defender in a 3–5–2 or 3–4–3 formation. Some goalkeepers, who are comfortable leaving their goalmouth to intercept and clear through balls, who participate more in play, such as René Higuita, Manuel Neuer, Edwin van der Sar, Fabien Barthez, Hugo Lloris, among others, have been referred to as sweep
Associazione Sportiva Roma referred to as Roma, is an Italian professional football club based in Rome. Founded by a merger in 1927, Roma have participated in the top-tier of Italian football for all of their existence except for 1951–52. Roma have won Serie A three times, in 1941–42, 1982–83 and 2000–01, as well as winning nine Coppa Italia titles and two Supercoppa Italiana titles. In European competitions, Roma won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1960–61 and were runners-up in the 1983–84 European Cup and the 1990–91 UEFA Cup. Fifteen players have won the FIFA World Cup while playing at Roma: Ferraris and Masetti. Since 1953, Roma have played their home matches at the Stadio Olimpico, a venue they share with city rivals Lazio. With a capacity of over 72,000, it is the second-largest of its kind in Italy, with only the San Siro able to seat more; the club plan to move to a new stadium. The club's home colours are Tyrian purple and gold, which gives Roma their nickname "I Giallorossi", their club badge features an allusion to the founding myth of Rome.
A. S. Roma was founded in the summer of 1927 when Italo Foschi initiated the merger of three older Italian Football Championship clubs from the city of Rome: Roman FC, SS Alba-Audace and Fortitudo-Pro Roma SGS; the purpose of the merger was to give the Italian capital a strong club to rival that of the more dominant Northern Italian clubs of the time. The only major Roman club to resist the merger was Lazio because of the intervention of the army General Vaccaro, a member of the club and executive of Italian Football Federation; the club played its earliest seasons at the Motovelodromo Appio stadium, before settling in the working-class streets of Testaccio, where it built an all-wooden ground Campo Testaccio. An early season in which Roma made a large mark was the 1930–31 championship, where the club finished as runners-up behind Juventus. Captain Attilio Ferraris, along with Guido Masetti, Fulvio Bernardini and Rodolfo Volk, were important players during this period. After a slump in league form and the departure of high key players, Roma rebuilt their squad adding goalscorers such as the Argentine Enrique Guaita.
Under the management of Luigi Barbesino, the Roman club came close to their first title in 1935–36, finishing just one point behind champions Bologna. Roma returned to form after being inconsistent for much of the late 1930s. Roma recorded an unexpected title triumph in the 1941–42 season by winning their first Scudetto title; the 18 goals scored by local player Amedeo Amadei were essential to the Alfréd Schaffer-coached Roma side winning the title. At the time, Italy was involved in World War II and Roma were playing at the Stadio del Partito Nazionale Fascista. In the years just after the war, Roma were unable to recapture their league stature from the early 1940s. Roma finished in the lower half of Serie A for five seasons in a row, before succumbing to their only relegation to Serie B at the end of the 1950–51 season, around a decade after their championship victory. Under future Italy national team manager Giuseppe Viani, promotion straight back up was achieved. After returning to the Serie A, Roma managed to stabilise themselves as a top half club again with players such as Egisto Pandolfini, Dino Da Costa and Dane Helge Bronée.
Their best finish of this period was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver, when in 1954–55, they finished as runners-up after Udinese, who finished second were relegated for corruption. Although Roma were unable to break into the top four during the following decade, they did achieve some measure of cup success, their first honour outside of Italy was recorded in 1960–61 when Roma won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup by defeating Birmingham City 4–2 in the finals. A few years Roma won their first Coppa Italia trophy in 1963–64 after defeating Torino 1–0, their lowest point came during the 1964–65 season, when manager Juan Carlos Lorenzo announced the club could not pay its players and was unlikely to be able to afford to travel to Vicenza to fulfil its next fixture. Supporters kept the club going with a fundraiser at the Sistine Theatre and bankruptcy was avoided with the election of a new club president Franco Evangelisti, their second Coppa Italia trophy was won in 1968–69, when it competed in a small, league-like system.
Giacomo Losi set a Roma appearance record in 1969 with 450 appearances in all competitions, a record that would last 38 years. Roma were able to add another cup to their collection in 1972, with a 3–1 victory over Blackpool in the Anglo-Italian Cup. During much of the 1970s, Roma's appearance in the top half of Serie A was sporadic; the best place the club were able to achieve during the decade was third in 1974–75. Notable players who turned out for the club during this period included midfielders Giancarlo De Sisti and Francesco Rocca; the dawning of a newly successful era in Roma's footballing history was brought in with another Coppa Italia victory, they defeated Torino on penalties to win the 1979–80 edition. Roma would reach heights in the league which they had not touched since the 1940s by narrowly and controversially finishing as runners-up to Juventus in 1980–81. Former Milan player Nils Liedholm was the manager at the time, with players such as Bruno Conti, Agostino Di Bartolomei, Roberto Pruzzo and Falcão.
The second Scudetto did not elude Roma for much longer. In 1982–83, the Roman club won the title for the first time in 41
Spain national football team
The Spain national football team represents Spain in international men's association football since 1920, is controlled by the Royal Spanish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Spain. Spain is one of the eight national teams to have been crowned worldwide champions, having participated in a total of 15 of 21 FIFA World Cups and qualifying since 1978. Spain has won three continental titles, having appeared at 10 of 15 UEFA European Championships. Spain became the first European team to win a FIFA World Cup outside Europe, having won the 2010 tournament in South Africa, as well as having won back-to-back European titles in Euro 2008 and Euro 2012, defeating Germany and Italy in the respective finals, making them the only national team with three major titles in a row. According to this, from 2008 to 2013, the national team won the FIFA Team of the Year, the second-most of any nation, behind only Brazil. Between November 2006 and June 2009, Spain went undefeated for a record-equalling 35 consecutive matches, a record shared with Brazil.
Their achievements have led many experts and commentators to consider the 2008-2012 Spanish squads, among the best international sides in world football. Spain has been a member of FIFA since its foundation in 1904 though the Spanish Football Federation was first established in 1909; the first Spain national football team was constituted in 1920, with the main objective of finding a team that would represent Spain at the Summer Olympics held in Belgium in that same year. Spain made their debut at the tournament on 28 August 1920 against Denmark, silver medalists at the last two Olympic tournaments; the Spanish managed to win that match by a scoreline of 1–0 finishing with the silver medal. Spain qualified for their first FIFA World Cup in 1934, defeating Brazil in their first game and losing in a replay to the hosts and eventual champions Italy in the quarter-finals; the Spanish Civil War and World War II prevented Spain from playing any competitive matches between the 1934 World Cup and the 1950 edition's qualifiers.
At the 1950 finals in Brazil, they topped their group to progress to the final round finished in fourth place. Until 2010, this had been Spain's highest finish in a FIFA World Cup finals, which had given them the name of the "underachievers". Spain won its first major international title when hosting the 1964 European Championship held in Spain, defeating the Soviet Union 2–1 in the final at the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium; the victory would stand as Spain's lone major title for 44 years. Spain was selected as host of the 1982 FIFA World Cup, reaching the second round, four years they reached the quarter-finals before a penalty shootout defeat to Belgium. Javier Clemente was appointed as Spain's coach in 1992, leading them to the quarter-finals of the 1994 World Cup; the match became controversial when Italian defender Mauro Tassotti struck Luis Enrique with his elbow inside Spain's penalty area, causing Luis Enrique to bleed profusely from his nose and mouth, but the foul was not noticed nor sanctioned by referee Sándor Puhl.
Had the official acknowledged the foul, Spain would have merited a penalty kick. In the 2002 World Cup, Spain won its three group play matches defeated the Republic of Ireland on penalties in the second round, they faced co-hosts South Korea in the quarter-finals, losing in a shootout after having two goals controversially called back for alleged infractions during regular and extra time. At UEFA Euro 2008, Spain won all their games in Group D. Italy were the opponents in the quarter-final match, they met Russia again in the semi-final, beating them 3–0. In the final, Spain defeated Germany 1–0, with Fernando Torres scoring the only goal of the game; this was Spain's first major title since the 1964 European Championship. Xavi was awarded the player of the tournament. In the 2010 World Cup, Spain advanced to the final for the first time by defeating Germany 1–0. In the decisive match against the Netherlands, Andrés Iniesta scored the match's only goal, coming in extra time. Spain became the third team to win a World Cup outside their own continent, the first European team to do so.
Goalkeeper Iker Casillas won the golden glove for only conceding two goals during the tournament, while David Villa won the bronze ball and silver boot, tied for top scorer of the tournament. Spain qualified top of Group I in qualification for UEFA Euro 2012 with a perfect 100% record, they became the first team to retain the European Championship, winning the final 4–0 against Italy, while Fernando Torres won the Golden Boot for top scorer of the tournament. Two years however, they were eliminated from the group stage of the 2014 World Cup. At Euro 2016 and the 2018 World Cup, the side reached the last 16. Spanish team is known by fans as "La Furia Roja", meaning The Red Fury in Spanish. However, there are another unofficial nicknames to refer to the national team of Spain; the other most common nickname, known by fans, is "Los Toros", since Spanish Fighting Bull is one of Spain's famous national treasures and used to define Spanish culture, often depicted by Spanish supporters alike. Spanish football team is sometimes referred as the Bulls due to this cultural heritage.
Spanish team received other nicknames "Toreros" or "Matador", both meanings are Bullfighters in Spanish, to describe its passionate and romantic style of football playing. During Spain's most successful period between 2008 and 2012, the team played a style of football dubbed'tiki-taka', a systems approach to football founded upon the ideal of team unity and a comprehensive understanding in the geometry of space on a football field. Tiki-taka