The krona is the official currency of Sweden. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use. In English, the currency is sometimes referred to as the Swedish crown, as krona means crown in Swedish; the Swedish krona was the ninth-most traded currency in the world by value in April 2016. One krona is subdivided into 100 öre. However, all öre coins have been discontinued as of 30 September 2010. Goods can still be priced in öre, but all sums are rounded to the nearest krona when paying with cash; the word öre is derived from the Roman gold coin aureus, which in itself comes from the Latin word aurum, meaning gold. The introduction of the krona, which replaced at par the riksdaler, was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which came into effect in 1876 and lasted until the beginning of World War I; the parties to the union were the Scandinavian countries, where the name was krona in Sweden and krone in Denmark and Norway, which in English means "crown". The three currencies were on the gold standard, with the krona/krone defined as 1⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold.
After dissolution of the monetary union in August 1914, Sweden and Norway all decided to keep the names of their respective and now separate currencies. On 11 September 2012, the Riksbank announced a new series of coins with new sizes to replace the 1- and 5-krona coins which arrived in October 2016; the design of the coins follows the theme of singer-songwriter Ted Gärdestad's song, "Sol, vind och vatten", with the designs depicting the elements on the reverse side of the coins. This included the reintroduction of the 2-krona coin, while the current 10-krona coin remained the same; the new coins have a new portrait of the king in their design. One of the reasons for a new series of coins is to end the use of nickel, it is expected that vending machines and parking meters will to a high degree stop accepting coins and accept only bank cards or mobile phone payments. Cash is less used in Sweden, with many young people avoiding cash as much as possible. Between 1873 and 1876, coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 öre and 1, 2, 10, 20 kronor were introduced.
The 1, 2 and 5 öre were in bronze, the 10-, 25-, 50-öre and 1-krona and 2-krona were in silver, the 10- and 20-krona were in gold. Gold 5-krona coins were added in 1881. In 1873 the Scandinavian Monetary Union currency was fixed so that 2,480 kronor purchased 1 kg of gold. In 2017 the price of gold is 365,289 kronor per kg. So one öre in 1873 bought as much gold as 1.47 krona in 2017. So if it is reasonable to have the smallest denomination coin 1 krona today, in 1873 a reasonable smallest denomination coin was 1 öre. A 10 kr gold coin weighed 4.4803 grams with 900 finess so that the fine weight was 4.03327 grams or 1/248th of a kilogram. In 1902, production of gold coins ceased, was restarted in 1920 and 1925 before ceasing entirely. Due to metal shortages during World War I, iron replaced bronze between 1917 and 1919. Nickel-bronze replaced silver in the 10, 25 and 50 öre in 1920, with silver returning in 1927. Metal shortages due to World War II again led to changes in the Swedish coinage. Between 1940 and 1947, the nickel-bronze 10, 25 and 50 öre were again issued.
In 1942, iron again replaced the silver content of the other coins was reduced. In 1962, cupronickel replaced silver in the 25-öre and 50-öre coins. In 1968, the 2 kronor switched to cupronickel and the 1-krona switched to cupronickel-clad copper. Nonetheless, all previous mintages of 1- and 2-krona coins are still legal tender, since 1875 and 1876 though 2-krona coins are rarely seen in circulation as they have not been issued since 1971; the 2-krona coins contained 40% silver until 1966, which meant they had been for several years worth much more than two kronor, so most have been bought and melted down by arbitrageurs, the rest are kept by collectors). A new design of 2-krona coins will be issued in 2016. In 1954, 1955 and 1971, five-krona silver coins were produced, with designs similar to contemporary 1- and 2-krona coins. In 1972, a new, smaller 5-krona coin was struck in cupronickel-clad nickel; the current design has been produced since 1976. Five-krona coins minted since 1954 are legal tender but tend to be kept by collectors for their silver content.
In 1971, the 1- and 2-öre, as well as the 2-krona coins ceased production. The size of the 5-öre coin was reduced in 1972. In 1984, production of the five- and 25-öre coins came to an end, followed by that of the 10-öre in 1991. In 1991, aluminium-brass 10-krona coins were introduced. Previous 10-krona coins are not legal tender. In 1991, bronze-coloured 50-öre coins were introduced. Jubilee and commemorative coins have been minted and those since 1897 or are legal tender; the royal motto of the monarch is inscribed on many of the coins. The 5-krona coin was designed in 1974, at a time when there were political efforts to abandon the monarchy, when there was a new young inexperienced king; the monarchy remained. Coins minted before 1974 have the same size, but contain the portrait of King Gustav VI Adolf and his royal motto. On 18 December 2008, the Riksbank announced a proposal to phase out the 50-öre, the final öre c
Småland is a historical province in southern Sweden. Småland borders Blekinge, Halland, Västergötland, Östergötland and the island Öland in the Baltic Sea; the name Småland means Small Lands. The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other languages; the highest point in Småland is at 377 metres. The traditional provinces of Sweden no longer serve any governmental purpose, but they do remain important and culturally; the province of Småland today is divided entirely into the three administrative counties of Jönköping and Kronoberg. Some few small portions of historic Småland are situated in Östergötland Counties; the current coat of arms, granted in 1569, displays a rampant red lion carrying a crossbow, all on a golden background. The arms may be surmounted by a ducal coronet; the blazon in English would be, "Or, a lion rampant gules and armed azure, holding in its front paws a crossbow of the second and stringed Sable with a bolt argent." The population of Småland was 754,535 as of 31 December 2016, distributed over five counties as follows: The land is dominated by a forested high plain in which the soil is mixed with sand and small boulders, making it barren in all but the coastal areas and unsuited for agriculture except in certain locations, most notably the Kalmar plains.
The province is rich in bogs. The coast is marked by cultivated flatlands in the south. In total, cultivated land covers 14%, meadows cover 7%, forests cover 50% of the surface of the province. Other than lacking deep valleys, the landscape is similar to the Norrland terrain found further north in Sweden; the largest towns are Jönköping in the north-west, Växjö in the south, Kalmar on the east coast near Öland Island. Småland comprises the central and southern parts of the South Swedish highlands. In detail, the topography of Småland is a series of flat surfaces built upon or deformed by a geological dome; the elevated terrain thought to be a buckle formed as result of far-away forces transmitted to Sweden. The main surfaces are the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, the South Småland peneplain and the "200 m peneplain"; these surfaces and others are arranged in a stepped sequence called a piedmonttreppen. In eastern Småland, the Sub-Cambrian peneplain dips to the sea. To the West, this part of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain terminates along a North-South escarpment that separates it from other flat surfaces.
Central and northwestern Småland contains strings of isolated hills. The lakes and rivers of Småland are associated to zones of weak rock, either fractured, weathered, or both; the many lakes in Småland owe their existence to the creation of basins through the stripping of an irregular mantle of weathered rock by glacial erosion. The Lagan and the Nissan drain western Småland, following for most of their courses zones of weak rock associated with the Protogine Zone. Rusken, Möckeln lakes are aligned with a more eastern branch of the Protogine Zone. Canyons cut into the bedrock are common in central and northern Småland, with the area near Mörlunda containing various narrow canyons; the climate of Småland is divided between the oceanic climate of coastal areas such as Kalmar and the humid continental climate of the interior higher areas such as Jönköping. Southern interior areas such as Växjö have similar oceanic climates such as the coastline. However, temperature average differences between areas are small, since Småland lies in the continental/oceanic transition zone.
Summer daytime averages are similar throughout the province, since according to Weatherbase all three major urban areas are on average around 21 °C with daytime winter temperatures hovering around the freezing point. The colder nights averaging −5 °C in Jönköping are rendering its continental classification; the locality of Målilla has the Swedish and Scandinavian all-time highest-measured temperature with 38 °C on June 1, 1947. The area was populated in the Stone Age from the south, by people moving along the coast up to Kalmar. Småland was populated by Stone Age peoples by at least 6000 BC, since the Alby People are known to have crossed the ice bridge across the Kalmar Strait at that time, it is named Småland because it was an aggrupation of a dozen little territories: Kinda, Vista, Tjust, Aspeland, Handbörd, Möre, Värend and Njudung. Each "small land" had its own law in the Viking age and early Middle Ages and could declare itself neutral in wars that Sweden was involved in -- at least if the King had no army present at the parliamentary debate.
Around 1350, during the reign of Magnus Eriksson, the first national law code was introduced in Sweden and the historic provinces lost much of their old autonomy. The city of Kalmar is one of the oldest cities of Sweden. In the medieval period it was the southernmost and the third largest city in Sweden, when it was a center for export of iron, which, in many cases, was handled by German merchants. At that time and Blekinge were not part of Sweden. Småland was the center of several peasant rebellions; the most nearly successful was the Dackefejden led by Nils Dacke in 1542 and 1543. When officials of king Gustav Vasa were assaulted and murdered, the king sent small expeditions to pacify the area. Dacke was the virtual ruler of large parts of Småland during that Winter, though much troubled by a blockade of supplies, before being defeated by larger forces attacking
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono
Gnosjö Municipality is a municipality in Jönköping County, southern Sweden where the town Gnosjö is seat. The Swedish local government reform of 1952 formed this municipality out if five former entities, it has not been amalgamated with others since then. About half of the municipal population live in Gnosjö town, the rest is spread between smaller localities, rural areas. Gnosjö is referred to as the centre of the Gnosjö region, an area of enterprising small industries, driven by the distinctive "Gnosjö Spirit". Despite its small size of some 1,100 people at the time, it had been the subject of a book describing its customs and locals in 1906; the landscape is dominated by forests. The rural areas offer good possibilities for wildlife, fishing, etc; the Store Mosse is a national park consisting of the largest boggy ground south of Lapland. Near Hillerstorp is a small but nationally renowned amusement park called High Chaparral offering Wild West experiences. There is, in Gnosjö town, a small museum of the local industrial history, in this case a mechanical workshop.
There are seven urban areas in Gnosjö Municipality. In the table the localities are listed according to the size of the population as of December 31, 2005; the municipal seat is in bold characters. Statistics Sweden Gnosjö Municipality - Official site
Jönköping is a city in southern Sweden with 93,797 inhabitants. Jönköping is situated at the southern end of Sweden's second largest lake, Vättern, in the province of Småland; the city is the seat of Jönköping Municipality, which has a population of 134,785 and is Småland's most populous municipality. Jönköping is the seat of Jönköping County which has a population of 341,235. Jönköping is the seat of a district court and a court of appeal as well as the Swedish National Courts Administration, it is the seat of the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Jönköping is an old trading centre situated at a natural crossroads for routes following the rivers Nissan and Lagan, the road connecting the provinces of Östergötland and Västergötland, a result of the town's geographical position at the southern end of lake Vättern, which divides the two provinces. On 18 May 1284 Jönköping became the first City in Sweden to be granted its rights by king Magnus Ladulås, who ruled from Vättern's largest island Visingsö.
The first part of the city's name, "Jön", is derived from a creek, "Junebäcken", in Talavid, in what is now the western part of the city. The second part of the name "köping", is, as mentioned above, an old word for a trading centre or market place; the geographical position of the city left it vulnerable to attack via the river routes that led south from Danes. At that time the provinces of what is today southern Sweden — Scania and Blekinge — belonged to Denmark; the city was plundered and burned several times until it was fortified during the 16th and 17th centuries. Jönköping was known for its matchstick industry between 1845–1970. Today it is an important Nordic logistical center, with many companies' central warehouses situated there; the urban area of Jönköping today includes the eastern industrial town of Huskvarna, with which it has grown together. Elmia, a major trade fair and exhibition centre, is situated in Jönköping. Elmia Wood is the world’s largest forestry fair, those for subcontractors, trucks and railways are the biggest of their kind in Europe.
Since 2001, Elmia has been the site of the world's largest LAN party, DreamHack, with two events every year, Dreamhack Summer and Dreamhack Winter. John Bauer, painter Amy Diamond, singer Agnetha Fältskog, singer/songwriter and member of ABBA Carl Henrik Fredriksson, editor-in-chief and co-founder of Eurozine Anders Gustafsson, Olympian Dag Hammarskjöld, former United Nations Secretary-General I'm from Barcelona, 29-piece indie pop band Mona Johannesson, model Per G. Malm, leader in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints The Mary Onettes, indie rock band The Motorhomes, rock band Fredrik Neij, founder of The Pirate Bay BitTorrent-tracker Nina Persson, vocalist with The Cardigans Göran Kropp, mountaineer Sofia Paldanius, Olympian Johan Björnsson Printz, governor of the Swedish colony of New Sweden Viktor Rydberg, author Vladimir Oravsky, author Aurore Storckenfeldt, educator Swante M. Swenson, founder of the SMS ranches in Texas Carl Peter Thunberg, botanist Stefan Liv, ice hockey goaltender Martin Allwood, translator David F. Sandberg, film director Bäckadalsgymnasiet Erik Dahlbergsgymnasiet Per Brahegymnasiet Sandagymnasiet LBS: High School of Creativity Jönköping University Foundation Södra Vätterbygdens Folkhögskola The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education Jönköping's climate was humid continental bordering on subarctic with long, cold winters and short, warm summers during the 1961–1990 period.
However, the window between subarctic and oceanic is small in this marine-influenced climate type, in recent years the climate has more resembled cold oceanic. However, figures are skewed due to the weather station being located at the airport, at an elevation of 228 metres, whereas the city centre is at 100 metres; this renders up to between half a degree to a full degree milder temperatures in the urban centre. HV71, ice hockey team in Swedish Hockey League of ice hockey. Jönköpings IK, floorball team who has played several season in the men's Swedish Super League. Jönköpings Södra IF, football team in Superettan. Husqvarna FF, football team in Division 1. IK Tord, football team in Division 2 Västra Götaland. Jönköping Bandy IF, bandy team in Allsvenskan. Jönköpings SS, swimming society, with Swedish champions in both swimming and diving. There are three other water disciplines in the club and synchronized swimming. ATP Challenger Tour event, starting in 2016. Jönköping Municipality Swedish National Board of Agriculture International Ice Hockey Federation World Championships Jönköping travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website article Jönköping from Nordisk familjebok
Jönköping Municipality is a municipality in Jönköping County, southern Sweden. The city Jönköping is the municipal seat; the municipality is situated by the southern end of lake Vättern. The area of the present municipality consists of more than twenty original municipal entities, among them three former cities. In 1952 the number of units was reduced to thirteen; the present municipality was created in connection with the nationwide local government reform of 1971. There are 17 urban areas in Jönköping Municipality. In the table the localities are listed according to the size of the population as of December 31, 2015; the municipal seat is in bold characters. International Floorball Federation was founded in the eastern part of Jönköping, in Huskvarna, 1986; the municipality is twinned with: Tianjin, People's Republic of China Svendborg Municipality, Denmark Lääne-Viru County, Estonia Kuopio, Finland Bodø, Norway Municipalities of Sweden Swedish National Board of Agriculture List of Jönköping Governors Statistics Sweden Jönköping Municipality - Official site Coat of arms
Östergötland County is a county or län in southeastern Sweden. It has land borders with the counties of Kalmar to the southeast, Jönköping to the southwest, Örebro to the northwest, Södermanland to the northeast, it has a sea border with Västra Götaland to the west, borders the Baltic Sea to the east. Östergötland County has a population of 456,550 and the capital and biggest city is Linköping. Linköping and neighbouring twin city Norrköping together form one of Sweden's metropolitan areas. Princess Estelle is Duchess of Östergötland. For History and Culture see: Östergötland Östergötland has the same boundaries as the current administrative entity, the Östergötland County; the main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests of the county, to promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case. The County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor.
See List of Östergötland Governors. The County Council of Östergötland or Landstinget i Östergötland. Boxholm Finspång Kinda Linköping Mjölby Motala Norrköping Söderköping Vadstena Valdemarsvik Ydre Åtvidaberg Ödeshög Östergötland County inherited its coat of arms from the province of Östergötland; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Dukes of Östergötland, a title for members of the royal family Östergötland County Administrative Board Östergötland County Council Tourism in Östergötland Regional Association of Östergötland