Novorossiya New Russia but sometimes called South Russia, is a historical term of the Russian Empire denoting a region north of the Black Sea. It was formed as a new imperial province of Russia in 1764 from military frontier regions along with parts of the southern Hetmanate in preparation for war with the Ottomans, it was further expanded by the annexation of the Zaporizhian Sich in 1775. At various times it encompassed the Moldavian region of Bessarabia, the modern Ukraine′s regions of the Black Sea littoral, Tavria, the Azov Sea littoral, the Tatar region of Crimea, the Nogai steppe at the Kuban River, the Circassian lands; the region was part of the Russian Empire until its collapse following the Russian February Revolution in early March 1917, after which it became part of the short-lived Russian Republic. In 1918, it was included in the Ukrainian State and in the Ukrainian Soviet Republic at the same time. In 1918–1920, it was, to varying extents, under the control of the anti-Bolshevik White movement governments of South Russia whose defeat signified the Soviet control over the territory, which became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, within the Soviet Union from 1922.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, there have been attempts to revive Novorossiya, the most significant of, the pro-Russian separatist movement to create a Novorossiyan confederation with the subsequent War in Donbass. The modern history of the region follows the fall of the Golden Horde; the eastern portion was claimed by the Crimean Khanate, while its western regions were divided between Moldavia and Lithuania. With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, the whole Black Sea northern littoral region came under the control of the Crimean Khanate that in turn became a vassal of the Ottomans. Sometime in the 16th century the Crimean Khanate allowed the Nogai Horde which were displaced from its native Volga region by Muscovites and Kalmyks to settle in the Black Sea steppes. Vast regions to the North of the Black Sea were sparsely populated and were known as the Wild Fields Dykra or Loca deserta in Latin on medieval maps. There were, many settlements along the Dnieper River; the Wild Fields had covered the southern territories of modern Ukraine.
The Russian Empire gained control over the area, signing peace treaties with the Cossack Hetmanate and with the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish Wars of 1735–39, 1768–74, 1787–92 and 1806–12. In 1764 the Russian Empire established the Novorossiysk Governorate, its administrative centre was at St. Elizabeth fortress in order to protect the southern borderlands from the Ottoman Empire, in 1765 this passed to Kremenchuk; the rulers of Novorossiya gave out land generously to the Russian nobility and the enserfed peasantry—mostly from the Ukraine and fewer from Russia—to encourage immigration for the cultivation of the sparsely populated steppe. According to the Historical Dictionary of Ukraine: The population consisted of military colonists from hussar and lancer regiments and Russian peasants, Serbs, Montenegrins and other foreigners who received land subsidies for settling in the area. There was an initial endeavour to colonize the region with several ethnic groups, of which the most numerous were Romanians and Ruthenians.
East of the Southern Bug river, in the region called New Serbia, in 1757 the largest ethnic group were Romanians at 75%, followed by Serbs at 12% and 13% others. After the annexation of the Ottoman territories to Novorossiya in 1774, the Russian authorities commenced an aggressive program of colonization, encouraging large migrations from a broader spectrum of ethnic groups. Catherine the Great invited European settlers to these newly conquered lands: Romanians, Serbs, Albanians, Poles and others. In 1775, the Russian Empress Catherine the Great forcefully liquidated the Zaporizhian Sich and annexed its territory to Novorossiya, thus eliminating the independent rule of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Prince Grigori Potemkin directed the Russian colonization of the land at the end of 18th century. Catherine the Great granted him the powers of an absolute ruler over the area from 1774; the spirit and importance of New Russia at this time is aptly captured by the historian Willard Sunderland, The old steppe was Asian and stateless.
The world of comparison was now more that of the Western empires. It was all the more clear that the Russian empire merited its own New Russia to go along with everyone else's New Spain, New France, New England; the adoption of the name of New Russia was in fact the most powerful statement imaginable of Russia's national coming of age. In 1792, the Russian government declared that the region between the Dniester and the Bug was to become a new principality named "New Moldavia", under Russian suzerainty. According to the first Russian census of the Yedisan region conducted in 1793 49 villages out of 67 between the Dniester and the Southern Bug were Romanian; the ethnic composition of N
Stepan Semyonovich Shchukin was a Russian portrait and watercolor painter. Some sources give his year of birth as 1762, he was the son of an army sergeant and was abandoned by his family. His first art lessons were taken with Dmitry Levitzky at the Imperial Academy of Arts. In 1782, he was sent abroad for "self-improvement", changed his name from Semyonov to Shchukin. and spent some time at the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture, where he studied with Alexandre Roslin and Joseph-Benoît Suvée. In 1786, he returned from Paris and, two years was appointed a teacher of portraiture at the Academy, he was promoted to Academician Candidate for his portrait of the Academy's Director Yury Felten the following year, was named a full Academician for his portrait of Tsar Paul I. In 1803, he was appointed a Counselor and, a few months thereafter, became Secretary of the Academic Conference. Shortly before his death, he received the title of Senior Advisor. Among his best-known students were Vasily Tropinin.
Media related to Stepan Shchukin at Wikimedia Commons
Paul I of Russia
Paul I reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. He was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov, who had Romanov blood, being a descendant of the first Romanov tsar's sister, Tatiana Feodorovna Romanova. Paul remained overshadowed by his mother for most of his life, his reign lasted four years. He adopted the laws of succession to the Russian throne—rules that lasted until the end of the Romanov dynasty and of the Russian Empire, he intervened in the French Revolutionary Wars and, toward the end of his reign, added Kartli and Kakheti in Eastern Georgia into the empire, confirmed by his son and successor Alexander I. He was de facto Grand Master of the Order of Hospitallers from 1799 to 1801, ordered the construction of a number of Maltese thrones. Paul was born in the Palace of Saint Petersburg, his father, the future Emperor Peter III, was the heir apparent of the Empress. His mother, born the daughter of a minor German prince, was to depose her own husband and reign in her own right as Catherine II, known to history as Catherine the Great.
Paul was taken immediately after birth from his mother by the Empress Elizabeth, whose overwhelming attention may have done him more harm than good. Some claim that his mother, hated him and was restrained from putting him to death. Robert K. Massie is more compassionate towards Catherine. In all events, the Russian Imperial court, first of Elizabeth and of Catherine, was not an ideal home for a lonely and sickly boy; as a boy, he was reported to be good-looking. His pug-nosed facial features in life are attributed to an attack of typhus, from which he suffered in 1771. Paul was put in the charge of a trustworthy governor, Nikita Ivanovich Panin, of competent tutors. Panin's nephew went on to become one of Paul's assassins. One of Paul's tutors, complained that he was "always in a hurry", acting and speaking without reflection. Empress Elizabeth died in 1762, when Paul was 8 years old, he became crown prince with the accession of his father to the throne as Peter III. However, within a matter of months, Paul's mother engineered a coup and not only deposed her husband but, for a long time, was believed to have gotten him killed by her supporters.
It was found that Peter III died due to a fit of apoplexy when exerting himself in a dispute with Prince Feodor, one of his jailers. Some historians believe. After the death of Peter III, Catherine placed herself on the throne in a surpassingly grand and ostentatious coronation ceremony, for which event the Russian Imperial Crown was crafted by court jewellers; the 8-year-old Paul retained his position as crown prince. In 1772, her son and heir, turned eighteen. Paul and his adviser, believed he was the rightful tsar of Russia, as the only son of Peter III, his adviser had taught him that the rule of women endangered good leadership, why he was so interested in gaining the throne. Distracting him, Catherine took trouble to find Paul a wife among the minor princesses of the Holy Roman Empire, she chose Princess Wilhelmina of Hesse-Darmstad, who acquired the Russian name "Natalia Alexeievna"), a daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The bride's older sister, Frederika Louisa, was married to the Crown Prince of Prussia.
Around this time, Catherine allowed Paul to attend the Council in order that he might be trained for his work as Emperor. Wilhelmina died in childbirth on 15 April three years after the wedding, it soon became clearer to Catherine that Paul wanted power, including his separate court. There was talk of having both Paul and his mother co-rule Russia. A fierce rivalry began between them, as Catherine knew she could never trust him and Paul wanted his mother's power. After her daughter-in-law's death, Catherine began work forthwith on the project of finding another wife for Paul, on 7 October 1776, less than six months after the death of his first wife, Paul married again; the bride was the beautiful Sophia Dorothea of Württemberg, who received the new Orthodox name Maria Feodorovna. Their first child, was born in 1777, within a year of the wedding, on this occasion the Empress gave Paul an estate, Pavlovsk. Paul and his wife gained leave to travel through western Europe in 1781–1782. In 1783, the Empress granted him another estate at Gatchina, where he was allowed to maintain a brigade of soldiers whom he drilled on the Prussian model, an unpopular stance at the time.
Catherine the Great and her son and heir, the future Paul I, maintained a distant relationship throughout Catherine's reign. The aunt of Catherine's husband, Empress Elizabeth, took up the child as a passing fancy. Elizabeth proved an incapable caretaker, as she had raised no children of her own. Paul was supervised by a variety of caregivers. Roderick McGrew relates the neglect to which the infant heir was sometimes subject: "On one occasion he fell out of his crib and slept the night away unnoticed on the floor." After Elizabeth's death, relations with Catherine hardly improved. Paul was jealous of the favours she would shower upon her lovers. In one instance
Catherine the Great
Catherine II known as Catherine the Great, born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader. She came to power following a coup d'état which she organized—resulting in her husband, Peter III, being overthrown. Under her reign, Russia was revitalized; that said, she was a usurper of the Russian throne because her son, Paul I, should have been the Tsar following Peter III’s death. In her accession to power and her rule of the empire, Catherine relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov and Grigory Potemkin. Assisted by successful generals such as Alexander Suvorov and Pyotr Rumyantsev, admirals such as Fyodor Ushakov, she governed at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding by conquest and diplomacy. In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Ottoman Empire in the Russo–Turkish wars, Russia colonised the territories of Novorossiya along the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas.
In the west, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by Catherine's former lover, king Stanisław August Poniatowski, was partitioned, with the Russian Empire gaining the largest share. In the east, Russia started establishing Russian America. Catherine reformed the administration of Russian guberniyas, many new cities and towns were founded on her orders. An admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernise Russia along Western European lines. However, military conscription and the economy continued to depend on serfdom, the increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs; this was one of the chief reasons behind several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev's Rebellion of cossacks and peasants. Catherine decided to have herself inoculated against smallpox by Thomas Dimsdale. While this was considered a controversial method at the time, she succeeded, her son Pavel was inoculated as well. Catherine sought to have inoculations throughout her empire stating: "My objective was, through my example, to save from death the multitude of my subjects who, not knowing the value of this technique, frightened of it, were left in danger."
By 1800 2 million inoculations were administered in the Russian Empire. The period of Catherine the Great's rule, the Catherinian Era, is considered the Golden Age of Russia; the Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility, issued during the short reign of Peter III and confirmed by Catherine, freed Russian nobles from compulsory military or state service. Construction of many mansions of the nobility, in the classical style endorsed by the Empress, changed the face of the country, she enthusiastically supported the ideals of the Enlightenment and is regarded as an enlightened despot. As a patron of the arts she presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment, a period when the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens, the first state-financed higher education institution for women in Europe, was established. Catherine was born in Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia as Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, her father, Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, belonged to the ruling German family of Anhalt, but held the rank of a Prussian general in his capacity as governor of the city of Stettin.
Two of her first cousins became Kings of Sweden: Gustav III and Charles XIII. In accordance with the custom prevailing in the ruling dynasties of Germany, she received her education chiefly from a French governess and from tutors. Catherine was known by the nickname Fike, her childhood was quite uneventful. She once wrote to her correspondent Baron Grimm: "I see nothing of interest in it." Although Catherine was born a princess, her family had little money. Catherine's rise to power was supported by her mother's wealthy relatives who were both wealthy nobles and royal relations; the choice of Sophie as wife of her second cousin, the prospective tsar Peter of Holstein-Gottorp, resulted from some amount of diplomatic management in which Count Lestocq, Peter's aunt Elizabeth and Frederick II of Prussia took part. Lestocq and Frederick wanted to strengthen the friendship between Prussia and Russia to weaken Austria's influence and ruin the Russian chancellor Bestuzhev, on whom Empress Elizabeth relied, who acted as a known partisan of Russo-Austrian co-operation.
Catherine first met Peter III at the age of 10. Based on her writings, she found, she disliked his fondness for alcohol at such a young age. Peter still played with toy soldiers. Catherine wrote that she stayed at one end of the castle, Peter at the other; the diplomatic intrigue failed due to the intervention of Sophie's mother, Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp. Historical accounts portray Johanna as a abusive woman who loved gossip and court intrigues, her hunger for fame centred on her daughter's prospects of becoming empress of Russia, but she infuriated Empress Elizabeth, who banned her from the country for spying for King Frederick of Prussia. The Empress Elizabeth knew the family well: she had intended to marry Princess Johanna's brother Charles Augustus, who had died of smallpox in 1727 before the wedding could take place. In spite of Johanna's interference, Empress Elizabeth took a strong liking to the daughter, who, o
In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches and Eastern Catholic Churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. For instance, the Holy Synod is a ruling body of the Georgian Orthodox Church. In Oriental Orthodoxy the Holy Synod is the highest authority in the church and it formulates the rules and regulations regarding matters of church organisation and order of service; the principle of summoning a synod or council of ecclesiastical persons to discuss some grave question affecting the Church goes back, of course, to the beginning of her history. Since the day when the Apostles met at Jerusalem to settle whether Gentile converts were to keep the Old Law, it had been the custom to call together such gatherings as occasion required. Bishops summoned synods of their clergy and patriarchs summoned their suffragans, since 325 there was a succession of those greatest synods, representing the whole Catholic world, that are known as general councils.
The Most Holy Synod or Most Holy Governing Synod was a congregation of Orthodox church leaders in Russia. It was established by Peter the Great, Stefan Yavorsky and Feofan Prokopovich in January 1721 to replace the Patriarchate of Moscow, it was abolished following the February Revolution of 1917 and replaced with a restored patriarchate under Tikhon of Moscow. In modern Russia the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church is the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between Sobors, it is headed by the Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus'. The first other Orthodox Church to imitate the Russian Government by synod was that of Greece; the national assemblies of free Greece in 1822 and 1827 began the process of making their Church independent of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. In 1833 the Greek Parliament formally rejected the patriarch's authority and set up a Holy Directing Synod in exact imitation of Russia. After much dispute the patriarch gave in and acknowledged the Greek synod, in 1850.
Since the Church of Greece has been governed by a Holy Synod as was the Church of Russia. A law in 1852 regulated its duties, it met at Athens under the presidency of the Metropolitan of Athens. Four other bishops were appointed by the Government as members for a year by vote; the members took an oath of fidelity to the government. Their deliberations were controlled by a royal commissioner, a layman chosen by government, just as the Russian oberprocuror. No act was valid without the commissioner's assent. There were secretaries, a servant all appointed by the State; the Holy Synod was the highest authority in the Greek Church and had the same rights and duties as its Russian model, was named in the liturgy instead of a patriarch. After the proclamation of the Greek Republic in 1924, royal control of the Holy Synod ceased, with the elevation of the Metropolitan of Athens to an Archbishophric in 1932, the Archbishop began to be named in liturgies. Today, supreme authority is vested in the synod of all the diocesan bishops, who all have metropolitical status under the presidency of the Archbishop of Athens and all Greece.
This synod deals with general church questions. The Standing Synod is under the same presidency, consists of the Primate and 12 bishops, each serving for one term on a rotating basis and deals with details of administration; the Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church is organized as the highest authority on all matters concerning the church. It comprises the Patriarch, all metropolitans, archbishops and vicar bishops of the church; the Holy Synod meets two times a year, in spring and autumn in ordinary sessions but extraordinary sessions are organized whenever necessary. Whilst is the supreme authority on all matters of the church, it is a deliberative authority, as all of its members are the leaders of the entire church, directly representing all of the believers of the RoOC; the Serbian Orthodox Church is governed by a five-member Holy Synod. The patriarch is a permanent member, while the other four are bishops elected for two-year terms by the "holy assembly of bishops", a body that represents all the metropolitans and other bishops of the church.
The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the highest authority in the Church of Alexandria and it formulates the rules and regulations regarding matters of church's organization, service's order. The Synod is chaired by the Pope of Alexandria and the members are the Church's Metropolitans, Bishops and the Patriarchal Vicar for Alexandria; the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches distinguishes between a patriarchal church's standing synod and a synod of its bishops. The standing synod consists of four bishops appointed for a five-year term. Of these four, three are elected by the patriarchal church's synod of bishops and one is appointed by the patriarch, while another four are designated in the same way to replace any member, impeded. A synod of all the church's ordained bishops is called when a decision is required on a question that only it is authorized to decide, or when the patriarch, with the agreement of the standing synod, judges it to be necessary, or when at least one third of the bishops request that it be held to consider some specific matter.
In addition, the canon law of some patriarchal churches requires that it be convoked at predetermined intervals. Similar rules govern Eastern Catholic Churches headed not by a major archbishop. Caesaropapism Holy Synod of Jerusalem Holy Synod of Milan This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed
Alexander Nevsky Lavra
Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg supposing that, the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes. "On April 5, 1713, in St. Petersburg, in the presence of Peter I, the wooden Church of the Annunciation was consecrated; this day is considered the official founding date of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra." "The relics of St. Alexander Nevsky were solemnly transferred from Vladimir to the new capital of Russia September 12, 1724 by decree of Peter the Great." Nevsky became patron of the newly founded Russian capital. In 1797, the monastery was raised to the rank of lavra, making it only the third lavra in the Russian Orthodox Church that had that designation bestowed upon it, following only the Kiev Monastery of the Caves and the Trinity Monastery of St Sergius; the monastery grounds contain two baroque churches, designed by father and son Trezzini and built from 1717–1722 and 1742–1750, respectively.
It contains the Lazarev and Tikhvin Cemeteries, where ornate tombs of Leonhard Euler, Mikhail Lomonosov, Alexander Suvorov, Nikolay Karamzin, Modest Mussorgsky, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Karl Ivanovich Rossi, Prince Garsevan Chavchavadze, a Georgian aristocrat, Sergei Witte and other famous Russians are preserved. During the Revolution, People's Commissar of Social Welfare Kollontai wanted to convert the monastery into a'sanctuary for war invalids'. Today Alexander Nevsky Lavra sits on Alexander Nevsky Square, where shoppers can buy bread baked by the monks. Visitors may visit the cathedral and cemeteries for a small admission fee. While many of the grave sites are situated behind large concrete walls those of famous Russians, many can be seen by passers-by while strolling down Obukhovskoy Oborony Street. Trinity Cathedral, Saint Petersburg Alexander Nevsky Cathedrals Official site of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra Alexander Nevsky Lavra Лавра во имя Святой Живоначальной Троицы Александро-Невская на сайте Русское православие Каталог Православной Архитектуры — Свято-Троицкая Александро-Невская Лавра
The Counts Bobrinsky or Bobrinskoy are a Russian noble family descending from Count Aleksey Grigorievich Bobrinsky, Catherine the Great's natural son by Count Grigory Orlov. The Russian Empress gave birth to her only official illegitimate son on April 11, 1762, several months before her ascension to the throne; the child was named Aleksey after Count Aleksey Orlov. He was brought up in a village in the Tula guberniya. On April 2, 1781, Catherine sent him a letter, in which she avowed her maternity, she long hesitated in choosing his surname, styling him Romanov one day and Sitsky the other, but settled on Bobrinsky, a surname derived from the estate he lived in. On the 5th day of his reign, Emperor Paul made his half-brother a Count of the Russian Empire and promoted him General-Major, he had issue which continues to this day. The first Count Bobrinsky died on June 20, 1813 to the east of Tula; the Bobrinsky family seat in Bogoroditsk was designed by Ivan Starov and constructed in the 1770s and 1780s, starting in 1773.
The nearby Kazanskaya church was completed by 1778. The park was laid out by the palace's administrator, Andrey Bolotov, better known as one of the first Russian economists, it was Bolotov. The palace and estate were renovated in the 1870s. In the 20th century, the premises suffered enormous damage from the Bolsheviks, who demolished the wings of the palace in 1929, from the Wehrmacht, who blew up the chateau in December 1941; the palace was restored in the 1960s and now functions as a museum. Aleksey's son Count Aleksey Alekseyevich Bobrinsky is remembered as the founder of the sugar-processing industry in Imperial Russia. After brief and uneventful career at the royal court, he retired from service and settled in Bogoroditsk, establishing one of the first Russian sugar refineries there, he moved his operations to Ukraine, making various agricultural activities the chief source of his family income. It was thanks to him, he published a treatise on economic theory and set up a society for development of railways, which financed the construction of the first railway in Russia.
Bobrinsky's contributions to the national economics were commemorated by a bronze statue in Kiev. Unlike many other Russian nobles, the Bobrinskys continued as prosperous businessmen after the 1861 emancipation of serfs, starting coal-mining in their estates near Tula and helping to build railways all over Russia. Aleksey Alekseyevich's second son Count Vladimir Alekseyevich Bobrinsky served as Minister of Transportation in 1868-71, succeeded in this post by his cousin, Count Aleksey Pavlovich Bobrinsky; the eldest great-grandson of Count Aleksey Alekseyevich was Count Aleksei Aleksandrovich Bobrinsky, who led the Council of United Nobility starting in 1906 and represented the nobility of the St Petersburg guberniya in the Senate and the 3rd State Duma. He was appointed into the State Council of Imperial Russia in 1912. During World War I, Bobrinskoy was elected Chairman of the Russian-English Bank. In 1916, he was appointed Deputy Minister of Minister of Agriculture; the October Revolution forced him to emigrate to France, where he campaigned for the monarchist cause.
Count Vladimir Alekseyevich Bobrinsky was the third son of Count Aleksey Pavlovich. He represented Russian nationalists in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th State Dumas, advocating speedy Russification of border regions and supporting Pyotr Stolypin's reforms. Like most of the Bobrinskys, he emigrated to France following the revolutionary nationalization of their family enterprises. Apart from politics, Count Aleksey Alexandrovich was a noted historian and archaeologist, Chairman of the Imperial Archaeological Commission, Vice-President of the Imperial Academy of Arts, Chairman of the Free Economic Society, he led the excavations of Scythian mounds near Kerch and Kiev, describing some of his findings in the monograph on Tauric Chersonesos. He was in charge of the publication of the Pereshchepina hoard. Vladimir's nephew, Count Nikolay Alekseyevich Bobrinsky specialized in biology. Unlike his relatives, he chose to remain in Moscow after the revolution and came to be recognized as one of the most prominent Soviet zoologists.
A species of jerboa is named after him. His son Nikolay Nikolayevich, a geographer, who wrote a novel on the life of the first Bobrinsky, lived in Moscow until his death in 2000. Bobrinski bucketCount Alexey Alexeyevich Bobrinsky was the owner of the Bobriki estate. A scholarly ethnographer, he organized three expeditions to the tribes and villagers in the Pamir mountains, accompanied by a photographer and a linguist, his observations and collections of utensils and folk art were published and are now available in an archive in the National Historical Museum in Moscow. The Ismaili peoples among whom he travelled respect his reputation; the 150th anniversary of his birth was celebrated. Homepage of the Bogoroditsk Museum Bobrinsky Estate in Bogoroditsk Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the Bobrinsky family". Genealogy EU]