Valdemar II of Denmark
Valdemar II, called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror, was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241. The nickname Sejr is an invention and was not used during the Kings own lifetime. He was the son of King Valdemar I and Sophia Valadarsdattir, a daughter of Richeza of Poland. When Valdemars father died, young Valdemar was only twelve years old and he was named Duke of Southern Jutland, represented by the regent Bishop Valdemar Knudsen. Bishop Valdemar was a man and disguised his own ambitions as young Valdemars. When in 1192 Bishop Valdemar was named Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, his plot to overthrow King Canute VI with the help of German nobility, Duke Valdemar realized the threat Bishop Valdemar presented. He invited the archbishop to meet him in Aabenraa in 1192, the bishop fled to Swedish Norway to avoid arrest. The following year Bishop Valdemar organised - supported by the Hohenstaufens - a fleet of 35 ships and harried the coasts of Denmark, in 1193 King Canute VI of Denmark captured him.
Bishop Valdemar stayed in captivity in Nordborg and in the tower at Søborg Castle on Zealand until 1206, Bishop Valdemar was released upon the initiative of the Danish Queen Dagmar and Pope Innocent III and after swearing to never interfere again in Danish affairs. Young Valdemar faced another threat from Count Adolph of Rendsburg, Adolph tried to stir up other German counts to take southern Jutland from Denmark to assist Bishop Valdemars plot to take the throne. With the bishop in prison, Duke Valdemar went after Count Adolph and with his own troop levies march south and he defeated and captured the count in the Battle of Stellau in 1201 and sent him to sit in a cell next to Bishop Valdemar. Two years Duke Valdemar let Count Adolph buy his way out of due to an illness by ceding all of Schleswig north of the Elbe to Valdemar. In November 1202, Duke Valdemars elder brother, King Canute VI died unexpectedly at the age of 40, Duke Valdemar was subsequently proclaimed king at the Jutland Assembly.
The nearby Holy Roman Empire was torn by civil war due to having two rivals contesting for its throne, Otto IV, House of Guelf, and King Philip, Valdemar II allied himself with Otto IV against Phillip. In 1203 Valdemar invaded and conquered Lybeck and Holstein, adding them to the controlled by Denmark. In 1204 he attempted to influence the outcome of the Norwegian succession by leading a Danish fleet and army to Viken in Norway in support of Erling Steinvegg and this resulted in the second Bagler War which lasted until 1208. The question of the Norwegian succession was settled and the Norwegian king owed allegiance to the king of Denmark. The German King Philip, recognised Valdemar as the legitimate Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Valdemar II and the fled capitulars protested to Pope Innocent III, who first wanted to research the case
Christian VI of Denmark
Christian VI was King of Denmark and Norway from 1730-46. He was the first king of the Oldenburg dynasty to refrain from entering in any war and he was married to Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and was the father of Frederick V. His chosen motto was deo et populo, from 1706, Christian came to understand Danish but used German for everyday speaking and writing. He got an education and acquired more knowledge than his father and grandfather. As Crown Prince he was allowed by his father to find a wife by himself, Sophia Magdalene came from a minor margraviate of the Hohenzollern dynasty where able consciousness was inversely proportional to the funds, half of the land was mortgaged, and her father died young. She had 13 siblings and was considered a match for the Danish prince. In Christians letters, he describes his feelings for the princesss intense religiosity and they were married on 7 August 1721, while Christian was crown prince. The wedding was held at Pretzsch in Saxony, the king was shy and introverted by nature, and stayed away from the public.
For the first ten years of his government he consulted often with his cousin, the count took part in almost everything, from the dismissal of cooks in the Queens kitchen to determining alliance policy. He encouraged the king as long as possible to maintain the English alliance, around 1740, Count Christian Ernsts preference swung towards France and he ceased his influence. This coincided with the situation in Germany no longer allowing him, as a vassal German prince. In 1733, the couple travelled to Norway. A poem/speech by Peter Höyer was performed in his honor when he visited the city of Trondheim on 18 July, the act would be abolished in 1788. The Pietist views of King Christian influenced much of his ecclesiastical polity, on the surface the king was victorious, but both nobility and many common people secretly resisted the kings influence. This did not mean that it was without effect and it influenced much of the poetry of the age, among others, that of the great hymn writer Hans Adolph Brorson.
Another lasting result of the efforts was the introduction of mandatory confirmation in 1736. This resulted in a need for a school system, which was created by decree in 1739 and 1741. There were numerous building activities connected to Christian VI, and he was probably the greatest Danish builder of the 18th century and his queen made a notable effort
Frederick III of Denmark
Frederick III was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. He governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and he instituted absolute monarchy in Denmark-Norway in 1660, confirmed by law in 1665 as the first in Western historiography. He ordered the creation of the Throne Chair of Denmark and he was born the second-eldest son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg. Frederick was only considered an heir to the throne after the death of his older brother Prince Christian in 1647, in order to be elected king after the death of his father, Frederick conceded significant influence to the nobility. As king, he fought two wars against Sweden and he was defeated in the Dano-Swedish War of 1657–1658, but attained great popularity when he weathered the 1659 Assault on Copenhagen and won the Dano-Swedish War of 1658–1660. Later that year, Frederick used his popularity to disband the elective monarchy in favour of absolute monarchy and he married Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with whom he fathered Christian V of Denmark.
Frederick was born at Haderslev in Slesvig, the son of Christian IV, in his youth and early manhood, there was no prospect of his ascending the Danish throne, as his older brother Christian was elected heir apparent in 1608. Frederick was educated at Sorø Academy and studied in the Netherlands, as a young man, he demonstrated an interest in theology, natural sciences, and Scandinavian history. He was a reserved and enigmatic prince who seldom laughed, spoke little, and wrote less, even though he lacked the impulsive and jovial qualities of his father, Frederick possessed the compensating virtues of moderation and self-control. On 1 October 1643 Frederick wed Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the daughter of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who had an energetic, passionate and he was an enthusiastic collector of books and his collection became the foundation for the Copenhagen Royal Library. In his youth, Frederick became the instrument of his fathers political schemes in the Holy Roman Empire and he was granted administration of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and named coadjutor of the Bishopric of Halberstadt.
Thus, from an age, he had considerable experience as an administrator. At the age of eighteen, he was the commandant of the Bremian fortress of Stade. During the Torstenson War of 1643–45, Frederick lost control of his possessions within the empire and he was appointed commander in the royal shares in the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein by his father. His command was not successful, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille and this was Fredericks first collision with the Danish nobility, who afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust. The death of his elder brother Christian in June 1647 opened the possibility for Frederick to be elected heir apparent to the Danish throne, this issue was still unsettled when Christian IV died on 28 February 1648. After long deliberation among the Danish Estates and in the Rigsraadet, on 6 July, Frederick received the homage of his subjects, and he was crowned on 23 November. The Haandfæstning included provisions curtailing the already diminished royal prerogative in favour of increased influence for the Rigsraadet, in the first years of his reign, the Rigsraadet was the main power center of Danish politics
Fortuna was the goddess of fortune and personification of luck in Roman religion. She might bring good or bad luck, she could be represented as veiled and blind, as in modern depictions of Lady Justice, and came to represent lifes capriciousness. She was a goddess of fate, as Atrox Fortuna, she claimed the lives of the princeps Augustus grandsons Gaius and Lucius. Her father was said to be Jupiter and like him, she could be bountiful, as Annonaria she protected grain supplies. June 11 was sacred to her, on June 24 she was given cult at the festival of Fors Fortuna, fortunas Roman cult was variously attributed to Servius Tullius – whose exceptional good fortune suggested their sexual intimacy – and to Ancus Marcius. The two earliest temples mentioned in Roman Calendars were outside the city, on the bank of the Tiber. After undisclosed rituals they rowed back and inebriated, Fortuna had a temple at the Forum Boarium. Here Fortuna was twinned with the cult of Mater Matuta, and the temples have been revealed in the excavation beside the church of SantOmobono.
Fortuna Primigenia of Praeneste was adopted by Romans at the end of 3rd century BC in an important cult of Fortuna Publica Populi Romani on the Quirinalis outside the Porta Collina, no temple at Rome, rivalled the magnificence of the Praenestine sanctuary. Fortunas identity as personification of chance events was closely tied to virtus, an oracle at the Temple of Fortuna Primigena in Praeneste used a form of divination in which a small boy picked out one of various futures that were written on oak rods. Cults to Fortuna in her many forms are attested throughout the Roman world, dedications have been found to Fortuna Dubia, Fortuna Brevis and Fortuna Mala. She is found in a variety of domestic and personal contexts, during the early Empire, an amulet from the House of Menander in Pompeii links her to the Egyptian goddess Isis, as Isis-Fortuna. She is functionally related to the god Bonus Eventus, who is represented as her counterpart. Her name seems to derive from Vortumna, the earliest reference to the Wheel of Fortune, emblematic of the endless changes in life between prosperity and disaster, is from 55 BC.
Never have sceptres obtained calm peace or certain tenure, care on care weighs them down, great kingdoms sink of their own weight, and Fortune gives way ‘neath the burden of herself. Sails swollen with favouring breezes fear blasts too strongly theirs, the tower which rears its head to the clouds is beaten by rainy Auster. Whatever Fortune has raised on high, she lifts but to bring low. ”Fortuna did not disappear from the imagination with the ascendancy of Christianity. Let the bad worship her. this supposed deity, then, was a servant of God, and events, individual decisions, the influence of the stars were all merely vehicles of Divine Will
The fallow deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Some taxonomers include the rarer Persian fallow deer as a subspecies, the male fallow deer is known as a buck, the female is a doe, and the young a fawn. Adult bucks are 140–160 cm long, 85–95 cm in height, and typically 60–100 kg in weight, does are 130–150 cm long, 75–85 cm in shoulder height. The largest bucks may measure 190 cm long and weigh 150 kg, Fawns are born in spring around 30 cm and weigh around 4.5 kg. Their lifespan is around 12–16 years, much variation occurs in the coat colour of the species, with four main variants, menil and leucistic – a genuine colour variety, not albinistic. The white is the lightest coloured, almost white and menil are darker, Chestnut coat with white mottles, it is most pronounced in summer with a much darker, unspotted coat in the winter. The light-coloured area around the tail is edged with black, the tail is light with a black stripe. Menil, Spots are more distinct than common in summer and no black is seen around the patch or on the tail.
In winter, spots are still clear on a brown coat. Melanistic, All-year the coat is black shading to greyish brown, no light-coloured tail patch or spots are seen. Leucistic, Fawns are cream-coloured, adults become pure white, especially in winter, dark eyes and nose are seen, with no spots. Most herds consist of the common coat variation, yet animals of the menil coat variation are not rare, the melanistic variation is generally rarer, and white is very much rarer still, although wild New Zealand herds often have a high melanistic percentage. Only bucks have antlers, which are broad and shovel-shaped from three years, in the first two years, the antler is a single spike. They are grazing animals, their habitat is mixed woodland. Agile and fast in case of danger, fallow deer can run at a speed of 30 mph over short distances. Fallow deer can make jumps up to 1.75 m high, the fallow deer is a Eurasian deer that was a native to most of Europe during the last interglacial. The fallow deer was introduced to the Victoria Island in the Province of Neuquén by billionaire Aaron Anchorena and he freed wildlife of European and Asian origin, making them common inhabitants of the island and competing for land and food with the native huemul and pudu deer.
The fallow deer was spread across central Europe by the Romans, until recently, the Normans were thought to have introduced them to Great Britain for hunting in the royal forests
Dyrehavsbakken, commonly referred to as Bakken, is an amusement park near Klampenborg, but which belongs under Lyngby-Taarbæk Kommune, about 10 km north of Copenhagen. It opened in 1583 and is the worlds oldest operating amusement park, with 2. 5-2.7 million visitors per year, it is the second most popular attraction in Denmark, after the more widely known Tivoli Gardens amusement park. Residents of Copenhagen were attracted to the due to the poor water quality in central Copenhagen during this period. Many believed the natural spring water to have properties, and therefore Piils discovery drew large crowds. These large crowds attracted entertainers and hawkers, whose presence began the origins of amusement parks as are presently known, for a period the area that the spring was located on was not open to the public due to it being on royal hunting grounds. In 1669, King Frederick III decided to set up a park in the area and his son, Christian V. The area was named Jægersborg Dyrehave, its present name, in 1671, the park was off-limits to the general public under Christian V and this did not change until 1756, under Frederick V.
Open to the public once again, Dyrehavsbakken began to flourish. Bakken continued to grow throughout the Napoleonic Wars. Its popularity was aided by easier accessibility due to the development of steamships and railroads, as well as good publicity from poets. As the popularity of Bakken grew, its conditions worsened, as a result, some of the business owners, or tent owners as they are still called today, created the Dyrehavsbakken Tent Owners’ Association of 1885. The association improved garbage collection, restroom facilities, water supply, the association is still around today, and all businesses operating in the park are required to join. The entertainment options improved over time, cabarets such as Sansouci, which opened in 1866, and Bakkens Hvile, which opened in 1877, became increasingly popular. The 20th century brought other popular ventures, such as the Circus Revue, over time, more modern rides and entertainment options have been introduced. Bakken may have started as a place to get clean spring water, Bakken is home to six roller coasters, the most famous of which is Rutschebanen, a wooden roller coaster open since 1932.
Rutschebanen has been deemed an American Coaster Enthusiasts Coaster Classic, the park is home to dozens of other flat, or amusement, rides suited for all ages. Each of the rides requires a number of coupons. Bumper Cars - bumper cars Crazy Theater - indoor laser shoot-out, 5D Cimema - shows 4 different movies, each about 10 –12 minutes long
Frederiksdal is a country house on the Furesø Lake north of Copenhagen, Denmark. Frederiksdal takes its name after King Frederick III who in 1668 acquired the land which had been the site of a mill, Hjortholm Mill. The king had plans to build a large maison de plaisance in the grounds but died in 1780, on 30 December 1743, Schulin was granted the property from the king as a New Year present. He charged royal architect Niels Eigtved with the design of a summer risidence which was completed in 1747, Schulin was created Count in 1750 but died that same year. His wife Catarine Marie Schlin carried out alterations on the house in 1752 and 1753 with the assistance of the architect Johann Gottfried Rosenberg, the property has remained in the Schulin family to the present day. Frederiksdal is credited with being the earliest example of a maison de plaisance in Denmark and it stands in white-dressed masonry with sandstone decorations above the windows and two corner risalits on the main facade. The house originally had a roof while the mansard roof is the result of alterations carried out by Johann Gottfried Rosenberg between 1752 and 1753.
The interior features a combination of large and small rooms arranged around the main axis vestibule. There are rich Rococo-style stucco decorations, particularly in the Garden Hall, executed by Carlo Enrico Brenno, the property is currently owned by the seventh generation of the Schulin family. The main building plays host to a series of classical concerts. The estate covers 328 hectares of land of which circa 200 hectares are forest
The chestnut group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name refers to the edible nuts they produce, Chestnuts belong to the family Fagaceae, which includes oaks and beeches. Unrelated but externally similar species of horse chestnut are abundant around Europe, other trees commonly mistaken for chestnut trees are the chestnut oak and the American beech, both of which are in Fagaceae. The name chestnut is derived from an earlier English term chesten nut, the name Castanea is probably derived from the old name for the sweet chestnut, either in Latin or in Ancient Greek. Another possible source of the name is the town of Kastania in Thessaly, more probable, in the Mediterranean climate zone, chestnut trees are rarer in Greece because the chalky soil is not conducive to the trees growth. Kastania is located on one of the relatively few sedimentary or siliceous outcrops and they grow so abundantly there, their presence would have determined the places name.
Still others take the name as coming from the Greek name of Sardis glans – Sardis being the capital of Lydia, Asia Minor, the name is cited twice in the King James Version of the Bible. In one instance, Jacob puts peeled twigs in the troughs to promote healthy offspring of his livestock. Although it may indicate another tree, it indicates the fruit was a staple food in the early 17th century. These synonyms are or have been in use, Fagus castanea, Sardian nut, Jupiters nut, husked nut, Chestnut trees are of moderate growth rate to fast-growing for American and European species. Their mature heights vary from the smallest species of chinkapins, often shrubby, to the giant of past American forests, C. dentata that could reach 60 m. Between these extremes are found the Japanese chestnut at 10 m average, followed by the Chinese chestnut at about 15 m, when standing on their own, they spread on the sides and develop broad, dense crowns at maturity. The two latters foliage has striking yellow autumn colouring and its bark is smooth when young, of a vinous maroon or red-brown colour for the American chestnut, grey for the European chestnut.
The leaves are simple, ovate or lanceolate, 10–30 cm long and 4–10 cm wide, with sharply pointed, the flowers follow the leaves, appearing in late spring or early summer or into July. They are arranged in long catkins of two kinds, with both kinds being borne on every tree, some catkins are made of only male flowers, which mature first. Each flower has eight stamens, or 10 to 12 for C. mollissima, the ripe pollen carries a heavy, sweet odour that some people find too sweet or unpleasant. Other catkins have these pollen-bearing flowers, but carry near the twig from which these spring, two or three flowers together form a four-lobed prickly calybium, which ultimately grows completely together to make the brown hull, or husk, covering the fruits. Chestnut flowers are not self-compatible, so two trees are required for pollination, all Castanea species readily hybridize with each other
Hermitage Hunting Lodge
The Hermitage Hunting Lodge is located in Dyrehaven north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The hunting lodge was built by architect Lauritz de Thurah in Baroque style from 1734 to 1736 for Christian VI of Denmark in order to host royal banquets during hunts in Dyrehaven. Never intended for residence, the Hermitage Hunting Lodge was built as a setting for hosting royal banquets during hunts in Dyrehaven, the apparatus was removed in the late 18th century as it was causing endless mechanical problems, and no signs of it remain. The previous castle on the site, the Hubertus chalet, had an apparatus and was nicknamed Heremitagen for the same reason. The area surrounding the building was fenced as Jægersborg Dyrehave on the initiative of Frederick III and this style of hunting involved having hounds run the prey tired and hold it down until a hunter would step off his horse and make the kill at little effort. The first hunting lodge on the site, the Hubertus chalet, was built by Hans van Steenwinckel III for Christian V and it was built during 1734 to 1736 during the reign of Christian VI at a total cost of about 18,000 rigsdaler. A planned renovation in 1786 was cancelled, as the estimated cost of 3,000 rigsdaler was considered too expensive, in 1790 the decision to tear the building down was made, but the decision was not very popular.
In 1794, the project succeeded, and Rantzau began a renovation of the building at a cost of 4,000 rigsdaler and it did not take long for Rantzau to find its location inconvenient and remote. He decided to sell and by 1797 the hunting lodge was once again royal property, in 1798, the architect Johan Boye Junge Magens initiated yet another round of repairs, and in the process many of the exterior sculptures and decorations were removed. Magens was, as fashion dictated, eager to rid the building of the decorations that made it typical of its time, in the early 19th century, after the Treaty of Kiel, Frederick VI changed the use of Dyrehaven, the area was mainly used for military exercises. The lodge was still in use, but mainly for lunches for the king, when Christian VIII became king in 1839, the hunts resumed. Additionally, the Hermitage became the centre of large, public gatherings, on 5 June 1849, king Frederik VII signed the fresh Danish constitution at the Hermitage at 11.15, ending absolute monarchy in Denmark.
Five years later, on 5 June 1854 it was the center of the first, during the 1890s, architect Ferdinand Meldahl supervised a thorough renovation taking great care to restore its original exterior decorations. The interior decorations, which had painted over, were cleaned up. Today the castle is run by the Agency for Palaces & Cultural Properties, in June 2013, it was re-opened by Queen Margrethe after an extensive refurbishment
The red deer is one of the largest deer species. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, parts of western Asia and it inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to areas, including Australia, New Zealand, United States, Peru, Chile. In many parts of the world, the meat from red deer is used as a food source, Red deer are ruminants, characterized by a four-chambered stomach. Genetic evidence indicates the red deer as traditionally defined is a group, rather than a single species. It is probable that the ancestor of all red deer, including wapiti, originated in central Asia, although at one time red deer were rare in parts of Europe, they were never close to extinction. The red deer is the fourth-largest deer species behind moose, elk and it is a ruminant, eating its food in two stages and having an even number of toes on each hoof, like camels and cattle.
European red deer have a long tail compared to their Asian. The deer of Central and Western Europe vary greatly in size, large red deer stags, like the Caspian red deer or those of the Carpathian Mountains, may rival the wapiti in size. Female red deer are smaller than their male counterparts. The male red deer is typically 175 to 250 cm long and weighs 160 to 240 kg, the tail adds another 12 to 19 cm and shoulder height is about 95 to 130 cm. In Scotland, stags average 201 cm in length and 122 cm high at the shoulder. Size varies in different subspecies with the largest, the huge but small-antlered deer of the Carpathian Mountains, weighing up to 500 kg. At the other end of the scale, the Corsican red deer weighs about 80 to 100 kg, European red deer tend to be reddish-brown in their summer coats. The males of many subspecies grow a short neck mane during the autumn, the male deer of the British Isles and Norway tend to have the thickest and most noticeable manes. Male Caspian red deer and Spanish red deer do not carry neck manes, male deer of all subspecies, tend to have stronger and thicker neck muscles than female deer, which may give them an appearance of having neck manes.
Red deer hinds do not have neck manes, the European red deer is adapted to a woodland environment. Only the stags have antlers, which growing in the spring and are shed each year
Par force hunting landscape in North Zealand
The Par force hunting landscape in North Zealand is a collection of hunting grounds and forests north of Copenhagen, inscribed on the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites on 4 July 2015. The landscape comprises three areas, Store Dyrehave, Gribskov and Jægersborg Dyrehave/Jægersborg Hegn. The landscape was submitted for admission on 1 August 2010, the three forests are all located in the North Zealand peninsula to the north of Copenhagen. Jægersborg Dyrehave with the fenced Jægersborg Hegn is closest to the capital on the peninsulas east coast, the square-shaped Store Dyrehave is located further to the north in the centre of the peninsula while Gribskov, further north still, is adjacent to Esrum Sø. In connection with the Danish Reformation, in 1536 King Frederick II confiscated the estates belonging to the Catholic Church, from 1560, the various estates were merged in order to establish an extensive royal hunting park across the North Zealand peninsula. It was however King Christian V who from 1670 put his army to work on creating a par force deer park around Ibstrup Castle, in his youth, the king had experienced par force hunting in Frances forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
He now imported hounds and huntsmen from England, renaming the castle Jægersborg, one of the most important aspects of the par force hunt was that it provided a basis for demonstrating the absolute power of the monarch by developing connecting roads across the landscape. The entire North Zealand peninsula area was patterned with a Cartesian-based road system consisting of stars surrounded by distinct squares, stone posts indicated whether roads led towards or away from the centre of the star. The mathematical approach reinforded the kings image as a representative of reason in line with Baroque ideals, the Danish orthogonal geometry of the road systems was an improvement on the star-shaped grids used in France and Germany as it provided equal access to all parts of the forest. The Jægersborg hunting park contained no star-shaped road networks but was based on the presence of a royal hunting lodge. In 1736, it was rebuilt in Baroque style as Ermitageslottet or the Hermitage Hunting Lodge, the museum is expected to be the site manager and principal coordinator of information and news about the Par Force heritage site.
Danish Museum of Hunting and Forestry Kongernes Nordsjælland UNESCO, The par force hunting landscape in North Zealand, admission, UNESCO, The Parforce Hunting landscape in North Zealand and arguments. Source about the dogs source Source * Historic images