Xenotime is a rare-earth phosphate mineral, the major component of, yttrium orthophosphate. It forms a solid solution series with chernovite- and therefore may contain trace impurities of arsenic, as well as silicon dioxide and calcium; the rare-earth elements dysprosium, erbium and ytterbium, as well as metal elements such as thorium and uranium are the expressive secondary components of xenotime. Due to uranium and thorium impurities, some xenotime specimens may be weakly to radioactive. Lithiophyllite and purpurite are sometimes grouped with xenotime in the informal "anhydrous phosphates" group. Xenotime is used chiefly as a source of yttrium and heavy lanthanide metals. Gemstones are cut from the finest xenotime crystals; the name xenotime is from the Greek words κενός vain and τιμή honor, akin to "vainglory". It was coined by French mineralogist François Sulpice Beudant as a rebuke of another scientist, Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, for the latter's premature claim to have found in the mineral a new chemical element.
The criticism was blunted, as over time "kenotime" was misread and misprinted "xenotime". Xenotime was first described for an occurrence in Vest-Agder, Norway in 1824. Crystallising in the tetragonal crystal system, xenotime is translucent to opaque in shades of brown to brownish yellow but reddish to greenish brown and gray. Xenotime has a variable habit: It may be prismatic with dipyramidal terminations, in radial or granular aggregates, or rosettes. A soft mineral, xenotime is—in comparison to most other translucent minerals—fairly dense, with a specific gravity between 4.4–5.1. Its lustre, which may be vitreous to resinous, together with its crystal system, may lead to a confusion with zircon, the latter having a similar crystal structure and with which xenotime may sometimes occur. Xenotime has two directions of perfect prismatic cleavage and its fracture is uneven to irregular, it is considered brittle and its streak is white. The refractive index of xenotime is 1.720-1.815 with a birefringence of 0.095.
Xenotime is dichroic with pink, yellow or yellowish brown seen in the extraordinary ray and brownish yellow, grayish brown or greenish brown seen in the ordinary ray. There is no reaction under ultraviolet light. While xenotime may contain significant amounts of thorium or uranium, the mineral does not undergo metamictization like sphene or zircon would. Occurring as a minor accessory mineral, xenotime is found in pegmatites and other igneous rocks, as well as gneisses rich in mica and quartz. Associated minerals include biotite and other micas, chlorite group minerals, zircon, certain feldspars, anatase, rutile and apatite. Xenotime is known to be diagenetic: It may form as minute grains or as thin coatings on detrital zircon grains in siliciclastic sedimentary rocks; the importance of these diagenetic xenotime deposits in the radiometric dating of sedimentary rocks is only beginning to be realised. Discovered in 1824, xenotime's type locality is Hidra, Vest-Agder, Norway. Other notable localities include: Arendal and Tvedestrand, Norway.
A new discovery of gemmy, colour change xenotime has been reported from Afghanistan and been found in Pakistan. North of Mount Funabuse in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, a notable basaltic rock is quarried at a hill called Maru-Yama: crystals of xenotime and zircon arranged in a radiating, flower-like pattern are visible in polished slices of the rock, known as chrysanthemum stone; this stone is appreciated in Japan for its ornamental value. Small tonnages of xenotime sand are recovered in association with Malaysian tin mining, etc. and are processed commercially. The lanthanide content is typical of "yttrium earth" minerals and runs about two-thirds yttrium, with the remainder being the heavy lanthanides, where the even-numbered lanthanides each being present at about the 5% level, the odd-numbered lanthanides each being present at about the 1% level. Dysprosium is the most abundant of the even-numbered heavies, holmium is the most abundant of the odd-numbered heavies; the lightest lanthanides are better represented in monazite while the heaviest lanthanides are in xenotime.
Ceremony: Remixes and Rarities is a 2003 compilation by Carlos Santana and was the third album released under the Arista label. It was released on December 16, 2003 with a limited edition of 100,000 copies and featured five unreleased brand new songs, newly recorded versions or remixes of five songs that came from the first two albums, one key album track; the album cover is by another Bay Area legend, Sal Garcia, a prominent member of California's Chicano art movement, former curator at Galeria de la Raza and known to many as "the Mayor of 24th Street". "Why Don't You & I" "Smooth" "Maria Maria" "Foo Foo" "Mañana" "Truth Don Die" "Let Me Love You Tonight" "Curación" "Victory Is Won" "Come to My World" "Primavera" Official Galería de la Raza website
The 2009 Florida Gators football team represented the University of Florida in the sport of American football during the 2009 college football season. The Gators competed in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Eastern Division of the Southeastern Conference, played their home games at Ben Hill Griffin Stadium on the university's Gainesville, Florida campus, they were led by fifth-year head coach Urban Meyer, who coached the Gators to a first-place finish in the SEC East, a 51–24 Sugar Bowl victory over the Cincinnati Bearcats, an overall win-loss record of 13–1. With senior quarterback Tim Tebow and eleven defensive starters returning, the Gators had hoped to repeat as back-to-back national champions following their BCS National Championship at the end of the 2008 season, they finished with an undefeated 12–0 regular season, their first since 1995, but the Gators' 32–13 loss to the Alabama Crimson Tide in the SEC Championship Game derailed their national title hopes, forced them to settle for a berth in the Sugar Bowl.
At the conclusion of the 2009 season, the Gators were ranked No. 3 in both major polls. On December 26, 2009, Gators athletic director Jeremy Foley announced that Urban Meyer would step down as the team's head coach for health and family reasons; the following day, Meyer stated that he would instead take an indefinite leave of absence, allowing him to resume his position as the head coach. Meyer returned to coach the Gators in spring practice in March 2010. In the 2008 season, the Gators went 11–1 in the regular season, suffering their only loss to Ole Miss in Gainesville, their post-season success included a win over No. 1–ranked Alabama Crimson Tide in the 2008 SEC Championship Game, followed by a win over the No. 1–ranked Oklahoma Sooners in the 2009 BCS Championship Game. The Gators finished the 2008 season with a 13–1 record and ranked No. 1 in the AP and USA Today Coaches Polls. It was the third national championship for the Gators. On January 11, 2009 during the national championship celebration at the University of Florida, quarterback Tim Tebow announced his intention to return for his senior season, followed on January 15 by linebacker Brandon Spikes intention to return as well.
With Spikes' return, the entire two-deep of the Gators defense was set to return for the 2009 season. One major loss was All-America wide receiver Percy Harvin, who opted to leave the University of Florida to enter the 2009 NFL Draft; the Gators lost offensive coordinator and quarterback coach Dan Mullen, who became the head coach at Mississippi State following Sylvester Croom's resignation. Former offensive line coach Steve Addazio was named as Mullen's replacement, with Scot Loeffler hired to take on the role of quarterback coach; the Gators played their spring scrimmage on April 2009, with the Orange winning. Florida was voted # 1 in the AP Poll; the Gators received the highest percentage of preseason #1 votes in the history of the AP Poll, which began in 1950. ‡ New Ben Hill Griffin Stadium Attendance RecordSources: 2012 Florida Gators Football Media Guide, GatorZone.com. In the season opener, the Gators met the Charleston Southern Buccaneers in Gainesville. In a game, never close, the Gators won 62–3.
John Brantley threw for 2 touchdowns. The Florida Gators met the Troy Trojans in Florida. After a slow start, the Gators scored four times in the second quarter before cruising to a 56–6 victory. In what may have been the most talked about game all pre-season, the Florida Gators and Tennessee Volunteers met in Gainesville, Florida. Most of the pre-game talk surrounded comments made by Volunteer's head coach Lane Kiffin; the game remained close until the end with the Gators holding on for a 23–13 victory. Pregame Line: -20.5 In their first road game of the season, the Florida Gators traveled to Lexington, Kentucky to face the Wildcats. The Gators took at 31–0 lead in the first quarter before going on to win 41–7; the biggest news story to come out of the game was a concussion suffered by Tim Tebow during the third quarter. Tebow spent the night in a Lexington hospital. Pregame Line: -22 Pregame Line: -16 Pregame Line: -35 Pregame Line: -17.5 Pregame Line: -45 In the regular season finale, the Gators blew by the Seminoles 37–10.
A new attendance record at Ben Hill Griffin Stadium was set with 90,907 present. In a rematch of last year's SEC Championship Game, the Crimson Tide handed the Gators their only loss of the season. Alabama running back Mark Ingram scored three touchdowns in the 32–13 win. Florida–Florida State football rivalry Florida Gators Florida–Georgia football rivalry Florida–LSU football rivalry Florida–Tennessee football rivalry 2012 Florida Football Media Guide, University Athletic Association, Florida, pp. 107–116
Edith Emerald Johns Edith Big Fire Johns Winnebago-Nez Perce was an American nurse and community leader in the Chicago area in the mid-20th century. She was one of the founding staff of the Native American Educational Services College and was inducted into the Chicago Women's Hall of Fame and the Chicago Senior Citizens Hall of Fame. Edith Big Fire Johns was born January 19, 1915 on the Winnebago Reservation in Thurston County, Nebraska Her father was a member of the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska and her mother was Nez Perce. From the age of eleven, Johns attended school away from her family at an American Indian boarding school. In 1937, she completed nursing school in Ft. Wayne and moved to Chicago. Johns worked at several hospitals in the Chicago area, including the Bethany Hospital and the Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center. Johns spent a decade as a caseworker at St. Augustine's Center for the American Indian and by 1971 was the chief caseworker. Johns was involved in the urban Indian movement of the 1960s and 1970s, giving speeches and attending meetings.
In 1968, Johns attended the National Urban Indian Consultation in Seattle, founded to focus on the problems of urban Native Americans, as the National Congress of American Indians was seen as too focused on reservation issues. Johns was one of the founders of the Chicago American Indian Center and served on its Board of Directors between 1960 and 1971; the center offered cultural programs and fellowship allowing members to share their skills. Johns shared her knowledge of the craft. Johns was a founding staff member of the Native American Educational Services College. NAES was founded in 1974 to address the lack of higher education opportunities for urban Indians and Johns was hired as an instructor in 1975, she taught a course, "Dynamics of Community Health" which dealt with health care and patient rights. Johns worked at the college until 1978, when she left to work as the assistant nursing director of Somerset Residential Care Center. Johns returned to college, attending the College of St. Francis in Joliet and earned her bachelor's degree in 1977.
At the age of 65, Johns served as a nurse in Dominica for two years. She traveled to Australia and New Zealand to meet with indigenous people there. In 1990, she began working at O'Hare International Airport for Travelers and Immigrants Aid and assists with infants arriving for adoption and those in need of assistance when traveling through or immigrating through the airport. Johns was buried in Rosehill Cemetery, she was survived by Harold Johns and David Syfczak. Johns was inducted into the Chicago Women's Hall of Fame, as well as Chicago's Senior Citizens Hall of Fame
Stuart Crichton is a music producer and songwriter from the UK, based in Los Angeles, California. In the early 1990s, Crichton formed the electronic/house music duo Narcotic Thrust with Andy Morris, an anagram of Crichton's name, they released several singles, including "Safe From Harm", which reached number 1 on the Billboard Dance Club Songs chart in 2002, "I Like It", which reached number 16 on the chart in 2004. At this time, Crichton was producing dance tracks, releasing music on early progressive house labels such as FFRR, ZTT and Mushroom, helping make Limbo Records a big part of the early'90s progressive house scene. Crichton has since written for and produced artists in a variety of genres, including Kylie Minogue, Backstreet Boys, Pet Shop Boys, Selena Gomez, Toni Braxton, Sugababes, DNCE and Kygo, he produced three songs on Stan Walker's 2010 album From the Inside Out, including the singles "Homesick" and "Choose You". He co-wrote and co-produced Kesha's single "Learn to Let Go", from her 2017 album Rainbow, as well as the track "Let'em Talk" featuring Eagles of Death Metal.
The album debuted at number 1 on the Billboard 200 albums chart, was nominated for the 2018 Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album. Three songs he wrote and produced were nominated at the 2019 Grammy Awards: "Don't Go Breaking My Heart" by the Backstreet Boys, he wrote and produced six songs on the 2019 Backstreet Boys album DNA, which debuted at number 1 on the Billboard 200 charts. Rolling Stone called Crichton the "common thread on DNA" and Vulture.com called the songs Crichton wrote for the album "the meat of DNA, a breezy collection of three-minute love songs that apply the singers’ airtight melodies to the sound of modern pop radio." Crichton wrote and produced Louis Tomlinson's 2019 single "Don't Let It Break Your Heart". He wrote and produced Kesha's 2019 single "Rich, Straight Men", he wrote and produced four songs on her 2020 album High Road. Crichton is married to Leeza Tierney, he lived in London for 18 years, relocated to Sydney, Australia in 2008, in 2015 to Los Angeles, California.