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Ivanhoe is a historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, first published in late 1819 in three volumes and subtitled A Romance. At the time it was written it represented a shift by Scott away from realistic novels set in Scotland in the comparatively recent past, to a somewhat fanciful depiction of medieval England, it has proved to be one of the most influential of Scott's novels. Ivanhoe is set in 12th-century England with colourful descriptions of a tournament, outlaws, a witch trial and divisions between Jews and Christians, it has been credited for increasing interest in medievalism. It has had an important influence on popular perceptions of Richard the Lionheart, King John and Robin Hood. There have been several adaptations for stage and television. In June 1819, Scott was still suffering from the severe stomach pains that had forced him to dictate the last part of The Bride of Lammermoor and most of A Legend of the Wars of Montrose, finishing at the end of May, but by the beginning of July at the latest he had started dictating his new novel Ivanhoe, again with John Ballantyne and William Laidlaw as amanuenses.

He was able to take up the pen himself for the second half of the novel and completed it in early November. For detailed information about the middle ages Scott drew on three works by the antiquarian Joseph Strutt: Horda Angel-cynnan or a Compleat View of the Manners, Arms, Habits etc. of the Inhabitants of England and Habits of the People of England, Sports and Pastimes of the People of England. Two historians gave him a solid grounding in the period: Robert Henry with his The History of Great Britain, Sharon Turner with The History of the Anglo-Saxons from the Earliest Period to the Norman Conquest, his clearest debt to an original medieval source involved the Templar Rule, reproduced in The Theatre of Honour and Knight-Hood translated from the French of André Favine. Scott was happy to introduce details from the middle ages, Chaucer was helpful, as was the fourteenth-century romance Richard Coeur de Lion. Ivanhoe was published by Archibald Constable in Edinburgh. All first editions carry the date of 1820, but it was released on 20 December 1819 and issued in London on the 29th.

As with all of the Waverley novels before 1827, publication was anonymous. It is possible that Scott was involved in minor changes to the text during the early 1820s but his main revision was carried out in 1829 for the'Magnum' edition where the novel appeared in Volumes 16 and 17 in September and October 1830; the standard modern edition, by Graham Tulloch, appeared as Volume 8 of the Edinburgh Edition of the Waverley Novels in 1998: this is based on the first edition with emendations principally from Scott's manuscript in the second half of the work. Ivanhoe is the story of one of the remaining Anglo-Saxon noble families at a time when the nobility in England was overwhelmingly Norman, it follows the Saxon protagonist, Sir Wilfred of Ivanhoe, out of favour with his father for his allegiance to the Norman king Richard the Lionheart. The story is set in 1194, after the failure of the Third Crusade, when many of the Crusaders were still returning to their homes in Europe. King Richard, captured by Leopold of Austria on his return journey to England, was believed to still be in captivity.

Protagonist Wilfred of Ivanhoe is disinherited by his father Cedric of Rotherwood for supporting the Norman King Richard and for falling in love with the Lady Rowena, a ward of Cedric and descendant of the Saxon Kings of England. Cedric planned to have Rowena marry the powerful Lord Athelstane, a pretender to the Crown of England by his descent from the last Saxon King, Harold Godwinson. Ivanhoe accompanies King Richard on the Crusades, where he is said to have played a notable role in the Siege of Acre; the book opens with a scene of Norman prelates seeking the hospitality of Cedric. They are guided there by a pilgrim, known at that time as a palmer. Returning from the Holy Land that same night, Isaac of York, a Jewish moneylender, seeks refuge at Rotherwood. Following the night's meal, the palmer observes one of the Normans, the Templar Brian de Bois-Guilbert, issue orders to his Saracen soldiers to capture Isaac; the palmer assists in Isaac's escape from Rotherwood, with the additional aid of the swineherd Gurth.

Isaac of York offers to repay his debt to the palmer with a suit of armour and a war horse to participate in the tournament at Ashby-de-la-Zouch Castle, on his inference that the palmer was secretly a knight. The palmer accepts the offer; the tournament is presided over by Prince John. In attendance are Cedric, Lady Rowena, Isaac of York, his daughter Rebecca, Robin of Locksley and his men, Prince John's advisor Waldemar Fitzurse, numerous Norman knights. On the first day of the tournament, in a bout of individual jousting, a mysterious knight, identifying himself only as "Desdichado", defeats Bois-Guilbert; the masked knight declines to reveal himself despite Prince John's request, but is declared the champion of the day and is permitted to choose the Queen of the Tournament. He bestows this honour upon Lady Rowena. On the second day, at a melee, Desdichado is the leader of one party, opposed by

Alpen, Germany

Alpen is a municipality in the district of Wesel, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Alpen is situated in the Lower Rhine region, located between the Ruhr area and the border with the Netherlands. Adjacent cities are Xanten; the municipality consists 4 districts: Alpen Menzelen Veen Bönninghardt Alpen was mentioned documentarily for the first time in 1074. The local Municipal Council is represented by the Christian Democratic Union, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Alliance'90/The Greens and the Free Democratic Party Alpen is reachable by the Bundesautobahn 57 and the federal highways B57 and B58. There is a train, the RB31 from Duisburg Hbf every hour which stops at Alpen. From there it is a 10-minute walk into the centre of Alpen; the municipality of Alpen maintains a Volunteer Fire Department consisting three firehouses with about 105 active firefighter and 14 vehicles. In addition to the area of Alpen, the Bundesautobahn 57 is part of the area of operation. Crime protection is provided by the state Police of North Rhine-Westphalia with stations in Rheinberg and Kamp-Lintfort.

Official website

Laurence McGivern

Laurence McGivern is a former Irish Paralympic swimmer from Rostrevor, County Down, Northern Ireland. He trained in Belfast, Northern Ireland with Invictus Swimming Club under coaching of Steven McQuillan, retiring in May 2015, he has congenital amputations of both legs just below the knee. McGivern was a finalist in the 2010 Commonwealth Games and the 2012 Paralympic Games as well as various IPC World and European Swimming Championships, he competes in the S9 classification in his main event, the 100m backstroke retiring after a third place and bronze medal at the IPC Swimming World Championships in Montreal 2013. Laurence was born on 22 September 1992 with various defects in both of his legs which resulted in their amputation, just below the knee, he is now able to walk with the aid of two prosthetic legs. Laurence took to many hobbies, including, he attended the Abbey Christian Brothers' Grammar School in Newry, Northern Ireland, refining his sporting abilities and further realising his potential in swimming.

He was heavily involved in academic work and Is a talented musician and performer. McGivern soon joined Newry & Mourne ASC Swimming Club and competed at district and regional levels, including various open meets throughout the year. In 2012, after completing A level examinations, he moved to Belfast where he was accepted to study Accounting with French at Queen's University Belfast and went on to do a MSc in finance; as a student in university he trained with Invictus, one of Ireland's premier competitive swimming clubs and continued to balance academics with his sporting career. He was elected as Treasurer of Queen's Musical theatre Society, where he received funding to produce a musical along with President, Hannah Le Fevre Taylor. Laurence competed in the International Paralympic Committee's S9 SM9 classifications. McGivern started swimming when he was still in primary school and after a few years his potential was recognised by Paralympics Ireland, he soon joined Newry & Mourne ASC Swimming Club to develop his talent and as his love for the sport grew, he dedicated more and more time to training, set a goal to one day compete in the Paralympic Games.

He competed at various local and national meets for the first few years of his training and maintaining the current Irish S9 records in all strokes, before qualifying for Senior IPC European and World Swimming championships and the Commonwealth Games and Paralympic Games. In 2013 Laurence took Bronze in the 100m backstroke at the 2013 IPC Swimming World Championships in Montréal, Canada; the event saw Ireland's largest haul at a Paralympic swimming meet. McGivern was the fourth fastest qualifier going into the final, having swam a time of 1.06.18 in the heat. He went on to swim a personal best time of 1.04.75 in the final, finishing ahead of Paralympic Games bronze medallist Xiaobing Liu of China and Australia's Brenden Hall and claiming his first major international medal. After just qualifying at the last second for the S9 100m Backstroke, McGivern represented Ireland at the London 2012 Paralympic Games where he ended up making it through to the final. Just scraping the qualifying time of 1.07.83, Laurence smashed this time with a new personal best of 1.05.35 in the heat of the men's S9 100m Backstroke, placing himself sixth going into the final where he finished eighth overall and shocked a few of his more experienced competitors.

McGivern competed in the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, being the only paralympic athlete representing Northern Ireland in the games. He came seventh in the Paralympic 50m S9 swimming event in a time of 28.95 - he set a personal best of 28.84 in the heats. He finished fifth in the 100m S10 freestyle final in a time of 1:03.31, being the second fastest of the S9 swimmers. Laurence's first main international sporting event was at the IPC Swimming European Championships in Reykjavík Iceland in 2009 when he was 18 years old; this was a great stepping stone on his Paralympic Journey where he had his first experience of elite competition


Derradd is a townland in County Westmeath, Ireland. It is located about 16.13 kilometres north–north–west of Mullingar. Derradd is one of 35 townlands of the civil parish of Street in the barony of Moygoish in the Province of Leinster; the townland covers the eastern boundary is formed by the River Inny. The neighbouring townlands are: Clonkeen to the north and west, Lackanwood to the south–east and Hospitalbank and Monagead to the south; the Dublin–Sligo railway line of the national rail company Iarnród Éireann, carrying the Dublin to Longford commuter service and the Dublin to Sligo intercity service, passes through the townland. The Ordnance Survey map, produced at the time of the Griffith's Valuation survey of Ireland, shows a junction of two lines; the modern-day mainline is shown as the Mullingar and Longford Railway, the branch line to Cavan is marked as the Cavan Junction Railway and the station is shown as Cavan or Derradd Junction. In the 1911 census of Ireland there were 33 inhabitants in the townland.

Six of the residents were railway employees. Map of Derradd at Derradd at the IreAtlas Townland Data Base Derradd at Derradd at The Placenames Database of Ireland, Department of Arts and the Gaeltacht

Tommy Jones (quarterback)

Thomas Jones is a professional gridiron football quarterback, a free agent. After a standout prep career at Eaton High School where he played football and baseball, Jones continued his football career at Indiana University. After taking a red-shirt his freshman year, Jones split first team practice reps with Antwaan Randle-El. Head Coach Cam Cameron decided on Randle-El, Jones appeared in just 3 games as a red-shirt freshman. During his sophomore season, there was once again training camp talk of Jones starting over Randle-El, once again Jones was named the backup, playing 6 games, his junior season, he was named Randle-El moved to wide receiver. Jones completed 18 of 31 passes and had one touchdown, but was benched the following week as the offense didn't take off as well had Cameron had hoped. Jones was injured during week 4 and didn't play in a game the rest of the season. During his senior season, the Hoosiers were under new Head Coach Gerry DiNardo, Jones was named the starter out of fall camp.

Jones started the first 7 games of the season, throwing for 879 yards with 9 touchdowns and 7 interceptions. He was benched in favor of Gibran Hamdan. After going undrafted in the 2003 NFL Draft, Jones was signed by the Cincinnati Bengals and participated in mini-camp and training camp before being released, he signed with the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League, where he started 6 games, throwing for 1,168 yards with 7 touchdowns and 9 interceptions. Following his release from the Stampeders, Jones turned to the Arena Football League, catching on with the Nashville Kats and the Columbus Destroyers, but never seeing the field for either team. Jones turned his attention to indoor football, signing with the Odessa Roughnecks of the Intense Football League. Jones shined in his first season of indoor football, throwing 100 touchdown passes and leading the Roughnecks to a 97-56 victory in Intense Bowl II; the following year, Jones signed with the Mississippi MudCats of the American Indoor Football Association.

Jones again threw over 100 touchdowns, while being named to the All-Star team. In 2009, Jones signed with the El Paso Generals, throwing for 3,158 yards. In 2010, Jones returned to the Roughnecks. In 2011, Jones signed with the Saginaw Sting, where he would lead the Sting to an Ultimate Bowl Championship, while winning Offensive Player of the Year honors as well as Ultimate Bowl I MVP. Jones re-signed with the Sting in 2012, as they transitioned into the Continental Indoor Football League; the Sting went undefeated. Jones won the CIFL Offensive Player of the Year Awards. In, 2013 Jones signed with the expansion Dayton Sharks, where he was named their starting quarterback and offensive coordinator. Born the son of Tom and Meg Jones, Tommy attended Eaton High School, in Eaton, where he was a member of the baseball and football teams; as a football player he passed for 1,185 yards and 19 touchdowns as a sophomore, 1,022 yards and 14 touchdowns as a junior and completed 88 of 174 passes for 1,532 yards and 18 touchdowns and rushed 67 times for 586 yards and 10 touchdowns as a senior.

He was 25-5 as a starter during this career, going 9-1 his season year in 1997. After his senior season he was named a first-team Southwestern Buckeye League selection, the Richmond, IN Palladium-Item Player-of-the-Year as well as earned postseason All-America honors and was named as one of the top 90 players in the country by Tom Lemming's Prep Football Report; as a basketball player, he averaged over 20 points per game as a senior. As a baseball player he was a shortstop. After his graduation, Jones chose to continue his football career at Indiana University on scholarship, playing for Cam Cameron, he was a General Studies major. He sat out the 1998 season. In 1999, Jones saw some first team reps in spring practice with, the 1998 Big Ten Conference Freshman of the Year in 1998, Antwaan Randle-El taking reps at wide receiver; when questioned about if he would play Jones at quarterback Cameron stated, "Get the best players on the field. If that means Jones and Randle El, so be it." Jones played in just three games, completed 4 of 9 passes for 77 yards, including a 47-yard completion at Wisconsin.

His season ended when he chipped a bone and sustained ligament damage to his right index finger during warm-ups prior to the North Carolina game. In 2000, Jones was once again talked about as replacing Randle-El at quarterback, but when the season came, Jones was once again in a reserve role. Jones saw action as a back-up to Randle-El, completed 6 of 16 pass for 57 yards and one interception, his best game of the season came at Northwestern, when he completed both passes he threw for 43 yards, including a 27-yard completion. He attempted five passes against both Wisconsin, he saw action against NC State and Penn State. During his junior season in 2001, in what was one of the worst coaching decision in the history of Indiana football, Head Coach Cam Cameron decided to move Randle-El to wide receiver, let Jones become the starting quarterback, he opened the season as the starting quarterback against NC State, completing 18 of 31 passes for 163 yards and one touchdown. He saw action on the kickoff return team.

He did not play after week four of the season as he was sidelined with tendonitis in his throwing shoulder. For his senior season in 2002, under new head coach Gerry DiNardo, he completed 75 of 152 passes for 879 yards and nine touchdowns in seven games before being replaced by Gibran Hamdan. Through the end of the 2002 season, Jones'

Torridge Bridge

The Torridge Bridge is a 650-metre-long concrete bridge, situated broadly in an east-west direction, built in 1987 in Devon over the River Torridge. Three piers are in the river; each of the piers in the water is protected by concrete fenders 24m long by 8 metres wide by 8 metres high. The concrete piers of the bridge are around 24m high, it was designed by MRM Partnership, now part of WSP Global. Calculations were made for the possible effect of shear, it was designed by 1980. The bridge deck waterproofing system was made by Sika Inertol of Welwyn Garden City in Hertfordshire; the concrete was made from 60% blastfurnace cement and 40% cement, made by Blue Circle on-site. Salt aggregates came from ECC Quarries; the prestressing metal cable was provided by British Ropes. Each section of the bridge was built with a 377-feet-long gantry leg, or launching girder, from the neighbouring concrete pier, by the balanced-cantilever method; the bridge is made from each weighing up to 105 tonnes. Each precast box unit took one day to cast.

It won the 1988 Concrete Society Award. It opened on Wednesday 20 May 1987 by the High Sheriff of Devon, it was opened as part of the 8km Bideford Bypass. The bypass contract had taken two and a half years; the bridge lies between the districts of North Devon, to the east, Torridge, to the west, around a half-mile north of Bideford. It is accessed via a roundabout with the A386, to the west, a junction with the B3233, to the east; the South West Coast Path passes under the bridge, on the east bank, passes near the west bank. The East bank of the bridge is in Devon; the A39, that it carries, is known as the Atlantic Highway, which originates at junction 27 of the M5 at Burlescombe and Sampford Peverell in Devon, close to the Somerset boundary. List of bridges over the River Torridge Construction at the University of Cambridge Devon Guide SABRE