The British nobility is the peerage of the United Kingdom. The nobility of its four constituent home nations has played a major role in shaping the history of the country, although in the present day they retain only the rights to stand for election to the House of Lords, dining rights in the House of Lords, position in the formal order of precedence, the right to certain titles, the right to an audience with the monarch. Still, more than a third of British land is in the hands of aristocrats and traditional landed gentry; the British nobility consists of members of the immediate families of peers who bear courtesy titles or honorifics. Members of the peerage carry the titles of duke, earl, viscount or baron. British peers are sometimes referred to generically as lords, although individual dukes are not so styled when addressed or by reference. A Scottish feudal barony is an official title of nobility in the United Kingdom, a feudal baron is addressed as The Baron of X. Scottish lairds' names include a description of their lands in the form of a territorial designation.
In Scotland, a territorial designation implies the rank of "Esquire", thus this is not added after the name. Lairds are part of Scotland's landed gentry and—where armigerous —minor nobility. All modern British honours, including peerage dignities, are created directly by the British monarch and take effect when letters patent are affixed with the Great Seal of the Realm; the Sovereign is considered to be the fount of honour and, as "the fountain and source of all dignities cannot hold a dignity from himself", cannot hold a British peerage. Descendants in the male line of peers and children of women who are peeresses in their own right, as well as baronets, knights and certain other persons who bear no peerage titles, belong to the gentry, deemed members of the non-peerage nobility below whom they rank; the untitled nobility consists of all those who bear formally matriculated, or recorded, armorial bearings. Other than their designation, such as Gentleman or Esquire, they enjoy only the privilege of a position in the formal orders of precedence in the United Kingdom.
The largest portion of the British aristocracy has been the landed gentry, made up of baronets and the non-titled armigerous landowners whose families hailed from the mediaeval feudal class. Before the twentieth century, peerages were hereditary and descended in the male line; the eldest son of a duke, marquess or earl always uses one of his father's subsidiary titles as a courtesy title. The modern peerage system is a vestige of the custom of English kings in the 12th and 13th centuries in summoning wealthy individuals to form a Parliament; the economic system at the time was manorialism, the privilege of being summoned to Parliament was related to the amount of land one controlled. In the late 14th century, this right began to be granted by decree, titles became inherited with the rest of an estate under the system of primogeniture. Non-hereditary positions began to be created again in 1867 for Law Lords, in 1958 generally. In 1958, the Life Peerages Act enabled life peers to sit in the House of Lords, from on the creation of hereditary peerages became obsolete ceasing after 1964.
This, however, is only a convention and was not observed by former prime minister Margaret Thatcher, who asked the Queen to create three hereditary peerages. Until changes in the twentieth century, only a proportion of those holding Scottish and Irish peerages were entitled by that title to sit in the House of Lords; until constitutional reforms in 1999, possession of a title in the peerage entitled its holder to a seat in the House of Lords. Since only 92 hereditary peers are entitled to sit in the House of Lords, of which 90 are elected by the hereditary peers by ballot and replaced on death; the two exceptions are the Earl Marshal, responsible for certain ceremonial functions on state occasions, the Lord Great Chamberlain, who serves as the monarch's representative in Parliament and accompanies them on certain state occasions. Those due to inherit a peerage—or indeed have done so, in recent times—have been educated at one of the major public schools, such as Eton or Winchester. A member of the House of Lords cannot be a member of the House of Commons.
In 1960, Anthony Wedgwood Benn inherited his father's title as Viscount Stansgate. He fought and won the ensuing by-election, but was disqualified from taking his seat until an act was passed enabling hereditary peers to renounce their titles. Titles, while considered central to the upper class, are not always so. Both Captain Mark Phillips and Vice-Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, the respective first and second husbands of Princess Anne, do not hold peerages. Most members of the British upper class are untitled. Dukes in the United Kingdom List of dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland Marquesses in the United Kingdom List of marquesses in the peerages of Britain and Ireland List of marquessates in the peerages of Britain and Ireland Royal earldoms in the United Kingdom List
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
An urn is a vase with a cover, that has a somewhat narrowed neck above a rounded body and a footed pedestal. Describing a vessel as an "urn", as opposed to a vase or other terms reflects its use rather than any particular shape or origin; the term is often used for funerary urns, vessels used in burials, either to hold the cremated ashes or as grave goods, but is used in many other contexts. Large sculpted vases are called urns, whether placed outdoors, in gardens or as architectural ornaments on buildings, or kept inside. Funerary urns have been used by many civilizations. After death, corpses are cremated, the ashes are collected and put in an urn. Pottery urns, dating from about 7000 BC, have been found in an early Jiahu site in China, where a total of 32 burial urns are found, another early finds are in Laoguantai, Shaanxi. There are about 700 burial urns unearthed over the Yangshao areas and consisting more than 50 varieties of form and shape; the burial urns were used for children, but sporadically for adults.
The Urnfield culture, a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, takes its name from its large cemeteries of urn burials. The discovery of a Bronze Age urn burial in Norfolk, prompted Sir Thomas Browne to describe the antiquities found, he expanded his study to survey burial and funerary customs and current, published it as Hydriotaphia or Urn Burial. In ancient Greece, cremation was usual, the ashes placed in a painted Greek vase. In particular the lekythos, a shape of vase, was used for holding oil in funerary rituals. Romans placed; the interior of a dovecote has niches to house doves. Cremation urns were commonly used in early Anglo Saxon England, in many Pre-Columbian cultures. In some European traditions, a king's heart, sometimes other organs, could be placed in one or more urns upon his death, as happened with King Otto of Bavaria in 1916, buried in a different place from the body, to symbolize a particular affection for the place by the departed. In the modern funeral industry, cremation urns of varying quality and cost are offered, urns are another source of potential profit for an industry concerned that a trend toward cremation might threaten profits from traditional burial ceremonies.
Biodegradable urns are sometimes used for both animal burial. They are made from eco-friendly materials such as recycled or handmade paper, cellulose or other natural products that are capable of decomposing back into natural elements, sometimes include a seed intended to grow into a tree at the site of the burial. Besides the traditional funeral or cremation ashes urns, it may be possible to keep a part of the ashes of the loved one or beloved pet in keepsake urns or ash jewellery, although this might be banned in some localities as the law of certain countries may prohibit keeping any human remains in a private residence, it is in some places, possible to place the ashes of two people in so-called companion urns. Cremation or funeral urns are made from a variety of materials such as wood, nature stone, glass, or steel. Scattering of ashes has become popular over recent decades; as a result, urns designed to scatter the ashes from have been developed. Some are biodegradable, some recyclable after being used.
Some cremation urns have been made out of wood. A Figural urn is a style of vase or larger container where the basic urn shape, of either a classic amphora or a crucible style, is ornamented with figures; these may be attached to the main body, forming handles or extraneous decorations, or may be shown in relief on the body itself. The Ashes, the prize in the biennial Test cricket competition between England and Australia, are contained in a miniature urn. Urns are a common form of architectural garden ornament. Well-known ornamental urns include the Waterloo Vase. In mathematics, an urn problem is a thought experiment in probability theory. A tea urn is a heated metal container traditionally used to brew tea or boil water in large quantities in factories, canteens or churches, they are not found in domestic use. Like a samovar it has a small tap near the base for extracting hot water. Unlike an electric water boiler, tea may be brewed in the vessel itself, although they are likely to be used to fill a large teapot.
In Neoclassical furniture, it was a large wooden vase-like container, set on a pedestal on either side of a side table. This was the characteristic of Adam designs and of Hepplewhite's work. Sometimes they were "knife urns", where the top lifted off, cutlery was stored inside. Urns were used as decorative turnings at the cross points of stretchers in 16th and 17th century furniture designs; the urn and the vase were set on the central pedestal in a "broken" or "swan's" neck pediment. "Knife urns" placed on pedestals flanking a dining-room sideboard were an English innovation for high-style dining rooms of the late 1760s. They went out of fashion in the following decade, in favour of knife boxes that were placed on the sideboard. Bridge spouted vessel Crematory Pithos Urn problem Viewlogy Daily Mail article on a Roman cinerary urn Getty. Art & Architecture Thesaurus. Urns
The Oval referred to for sponsorship purposes as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845, it was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880. The final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of other significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged England's first international football match, versus Scotland, it hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892. In 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches and, in 1877, rugby's first Varsity match, it hosted the final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common. Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century; the earliest recorded first-class match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724.
However, as the common was used for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes, cricket matches had moved away to the Artillery Ground by the 1740s. Kennington Common was enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family. In 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall; the Duchy was willing to lease the land for the purpose of a cricket ground, on 10 March 1845 the first lease, which the club assumed, was issued to Mr. William Houghton by the Otter Trustees who held the land from the Duchy "to convert it into a subscription cricket ground", for 31 years at a rent of £120 per annum plus taxes amounting to £20; the original contract for turfing The Oval cost £300. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845; the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a further term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800.
In 1868, 20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the first Test match in England was played at The Oval in 1880 between England and Australia; the Oval, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days; the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australia's Billy Murdoch. Surrey's ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889; the current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season. In 1907, South Africa became the second visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground.
In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, followed by New Zealand in 1931. In 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998. Zimbabwe and Bangladesh have yet to play a Test match at The Oval; the Oval is referenced by the poet Philip Larkin in his poem about the First World War, "MCMXIV". During World War II, The Oval was requisitioned housing anti-aircraft searchlights, it was turned into a prisoner-of-war camp, intended to hold enemy parachutists. However, as they never came, The Oval was never used for this purpose; the first One Day International match at this venue was played on 7 September 1973 between England and West Indies. It hosted matches of the 1975, 1979, 1983, 1999 World Cups, it hosted five of the fifteen matches in the 2004 ICC Champions Trophy, including the final. The Oval once held the record for the largest playing area of any Test venue in the world; that record has since been surpassed by Gaddafi Stadium in Pakistan, although The Oval remains the largest in Great Britain.
Billionaire Paul Getty, who had a great affinity for cricket and was at one time SCCC President, built a replica of The Oval on his Wormsley Park estate. The famous gasholders just outside the ground were built around 1853. With the gasholders long disused, there was much speculation as to whether they should be demolished. In 2016 the main gasholder was given official protected status as a important industrial structure. On 20 August 2006, The Oval saw the first time a team forfeited a Test match. Pakistan were upset after umpires Darrell Hair and Billy Doctrove docked them five runs and changed the ball after ruling that the team had tampered with it on the fourth day of the final Test against England. Pakistan debated the matter during the tea break and refused to come out for the final session in protest. By the time they relented and decided to resume, the umpires had called time on the match and awarded the game to England by default; the Oval hosted its hundredth Test, against South Africa, on 27 July, 2017, becoming the fourth Test venue in the world after Lord's, MCG and SCG to do so.
Moeen Ali became the first player to take a Test hat-trick at The Oval, bowling out South Afri
Stumped is a method of dismissal in cricket. The action of stumping can only be performed by a wicket-keeper and, according to the Laws of Cricket, a batsman can be given out stumped if: the wicket-keeper puts down the wicket, while the batsman is: out of his ground. Being "out of his ground" is defined as not having any part of the batsman's body or his bat touching the ground behind the crease – i.e. if his bat is elevated from the floor despite being behind the crease, or if his foot is on the crease line itself but not across it and touching the ground behind it he would be considered out. One of the fielding team must appeal for the wicket by asking the umpire; the appeal is directed to the square-leg umpire, who would be in the best position to adjudicate on the appeal. Stumping is the fifth most common form of dismissal after caught, leg before wicket and run out, though it is seen more in Twenty20 cricket because of its more aggressive batting, it is governed by Law 39 of the Laws of Cricket.
It is seen with a medium or slow bowler, as with fast bowlers a wicket-keeper takes the ball too far back from the wicket to attempt a stumping. It includes co-operation between a bowler and wicket-keeper: the bowler draws the batsman out of his ground, the wicket-keeper catches and breaks the wicket before the batsman realises he has missed the ball and makes his ground, i.e. places the bat or part of his body on the ground back behind the popping crease. If the bails are removed before the wicket-keeper has the ball, the batsman can still be stumped if the wicket-keeper removes one of the stumps from the ground, while holding the ball in his hand; the bowler is credited for the batsman's wicket, the wicket-keeper is credited for the dismissal. A batsman may be out stumped off a wide delivery but cannot be stumped off a no-ball as bowler is credited for the wicket. Notes: The popping crease is defined as the back edge of the crease marking (i.e. the edge closer to the wicket. Therefore, a batsman whose bat or foot is on the crease marking, but does not touch the ground behind the crease marking, can be stumped.
This is quite common. The wicket must be properly put down in accordance with Law 28 of the Laws of cricket: using either the ball itself or a hand or arm, in possession of the ball. Note that since the ball itself can put down the wicket, a stumping is still valid if the ball rebounds from the'keeper and breaks the wicket though never controlled by him; the wicket-keeper must allow the ball to pass the stumps before taking it, unless it has touched either the batsman or his bat first. If the wicket-keeper fails to do this, the delivery is a "no-ball", the batsman cannot be stumped
A. G. Steel
Allan Gibson "AG" Steel was a Lancashire and England cricketer, reckoned by many in his day to be the equal of the legendary W G Grace. Born 24 September 1858 in West Derby, Liverpool to Joseph Steel of Liverpool, Kirkwood, Lockerbie in Scotland, he was one of seven cricketing brothers and three of his brothers Ernest and Harold played first-class cricket for Lancashire. After his schooldays at Marlborough College, where he played cricket superbly, he proceeded to Trinity Hall, Cambridge, he was an instant star in the Cambridge University side of 1878 where he topped the bowling averages for the whole of England as a freshman. According to HS Altham, "it was unquestionably A. G. Steel's bowling that made the difference between a good and a great eleven". Steel played in the first Test Match in England at The Oval in 1880 in the famous Test which England narrowly lost in 1882; the mock obituary was published in The Sporting Times saying "R. I. P. English Cricket...the body will be cremated and the Ashes will be taken to Australia."
Soon after Steel set off for Australia with his Cambridge University friends Ivo Bligh and the Studd brothers George and Charles, a team they had put together. They won the agreed series 2 -- 1, thus being given a small urn, they are commemorated by the poem inscribed on the side of the urn: When Ivo goes back with the urn, the urn. Steel scored 135 at the Sydney Cricket Ground in a Fourth Test match arranged as an "extra" on that tour, in 1883. Over the whole tour he topped the bowling averages. Steel, known by his initials to differentiate him from his brothers made his highest Test score, of 148, in 1884, the first Test match century scored at Lord's, his name still heads the Honours Board. These efforts led him to achieve the number 1 ranking in ICC Test Batsman Ranking in 1884, he captained England in 1886 winning all three times – whitewashing the Australians 3–0. His last Test was in 1888, again as captain but losing this one. Steel wrote the chapter on bowling in the cricket volume of the Badminton Library.
He was president of the Marylebone Cricket Club for 1902. His son Allan Ivo Steel played a handful of first-class matches for MCC and Middlesex but was killed in the First World War. In 1884, Steel became a Christian through Dwight L. Moody's preaching, he died on 15 June 1914 in London, is buried there at Kensal Green Cemetery. History of Test cricket Test matches in the 19th century Media related to A. G. Steel at Wikimedia Commons Cricinfo page on A G Steel CricketArchive page on A G Steel