IVECO S.p. A. an acronym for Industrial Vehicles Corporation, is an Italian industrial vehicle manufacturing company based in Turin and controlled by CNH Industrial Group. It designs and builds light and heavy commercial vehicles, quarry/construction site vehicles and intercity buses and special vehicles for applications such as firefighting, off-road missions, the military and civil defence; the name Iveco first appeared in 1975 after a merger of Italian and German brands. Its production plants are in Europe, Russia, Africa and China, it has 5,000 points of sales and service in over 160 countries; the worldwide output of the company amounts to around 150,000 commercial vehicles with a turnover of about €10,000,000,000. IVECO was incorporated on 1 January 1975, with the merger of five different brands: FIAT Veicoli Industriali, OM, Lancia Veicoli Speciali and Magirus-Deutz. Following the merger, the newly founded Iveco began rationalizing its product range, manufacturing plants and sales network, while keeping the original brands.
From 1975 to 1979, the Iveco range included 200 basic models and 600 versions spanning from 2.7 tons of GVW for a light vehicle to over 40 tons for heavy vehicles, as well as buses and engines. In 1977 the light to medium-weight Iveco Zeta range was introduced, replacing the twenty-year-old OM Lupetto. Integrating the FIAT-OM range with the Unic and Magirus lineups was completed by 1980. IVECO moved in to work on increasing engine development. In 1978 IVECO launched the first product in the range of the Daily. In 1980 Iveco built a turbo diesel engine for heavy industrial vehicles. In this decade the corporate strategy was oriented towards brand promotion and led to the sponsorship of sports events, such as the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow, the Davis Cup in 1982, multiple championship boxing matches, the Jacques Cousteau expeditions in the Amazon basin in 1983 and the Raid Pigafetta, during which the IVECO-FIAT 75 PC 4x4 was first to make a full circle of the globe. Two new divisions were formed: bus diesel engines and firefighting vehicles.
In 1984 IVECO launched the TurboStar, a heavy on-road vehicle that became a best-seller in Italy and an important player in the European market, selling a total of 50,000 in seven years. In 1985 IVECO made the first light diesel engine with direct injection. From 1986, IVECO S.p. A. held a 52% stake in Iveco Ford Truck Ltd, a joint venture with Ford of Europe's truck division. Ford plants took over production and sales of the major vehicles in the Iveco range and continued production of the Ford Cargo. In the mid-1980s, which produces dumpers and construction site/quarry vehicles in Piacenza, became part of Iveco Group. In 1989 the first diesel engine with EGR to reduce polluting emissions compatible with commercial vehicles was produced and the new Daily launched that same year was fitted with it. In 1990, the group purchased 60% control of the Spanish industrial company ENASA, which owned the industrial vehicle builder Pegaso. In the 1990s, the EuroCargo, EuroTech, EuroTrakker and EuroStar vehicles represented a total facelift for the range.
The EuroCargo and the EuroTech were named "Truck of the Year" in 1992 and 1993 and, for the first time, this recognition was awarded to the same manufacturer for two years in a row. The English company Seddon Atkinson was purchased in 1991 and brought its long heritage of special vehicles for the construction and refuse collection industries; that same year, the first TurboDaily assembly line was inaugurated at the Nanjing Motor Corporation in China. In 1992, Iveco took over the primary constructor of industrial vehicles in Australia to form Ital called International Trucks Australia. In 2000 it was renamed Iveco Trucks Australia Limited. In 1996 firefighting activities in Germany were structured under the company Iveco Magirus Brandschutztechnik GmbH; the following year, these activities were boosted by the arrival of an Austrian company, Löhr, which became Löhr Magirus. In 1998 Cursor 8 was launched, followed the next year by Cursor 10, the first diesel engine with a variable geometry turbine and the first common rail diesel engine for heavy industrial vehicles.
The 125th anniversary of the presentation of the first Magirus ladder was celebrated together with the delivery of the five-thousandth Magirus aerial ladder produced since the Second World War. In 2003 IVECO bought out Irisbus part of a joint venture with Renault. In 2004 the Iveco Motors brand was born, which became an umbrella for the production of engines, the following year it was incorporated into the newly founded Fiat Powertrain Technologies. At the end of 2004, an agreement was reached between IVECO and the Chinese company SAIC. In 2006 IVECO sponsored the Winter Olympic Games in Turin with a fleet of 1,200 Irisbus buses; the year after, IVECO became sponsor of the New Zealand's rugby team. In 2009 Iveco became the trucks and commercial Vehicle supplier for the Moto GP, together with the historical sponsorship to the Ferrari Racing Team, for which it supplies the vehicles that transport the single-seaters at all the Formula 1 World Championship races. On 1 January 2011, Fiat Industrial was formed, incorporating Iveco and FPT Industrial.
In September of the same year, the Fiat Industrial Village was inaugurated in Turin, a multipurpose centre belonging to Fiat Industrial and created for the sales and product presentation for the Iveco, New Holland and FPT Industrial brands. On 15 January 2012, Iveco won the 33rd edition of the Dakar rally with the P
Mosley Street was a tram stop in the City Zone of Greater Manchester's Metrolink light rail system which closed on 18 May 2013. It was located on Mosley Street in Manchester city centre and was unique to Metrolink in that it was unidirectional, with a single platform serving southbound passengers travelling towards Altrincham Interchange, Eccles Interchange, MediaCityUK and St Werburgh's Road only. Mosley Street tram stop opened on 27 April 1992, as part of Phase 1 of Metrolink's construction; the only remaining example in the City Zone, it was designed with a varied height platform full-height with ramped lower sections. When a service was worked by two coupled T-68 vehicles, the rear vehicle extended mechanical steps to allow access at the low-platform sections - a feature absent in the newer M5000 vehicles. Following the 2009 City Centre Track Upgrade Project, all other Metrolink street-level stops in the City Zone were rebuilt to full platform height; this change was carried out to remove the need for retractable steps, which were proving technically problematic.
The new platforms can accommodate double-length vehicles. Mosley Street was the only tram stop in Manchester not upgraded. A review of the stop's future was conducted and found that the stop could cause congestion for trams at the Piccadilly delta junction when additional services are implemented; the report noted that the tight confines around the stop location meant that rebuilding the platform to the new specifications would impact on pedestrian flows and access to adjacent retail establishments. With two other Metrolink stops in close proximity, the expense of a platform upgrade was not considered to be economically or operationally justifiable; the decision was taken in February 2010 to close the stop. A passenger information display was installed at Mosley Street in May 2013, showing the next Altrincham-bound trams from Piccadilly Gardens and Market Street stops. Mosley Street tram stop closed on 18 May 2013 following the departure at 00:51 of the last tram, on a service to Altrincham. Metrolink city centre map
In the theory of algebraic curves, Brill–Noether theory, introduced by Alexander von Brill and Max Noether, is the study of special divisors, certain divisors on a curve C that determine more compatible functions than would be predicted. In classical language, special divisors move on the curve in a "larger than expected" linear system of divisors; the condition to be a special divisor D can be formulated in sheaf cohomology terms, as the non-vanishing of the H1 cohomology of the sheaf of the sections of the invertible sheaf or line bundle associated to D. This means that, by the Riemann–Roch theorem, the H0 cohomology or space of holomorphic sections is larger than expected. Alternatively, by Serre duality, the condition is that there exist holomorphic differentials with divisor ≥ −D on the curve. For a given genus g, the moduli space for curves C of genus g should contain a dense subset parameterizing those curves with the minimum in the way of special divisors. One goal of the theory is to'count constants', for those curves: to predict the dimension of the space of special divisors of a given degree d, as a function of g, that must be present on a curve of that genus.
The basic statement can be formulated in terms of the Picard variety Pic of a smooth curve C, the subset of Pic corresponding to divisor classes of divisors D, with given values d of deg and r of l − 1 in the notation of the Riemann–Roch theorem. There is a lower bound ρ for the dimension dim of this subscheme in Pic: dim ≥ ρ = g − called the Brill–Noether number. For smooth curves C and for d≥1, r≥0 the basic results about the space Grd of linear systems on C of degree d and dimension r are as follows. George Kempf proved that if ρ≥0 Grd is not empty, every component has dimension at least ρ. William Fulton and Robert Lazarsfeld proved that if ρ≥1 Grd is connected. Griffiths & Harris showed that if C is generic Grd is reduced and all components have dimension ρ. David Gieseker proved that if C is generic Grd is smooth. By the connectedness result this implies it is irreducible if ρ > 0. Arbarello, Enrico. "The Basic Results of the Brill–Noether Theory". Geometry of Algebraic Curves. Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften 267.
Volume I. pp. 203–224. Doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-5323-3_5. ISBN 0-387-90997-4. Von Brill, Alexander. "Ueber die algebraischen Functionen und ihre Anwendung in der Geometrie". Mathematische Annalen. 7: 269–316. Doi:10.1007/BF02104804. JFM 06.0251.01. Retrieved 2009-08-22. Griffiths, Phillip. "On the variety of special linear systems on a general algebraic curve". Duke Mathematical Journal. 47: 233–272. Doi:10.1215/s0012-7094-80-04717-1. MR 0563378. Philip A. Griffiths. Principles of Algebraic Geometry. Wiley Classics Library. Wiley Interscience. P. 245. ISBN 978-0-471-05059-9