A scientist is someone who conducts scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest. In classical antiquity, there was no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, philosophers engaged in the philosophical study of nature called natural philosophy, a precursor of natural science, it was not until the 19th century that the term scientist came into regular use after it was coined by the theologian and historian of science William Whewell in 1833. The term'scientist' was first coined by him for Mary Somerville because the term "man of science", more custom at that time, was inappropriate here. In modern times, many scientists have advanced degrees in an area of science and pursue careers in various sectors of the economy such as academia, industry and nonprofit environments; the roles of "scientists", their predecessors before the emergence of modern scientific disciplines, have evolved over time. Scientists of different eras have had different places in society, the social norms, ethical values, epistemic virtues associated with scientists—and expected of them—have changed over time as well.
Accordingly, many different historical figures can be identified as early scientists, depending on which characteristics of modern science are taken to be essential. Some historians point to the Scientific Revolution that began in 16th century as the period when science in a recognizably modern form developed, it wasn't until the 19th century that sufficient socioeconomic changes occurred for scientists to emerge as a major profession. Knowledge about nature in classical antiquity was pursued by many kinds of scholars. Greek contributions to science—including works of geometry and mathematical astronomy, early accounts of biological processes and catalogs of plants and animals, theories of knowledge and learning—were produced by philosophers and physicians, as well as practitioners of various trades; these roles, their associations with scientific knowledge, spread with the Roman Empire and, with the spread of Christianity, became linked to religious institutions in most of European countries.
Astrology and astronomy became an important area of knowledge, the role of astronomer/astrologer developed with the support of political and religious patronage. By the time of the medieval university system, knowledge was divided into the trivium—philosophy, including natural philosophy—and the quadrivium—mathematics, including astronomy. Hence, the medieval analogs of scientists were either philosophers or mathematicians. Knowledge of plants and animals was broadly the province of physicians. Science in medieval Islam generated some new modes of developing natural knowledge, although still within the bounds of existing social roles such as philosopher and mathematician. Many proto-scientists from the Islamic Golden Age are considered polymaths, in part because of the lack of anything corresponding to modern scientific disciplines. Many of these early polymaths were religious priests and theologians: for example, Alhazen and al-Biruni were mutakallimiin. During the Italian Renaissance scientists like Leonardo Da Vinci, Galileo Galilei and Gerolamo Cardano have been considered as the most recognizable polymaths.
During the Renaissance, Italians made substantial contributions in science. Leonardo Da Vinci made significant discoveries in anatomy; the Father of modern Science,Galileo Galilei, made key improvements on the thermometer and telescope which allowed him to observe and describe the solar system. Descartes was not only a pioneer of analytic geometry but formulated a theory of mechanics and advanced ideas about the origins of animal movement and perception. Vision interested the physicists Young and Helmholtz, who studied optics and music. Newton extended Descartes' mathematics by inventing calculus, he investigated light and optics. Fourier founded a new branch of mathematics — infinite, periodic series — studied heat flow and infrared radiation, discovered the greenhouse effect. Girolamo Cardano, Blaise Pascal Pierre de Fermat, Von Neumann, Khinchin and Wiener, all mathematicians, made major contributions to science and probability theory, including the ideas behind computers, some of the foundations of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics.
Many mathematically inclined scientists, including Galileo, were musicians. There are many compelling stories in medicine and biology, such as the development of ideas about the circulation of blood from Galen to Harvey. During the age of Enlightenment, Luigi Galvani, the pioneer of the bioelectromagnetics, discovered the animal electricity, he discovered that a charge applied to the spinal cord of a frog could generate muscular spasms throughout its body. Charges could make frog legs jump if the legs were no longer attached to a frog. While cutting a frog leg, Galvani's steel scalpel touched a brass hook, holding the leg in place; the leg twitched. Further experiments confirmed this effect, Galvani was convinced that he was seeing the effects of what he called animal electricity, the life force within the muscles of the frog. At the University of Pavia, Galvani's colleague Alessandro Volta was able to reproduce the results, but was sceptical o
Ulyanovsk is a city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast, located on the Volga River 705 kilometers east of Moscow. Population: 613,786 ; the city, founded as Simbirsk, is the birthplace of Alexander Kerensky and Vladimir Lenin, for whom it was renamed in 1924. It is famous for its writers such as Ivan Goncharov, Nikolay Yazykov and Nikolay Karamzin and painters. Simbirsk was founded in 1648 by the boyar Bogdan Khitrovo; the fort of "Simbirsk" was strategically placed on a hill on the Western bank of the Volga River. The fort was meant to protect the eastern frontier of the Russian Empire from the nomadic tribes and to establish a permanent Imperial presence in the area. In 1668, Simbirsk withstood a month-long siege by a 20,000-strong army led by rebel Cossack commander Stenka Razin. In Simbirsk another country rebel, Yemelyan Pugachev, was imprisoned before execution. At the time Simbirsk possessed a wooden kremlin, destroyed by a fire during the 18th century; as the eastern border of the Russian Empire was pushed into Siberia, Simbirsk lost its strategic importance, but nonetheless began to develop into an important regional center.
Simbirsk was granted city status in 1796. In the summer of 1864, Simbirsk was damaged by fire; the Holy Trinity Cathedral was constructed in a restrained Neoclassical style between 1827 and 1841. The population of Simbirsk reached 26,000 by 1856 and 43,000 by 1897. In 1924, the city was renamed Ulyanovsk in honor of Vladimir Ulyanov, better known as Lenin, born in Simbirsk in 1870. Two other Russian political leaders, Alexander Kerensky and Alexander Protopopov, were born in Simbirsk; the construction of the Kuybyshev hydroelectric plant 200 kilometers downstream of Ulyanovsk resulted in the flooding of significant tracts of land both north and south of Ulyanovsk and increasing the width of the Volga by up to 35 kilometers in some places. To this day, some populated neighborhoods of Ulyanovsk remain well below the level of the reservoir, protected from flooding by a dam: it is estimated that its catastrophic failure would submerge parts of the city comprising around 5% of its total population with as much as 10 meters of water.
During the Soviet period, Ulyanovsk was an important tourist center, drawing visitors from around the country because of its revolutionary importance. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the tourist importance of Ulyanovsk decreased. In the 1990s, the city went through the hardest times—a slump in production in all branches, mass unemployment, a population impoverishment. Besides the policy of the regional authorities of that time leaning against the grants and the Soviet system of managing, has led to serious crisis of a city infrastructure. In the first decade of the 2000s the economy started to grow. Ulyanovsk recovered from these downturns into regional manufacturing and transportation clusters; the city is headed by a mayor, the executive branch, city council, the legislative branch. The term of the mayor is five years. In 2010 the city council abolished the direct elections to the mayor, replacing it with city manager, appointed by the council. Again, in April 2013 the city charter was amended to re-introduce the direct mayoral election.
Ulyanovsk serves as the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with thirty rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk is incorporated as Ulyanovsk Urban Okrug. In 2008, there were registered 8,054 deaths in Ulyanovsk. Russians: 78% Tatars: 10% Chuvash: 6% Mordvins: 2% Germans: 1% Ulyanovsk has a humid continental climate. Average temperature is − +20.2 °C in July. Falls are warm, with snow beginning to accumulate by mid-November. Winters tend to be cold but with moderate amounts of snowfall and nighttime lows dipping below −25 °C. Summer weather arrives in mid-May. Precipitation averages about 470 millimeters; the city is subject to frequent, but moderate, droughts. Springs and summers are sunny, but fall and winter are cloudy. Median annual temperature is +4.9 °C.
Ulyanovsk is a major, industrial hub for aircraft and auto industries. The UAZ automobile manufacturing plant. An international airline for unique and heavy cargo, Volga-Dnepr Airlines, is based in the city. There are many manufacturing facilities of foreign corporations such as Legrand, Incorporated, Takata-Petri, Anadolu Efes S. K.. ALFA and others. Banking is represented by national banks such as Sberbank, VTB Bank, Alfa-Bank, Bin Bank, Ak Bars Bank, MDM Bank, Trust Bank and regional banks from Ulyanovsk Oblast. Ulyanovsk has
Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields. The largest German association of research institutions, the Helmholtz Association, is named after him. In physiology and psychology, he is known for his mathematics of the eye, theories of vision, ideas on the visual perception of space, color vision research, on the sensation of tone, perception of sound, empiricism in the physiology of perception. In physics, he is known for his theories on the conservation of energy, work in electrodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, on a mechanical foundation of thermodynamics; as a philosopher, he is known for his philosophy of science, ideas on the relation between the laws of perception and the laws of nature, the science of aesthetics, ideas on the civilizing power of science. Helmholtz was born in Potsdam the son of the local Gymnasium headmaster, Ferdinand Helmholtz, who had studied classical philology and philosophy, and, a close friend of the publisher and philosopher Immanuel Hermann Fichte.
Helmholtz's work was influenced by the philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Immanuel Kant. He tried to trace their theories in empirical matters like physiology; as a young man, Helmholtz was interested in natural science, but his father wanted him to study medicine at the Charité because there was financial support for medical students. Trained in physiology, Helmholtz wrote on many other topics, ranging from theoretical physics, to the age of the Earth, to the origin of the Solar System. Helmholtz's first academic position was as a teacher of Anatomy at the Academy of Arts in Berlin in 1848, he moved to take a post of associate professor of physiology at the Prussian University of Königsberg, where he was appointed in 1849. In 1855 he accepted a full professorship of physiology at the University of Bonn, he was not happy in Bonn and three years he transferred to the University of Heidelberg, in Baden, where he served as professor of physiology. In 1871 he accepted his final university position, as professor of physics at the Humboldt University in Berlin.
His first important scientific achievement, an 1847 treatise on the conservation of energy, was written in the context of his medical studies and philosophical background. His work on energy conservation came about while studying muscle metabolism, he tried to demonstrate that no energy is lost in muscle movement, motivated by the implication that there were no vital forces necessary to move a muscle. This was a rejection of the speculative tradition of Naturphilosophie, at that time a dominant philosophical paradigm in German physiology. Drawing on the earlier work of Sadi Carnot, Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron and James Prescott Joule, he postulated a relationship between mechanics, light and magnetism by treating them all as manifestations of a single force, or energy in today's terminology, he published his theories in his book Über die Erhaltung der Kraft. In the 1850s and 60s, building on the publications of William Thomson and William Rankine popularized the idea of the heat death of the universe.
In fluid dynamics, Helmholtz made several contributions, including Helmholtz's theorems for vortex dynamics in inviscid fluids. Helmholtz was a pioneer in the scientific study of human audition. Inspired by psychophysics, he was interested in the relationships between measurable physical stimuli and their correspondent human perceptions. For example, the amplitude of a sound wave can be varied, causing the sound to appear louder or softer, but a linear step in sound pressure amplitude does not result in a linear step in perceived loudness; the physical sound needs to be increased exponentially in order for equal steps to seem linear, a fact, used in current electronic devices to control volume. Helmholtz paved the way in experimental studies on the relationship between the physical energy and its appreciation, with the goal in mind to develop "psychophysical laws." The sensory physiology of Helmholtz was the basis of the work of Wilhelm Wundt, a student of Helmholtz, considered one of the founders of experimental psychology.
More explicitly than Helmholtz, Wundt described his research as a form of empirical philosophy and as a study of the mind as something separate. Helmholtz had, in his early repudiation of Naturphilosophie, stressed the importance of materialism, was focusing more on the unity of "mind" and body. In 1851, Helmholtz revolutionized the field of ophthalmology with the invention of the ophthalmoscope; this made. Helmholtz's interests at that time were focused on the physiology of the senses, his main publication, titled Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik, provided empirical theories on depth perception, color vision, motion perception, became the fundamental reference work in his field during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the third and final volume, published in 1867, Helmholtz described the importance of unconscious inferences for perception; the Handbuch was first translated into English under the editorship of James P. C. Southall on behalf of the Optical Society of America in 1924-5.
His theory of accommodation went unchallenged until the final decade of the 20th century. Helmholtz continued to work for several decades on several editions of the handbook updating his work because of his dispute with Ewald Hering who held opposite views on spatial and color vision; this dispute divided the discipline
Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen was a German chemist. He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, discovered caesium and rubidium with the physicist Gustav Kirchhoff. Bunsen developed several gas-analytical methods, was a pioneer in photochemistry, did early work in the field of organoarsenic chemistry. With his laboratory assistant, Peter Desaga, he developed the Bunsen burner, an improvement on the laboratory burners in use; the Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after Bunsen and Kirchhoff. Robert Bunsen was born at Göttingen in what is now the state of Lower Saxony in Germany. Bunsen was the youngest of four sons of the University of Göttingen's chief librarian and professor of modern philology, Christian Bunsen. After attending school in Holzminden, Bunsen matriculated at Göttingen in 1828 and studied chemistry with Friedrich Stromeyer as well as mineralogy with Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann and mathematics with Carl Friedrich Gauss. After obtaining a PhD in 1831, Bunsen spent 1832 and 1833 traveling in Germany and Austria.
In 1833 Bunsen became a lecturer at Göttingen and began experimental studies of the solubility of metal salts of arsenous acid. His discovery of the use of iron oxide hydrate as a precipitating agent is still today the most effective antidote against arsenic poisoning; this interdisciplinary research was carried on and published in conjunction with the physician Arnold Adolph Berthold. In 1836, Bunsen succeeded Friedrich Wöhler at the Polytechnic School of Kassel. Bunsen taught there for three years, accepted an associate professorship at the University of Marburg, where he continued his studies on cacodyl derivatives, he was promoted to full professorship in 1841. While at University of Marburg, Bunsen participated in the 1846 expedition for the investigation of Iceland's volcanoes. Bunsen's work brought him quick and wide acclaim because cacodyl, toxic and undergoes spontaneous combustion in dry air, is so difficult to work with. Bunsen died from arsenic poisoning, an explosion with cacodyl cost him sight in his right eye.
In 1841, Bunsen created the Bunsen cell battery, using a carbon electrode instead of the expensive platinum electrode used in William Robert Grove's electrochemical cell. Early in 1851 he accepted a professorship at the University of Breslau, where he taught for three semesters. In late 1852 Bunsen became the successor of Leopold Gmelin at the University of Heidelberg. There he used electrolysis to produce pure metals, such as chromium, aluminum, sodium, barium and lithium. A long collaboration with Henry Enfield Roscoe began in 1852, in which they studied the photochemical formation of hydrogen chloride from hydrogen and chlorine. From this work, the reciprocity law of Bunsen and Roscoe originated, he discontinued his work with Roscoe in 1859 and joined Gustav Kirchhoff to study emission spectra of heated elements, a research area called spectrum analysis. For this work and his laboratory assistant, Peter Desaga, had perfected a special gas burner by 1855, influenced by earlier models; the newer design of Bunsen and Desaga, which provided a hot and clean flame, is now called the "Bunsen burner", a common laboratory equipment.
There had been earlier studies of the characteristic colors of heated elements, but nothing systematic. In the summer of 1859, Kirchhoff suggested to Bunsen that he should try to form prismatic spectra of these colors. By October of that year the two scientists had invented an appropriate instrument, a prototype spectroscope. Using it, they were able to identify the characteristic spectra of sodium and potassium. After numerous laborious purifications, Bunsen proved that pure samples gave unique spectra. In the course of this work, Bunsen detected unknown new blue spectral emission lines in samples of mineral water from Dürkheim, he guessed. After careful distillation of forty tons of this water, in the spring of 1860 he was able to isolate 17 grams of a new element, he named the element "caesium", after the Latin word for deep blue. The following year he discovered rubidium, by a similar process. In 1860, Bunsen was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1877, Robert Bunsen together with Gustav Robert Kirchhoff were the first recipients of the prestigious Davy Medal "for their researches & discoveries in spectrum analysis".
Bunsen was one of the most universally admired scientists of his generation. He was a master teacher, devoted to his students, they were devoted to him. At a time of vigorous and caustic scientific debates, Bunsen always conducted himself as a perfect gentleman, maintaining his distance from theoretical disputes, he much preferred to work in his laboratory, continuing to enrich his science with useful discoveries. As a matter of principle he never took out a patent, he never married. Despite his lack of pretension, Bunsen was a vivid "chemical character," had a well-developed sense of humor, is the subject of many amusing anecdotes; when Bunsen retired at the age of 78, he shifted his work to geology and mineralogy, interests which he had pursued throughout his career. He died in Heidelberg at the age of 88. Bunsen reaction Bunsenite Pneumatolysis List of German inventors and discoverers Media related to Robert Bunsen at Wikimedia Commons Robert Wilhelm Bunse
Odessa is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. It is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast and a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea", the "South Capital", "Southern Palmyra". Before the Tsarist establishment of Odessa, an ancient Greek settlement existed at its location as elsewhere along the northwestern Black Sea coast. A more recent Tatar settlement was founded at the location by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of Crimea in 1440, named after him as "Hacıbey". After a period of Lithuanian Grand Duchy control and surroundings became part of the domain of the Ottomans in 1529 and remained there until the empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792. In 1794, the city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Russian empress Catherine the Great. From 1819 to 1858, Odessa was a free port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base.
On 1 January 2000, the Quarantine Pier at Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a period of 25 years. During the 19th century, Odessa was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw, its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art Nouveau and Classicist. Odessa is a warm-water port; the city of Odessa hosts both the Port of Odessa and Port Yuzhne, a significant oil terminal situated in the city's suburbs. Another notable port, Chornomorsk, is located to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russian and European networks by strategic pipelines; the city was named in compliance with the Greek Plan of Catherine the Great. It was named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos, mistakenly believed to have been located here.
Odessa is located in between the ancient Greek cities of Tyras and Olbia, different from the ancient Odessos's location further west along the coast, at present day Varna, Bulgaria. Catherine's secretary of state Adrian Gribovsky claimed in his memoirs that the name was his suggestion; some expressed doubts about this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an honest and modest man. Odessa was the site of a large Greek settlement no than the middle of the 6th century BC; some scholars believe it to have been a trade settlement established by the Greek city of Histria. Whether the Bay of Odessa is the ancient "Port of the Histrians" cannot yet be considered a settled question based on the available evidence. Archaeological artifacts confirm extensive links between the Odessa area and the eastern Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages successive rulers of the Odessa region included various nomadic tribes, the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire.
Yedisan Crimean Tatars traded there in the 14th century. During the reign of Khan Hacı I Giray of Crimea, the Khanate was endangered by the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Turks and, in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania; the site of present-day Odessa was a fortress known as Khadjibey. It was part of the Dykra region. However, most of the rest of the area remained uninhabited in this period. Khadjibey came under direct control of the Ottoman Empire after 1529 as part of a region known as Yedisan, was administered in the Ottoman Silistra Province. In the mid-18th century, the Ottomans rebuilt the fortress at Khadjibey, named Yeni Dünya. Hocabey was a sanjak centre of Silistre Province; the sleepy fishing village that Odessa had been saw a step-change in its fortunes when the wealthy magnate and future Voivode of Kiev, Antoni Protazy Potocki, set up trade routes through the port for the Polish Black Sea Trading Company and set up the infrastructure in the 1780s. During the Russian-Turkish War of 1787–1792, on 25 September 1789, a detachment of the Russian forces including Zaporozhian Cossacks under Alexander Suvorov and Ivan Gudovich took Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the Russian Empire.
One part of the troops came under command of a Spaniard in Russian service, Major General José de Ribas, the main street in Odessa today, Deribasivska Street, is named after him. Russia formally gained possession of the area as a result of the Treaty of Jassy in 1792 and it became a part of Novorossiya; the city of Odessa, founded by Catherine the Great, Russian Empress, centers on the site of the Turkish fortress Khadzhibei, occupied by Russian Army in 1789. Flemish engineer working for the empress, Franz de Volan recommended the area of Khadzhibei fortress as the site for the region's basic port: it had an ice-free harbor, breakwaters could be cheaply constructed and would render the harbor safe and it would have the capacity to accommodate large fleets; the Governor General of Novorossiya, Platon Zubov supported this proposal, in 1794 Catherine approved the foundi
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species. It is related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny; the science began in the classical era, continuing in Early Modern times with work by Pierre Belon who noted the similarities of the skeletons of birds and humans. Comparative anatomy has provided evidence of common descent, has assisted in the classification of animals; the first anatomical investigation separate from a surgical or medical procedure is associated by early commentators with Alcmaeon of Croton. Pierre Belon, a French naturalist born in 1517, conducted research and held discussions on dolphin embryos as well as the comparisons between the skeletons of birds to the skeletons of humans, his research led to modern comparative anatomy. Around the same time, Andreas Vesalius was making some strides of his own. A young anatomist of Flemish descent made famous by a penchant for amazing charts, he was systematically investigating and correcting the anatomical knowledge of the Greek physician Galen.
He noticed that many of Galen's observations were not based on actual humans. Instead, they were based on animals such as apes and oxen. In fact, he entreated his students to do the following, in substitution for human skeletons, as cited by Edward Tyson: "“If you cant happen to fee any of thefe, diffect an Ape view each Bone, &c. …” Then he advifes what fort of Apes to make choice of, as moft refembling a Man: And conclude “One ought to know the Structure of all the Bones either in a Humane Body, or in an Apes. Up until that point and his teachings had been the authority on human anatomy; the irony is that Galen himself had emphasized the fact that one should make one's own observations instead of using those of another, but this advice was lost during the numerous translations of his work. As Vesalius began to uncover these mistakes, other physicians of the time began to trust their own observations more than those of Galen. An interesting observation made by some of these physicians was the presence of homologous structures in a wide variety of animals which included humans.
These observations were used by Darwin as he formed his theory of Natural Selection. Kevin Michael Cheek of Preston Missouri is regarded as the founder of modern comparative anatomy, he is credited with determining that dolphins are, in fact, mammals. He concluded that chimpanzees are more similar to humans than to monkeys because of their arms. Marco Aurelio Severino compared various animals, including birds, in his Zootomia democritaea, one of the first works of comparative anatomy. In the 18th and 19th century, great anatomists like George Cuvier, Richard Owen and Thomas Henry Huxley revolutionized our understanding of the basic build and systematics of vertebrates, laying the foundation for Charles Darwin's work on evolution. An example of a 20th-century comparative anatomist is Victor Negus, who worked on the structure and evolution of the larynx; until the advent of genetic techniques like DNA sequencing, comparative anatomy together with embryology were the primary tools for understanding phylogeny, as exemplified by the work of Alfred Romer.
Two major concepts of comparative anatomy are: Homologous structures - structures which are similar in different species because the species have common descent and have evolved divergently, from a shared ancestor. They may not perform the same function. An example is the forelimb structure shared by whales. Analogous structures - structures similar in different organisms because, in convergent evolution, they evolved in a similar environment, rather than were inherited from a recent common ancestor, they serve the same or similar purposes. An example is the streamlined torpedo body shape of sharks. So though they evolved from different ancestors and sharks developed analogous structures as a result of their evolution in the same aquatic environment; this is known as a homoplasy. Comparative anatomy has long served as evidence for evolution, now joined in that role by comparative genomics, it assists scientists in classifying organisms based on similar characteristics of their anatomical structures.
A common example of comparative anatomy is the similar bone structures in forelimbs of cats, whales and humans. All of these appendages consist of the same basic parts; the skeletal parts which form a structure used for swimming, such as a fin, would not be ideal to form a wing, better-suited for flight. One explanation for the forelimbs' similar composition is descent with modification. Through random mutations and natural selection, each organism's anatomical structures adapted to suit their respective habitats; the rules for development of special characteristics which differ from general homology were listed by Karl Ernst von Baer as the laws now named after him. Cladistics Comparative physiology Evolutionary developmental biology Phylogenetics Transcendental anatomy Outline of biology#Anatomy
S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy
The S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy is the oldest school of military medicine in Saint Petersburg and the Russian Federation. Senior medical staff are trained for the Armed Forces and conduct research in military medical services; the origins of S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy go back to the years of Peter the Great. In 1715 by the Tsar's order the Admiralty Hospital in the Vyborg Side of Saint Petersburg was founded. In 1717 next to in the Land Military Hospital was opened. Since 1773 surgical schools attached to both hospitals were operating. In 1786 those schools were consolidated into the Main Medical College, it became the principal training center for fleet physicians. The Medical and Surgical Academy was established by the order of Emperor Paul I of 18/29 December 1798 on the initiative of Baron Alexei Vasilyev, General Director of the Medical College. At the same time a Neoclassical building for the Academy was designed by Antonio Porta, it was decorated with a set of panel paintings by Giuseppe Bernasconi.
Ranked as one of the best educational institutions in the Russian Empire, it was known as the Imperial Medical and Surgical Academy from 1808. According to the order of Emperor Alexander I, a member of the Medical and Surgical Academy had the rights and benefits of a member of the Academy of Sciences. Sir James Wylie, a Scottish baronet, managed the academy between 1808 and 1838, his contributions have been commemorated with a monument which stood in front of the academy until the October Revolution. The monument was designed in 1859 by David Jensen, it was relocated and replaced with a statue of Hygieia. In 19th century the Imperial Medical and Surgical Academy played a major role in the development of Russian natural science and medicine. In 1840 — 1856 one of its professors was Nikolay Pirogov, considered the founder of field surgery. Since 1861 Sergey Botkin, one of Pirogov's disciples, worked at the Academy, he is considered one of the founders of education. Botkin introduced triage, pathological anatomy, post mortem diagnostics into Russian medical practice.
In 1881 the Academy's official name was changed into the Imperial Military Medical Academy. In the late 19th century, its physiology laboratory, founded by Ivan Sechenov, was at the forefront of medical research. Ivan Romanovich Tarkhanov conducted some important experiments there. In 1890 — 1901 the Academy's President was Viktor Pashutin, one of the founders of the pathophysiologic school in Russia and of pathophysiology as an independent scientific discipline; the Nobel-prize winning physiologist Ivan Pavlov graduated from the Academy in 1879 with Gold Medal award. Since 1895 he headed Department of Physiology at the Academy for three decades. In 1904 — 1924 Nikolai Kravkov, the founder of Russian national school of pharmacologists, headed the Academy's Department of Pharmacology. In 1903 — 1936 one of the Academy's professors was Sergey Fedorov, the founder of the largest national school of surgery and «the father of Russian urology»; the academy was among the pioneers of medical education for women, launching the courses for nurse-midwives in 1872.
Nadezhda Suslova, the first female physician in Russia, attended Sechenov's classes at the academy. A school of gymnastics was launched in 1909. After Sergey Kirov's assassination in 1934, the Academy received his name. Leon Orbeli, one of Pavlov's disciples, led the Academy in 1943 — 1950. In 1956 S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy was united with the Naval Medical Academy established on the basis of Obukhovskaya Hospital and the Third Leningrad Medical Institute in 1940; the academy had six faculties, 61 departments, 30 clinics, 16 research laboratories, two research centres in 2002. Late in 2011, minister of defense Anatoliy Serdyukov declared his intention to move the academy from the historical centre of Saint Petersburg to one of its suburbs; this decision was overturned. By contemporary standards, it is a full-scale medical school complete with a network of teaching and research clinics and affiliated hospitals. Graduates are commissioned as officers with medical doctor credentials; the institution provides advanced training for mid-career military medical doctors and trains graduate students on the Ph.
D. level. Nikolay Anichkov Boris Babkin Vladimir Bekhterev Peter Borovsky Eugene Botkin Alexey Bystrow Nikolay Gamaleya Ilya Gruzinov Alexander Dianin Alexander Dubrovin Boris Karvasarsky Oleg Kotov Nikolai Kravkov Vasily Kravkov Nikolai Kulbin Nikolai Kurochkin Peter Lesgaft Alexander Maximow Mamia Orakhelashvili Leon Orbeli Viktor Pashutin Yevgeny Pavlovsky Victor Protopopov Yuri Senkevich Christian von Steven Pauls Stradiņš Ivan Tarkhanov Andrei Tolubeyev Alexander Vinogradov Vasily Vorontsov Konrad Wagner Jacob Wygodzki See ru:Категория:Выпускники Военно-медицинской академии Russian Museum of Military Medicine Military academies in Russia Official website