The Motor Cycle
The Motor Cycle was one of the first British magazines about motorcycles. Launched by Iliffe and Sons Ltd in 1903, its blue cover led to it being called "The Blue'un" to help distinguish it from its rival publication Motor Cycling, using a green background colour, was known as "The Green'un". Many issues carried the strapline "Circulated throughout the World"; the covers used a variety of different background colours after 1962, with a name-change to Motor Cycle. Noted for detailed road tests of contemporary motorcycles and articles on readers' bikes, the magazine had regular features, including "Current Chat" and "Letters to the Editor" where many of the key issues relating to British motorcycling of the day were debated; the contributors signed their pieces with pseudonyms such as Torrens and the famous Ixion. From 1962,'The' was dropped from the title, being simply known as Motor Cycle. Regular features developed such as'On the Four Winds' by Nitor and'Racing Line' by David Dixon in addition to many different trends, with a readers' write-in'Help Club', technical articles and repair sequences, new model analysis, practical road riding, accessories and rallying.
As a magazine-format, space was limited and although road-race and off-road sport reportage was always present, Motor Cycle enjoyed a reputation more as a technically based periodical. 1967 saw a merger with some elements of underperforming rival Motor Cycling which had changed to broadsheet newspaper format in 1962, leaving Motor Cycle as a compact magazine with limited page-space. With the merger came the opportunity to change into newspaper format. Harry Louis, Editor of Motor Cycle, stated in the last magazine format dated 3 August 1967: "You'll get it a day earlier, on Wednesdays; the printing will be by the latest process, web-offset, which gives much brighter reproduction of pictures than has been possible in the past. With about twice as much space as in this issue, the new Motor Cycle brings you all the features you expect plus much more extensive coverage of sport and news." Traditionally, Motor Cycling had a sporting-bias whilst Motor Cycle had more of a technical grounding. Under the new venture Motor Cycle incorporating Motor Cycling, former Motor Cycling Editor Norman Sharpe was installed as the new Editor with Harry Louis enjoying the title of Editor-in-Chief Louis stated in his first-page article of the last magazine-format of Motor Cycle: "Besides bringing two famous, long-established publications together, we are uniting the star writers on both into one team operating from Dorset House.
These enthusiasts who all-rounders but with specialized interests when they punch their typewriters, form the most experienced and liveliest bunch of motor-cycling journalists in our field." Some staff transferred over to the new venture. Successful was Mick Woollett who became Sports Editor progressing to Editor of Motor Cycle, renamed Motor Cycle Weekly. Woollett was involved in The Classic Motor Cycle and other projects under IPC magazines; the two publications continued as one in the newspaper format under the name Motor Cycle Incorporating Motor Cycling under Motor Cycle publishers Iliffe Specialist Publications Ltd. Stalwart'Motor Cycle' staffman David Dixon – a specialist road-race and road-test reporter and successful endurance racer – continued-on with the merged staff from 1967 bút left by 1971 to establish a road-race school – Dixon Robb Racing – in conjunction with successful 1950s and 1960s racer Tommy Robb. By 1973 Dixon had established his own retail concern – Dixon Racing – with a shop at High Street, Godalming.
Specialising in importing to the UK tuning products for the expanding Japanese superbike range, he established a long-standing arrangement with Yoshimura, with products concentrated on the Honda CB350, CB500 and CB750 machines. By the end of the same decade, Dixon Racing became the UK concessionaires for the early Bimota frame kits –'KB1' for Kawasaki 1000,'SB1' for Suzuki 1000 and'HB2' for Honda 900 donor engines. Dixon died in 2013. Motor Cycle Weekly continued as newspaper-format until 1983. After less than a year as a'glossy' it was closed; some former staff established Motor Cycling Weekly, in a newspaper format, during late November 1983. Echoing the change in 1967 when Motor Cycle ceased as a Thursday publication to match rival Motorcycle News on Wednesdays, Motor Cycling Weekly was pitched to reach the newsstands on Tuesday, having the strapline "First with the news...and first every week!". Issues were sold in the UK during late 1983 and 1984 before abandonment of the project
Opel is a German automobile manufacturer, a subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017. From 1929 until 2017, Opel was owned by American automaker General Motors. Opel vehicles are sold in the United Kingdom under the Vauxhall brand; some Opel vehicles are badge-engineered in Australasia under the Holden brand, in North America and China under the Buick brand. Opel traces its roots to a sewing machine manufacturer founded by Adam Opel in 1862 in Rüsselsheim am Main; the company began manufacturing bicycles in 1886 and produced its first automobile in 1899. After listing on the stock market in 1929, General Motors took a majority stake in Opel and full control in 1931, establishing the American reign over the German automaker for nearly 90 years. In March 2017, Groupe PSA agreed to acquire Opel from General Motors for €2.2 billion, making the French automaker the second biggest in Europe, after Volkswagen. Opel is headquartered in Rüsselsheim am Main, Germany; the company designs, engineers and distributes Opel-branded passenger vehicles, light commercial vehicles, vehicle parts and together with its British sister brand Vauxhall they are present in over 50 countries around the world.
The company was founded in Rüsselsheim, Germany, on 21 January 1862, by Adam Opel. In the beginning, Opel produced sewing machines. In 1888, production was relocated from a cowshed to a more spacious building in Rüsselsheim. Opel launched a new product in 1886: he began to sell high-wheel bicycles known as penny-farthings. Opel's two sons participated in high-wheel bicycle races, thus promoting this means of transportation; the production of high-wheel bicycles soon exceeded the production of sewing machines. At the time of Opel's death in 1895, he was the leader in both markets; the first cars were produced in 1899 after Opel's wife Sophie and their two eldest sons entered into a partnership with Friedrich Lutzmann, a locksmith at the court in Dessau in Saxony-Anhalt, working on automobile designs for some time. These cars were not successful and the partnership was dissolved after two years, following which Opel signed a licensing agreement in 1901 with the French Automobiles Darracq France to manufacture vehicles under the brand name Opel Darracq.
These cars consisted of Opel bodies mounted on Darracq chassis, powered by two-cylinder engines. The company first showed cars of its own design at the 1902 Hamburg Motor Show, started manufacturing them in 1906, with Opel Darracq production being discontinued in 1907. In 1909, the Opel 4/8 PS model, known as the Doktorwagen was produced, its reliability and robustness were appreciated by physicians, who drove long distances to see their patients back when hard-surfaced roads were still rare. The Doktorwagen sold about half as much as the luxury models of its day. In 1911, the company's factory was destroyed by fire and a new one was built with more up-to-date machinery. In the early 1920s, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to incorporate a mass-production assembly line in the building of their automobiles. In 1924, they used their assembly line to produce a new open two-seater called the Laubfrosch; the Laubfrosch was finished in green lacquer. The car sold for an expensive 4,500 marks, but by the 1930s, this type of vehicle would cost a mere 1,990 marks – due in part to the assembly line, but due to the skyrocketing demand for cars.
Adam Opel led the way for motorised transportation to become not just a means for the rich, but a reliable way for people of all classes to travel. Opel had a 37.5% market share in Germany and was the country's largest automobile exporter in 1928. The "Regent" – Opel's first eight-cylinder car – was offered; the RAK 1 and RAK 2 rocket-propelled cars made sensational record-breaking runs. In March 1929, General Motors, impressed by Opel's modern production facilities, bought 80% of the company, increasing this to 100% in 1931; the Opel family gained $33.3 million from the transaction. Subsequently, during 1935, a second factory was built at Brandenburg for the production of "Blitz" light trucks. In 1935, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to produce over 100,000 vehicles a year; this was based on the popular Opel "P4" model. The selling price was a mere 1,650 marks and the car had a 23 hp 1.1 L four-cylinder engine and a top speed of 85 km/h. Opel produced the first mass-production vehicle in Germany with a self-supporting all-steel body following the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant.
This was one of the most important innovations in automotive history. They called the car, launched in 1935, the Olympia. With its small weight and aerodynamics came an improvement in both performance and fuel consumption. Opel received a patent on this technology; the 1930s was a decade of growth, by 1937, with 130,267 cars produced, Opel's Rüsselsheim plant was Europe's top car plant in terms of output, while ranking seventh worldwide.1939 saw the presentation of the successful Kapitän. With a 2.5 L six-cylinder engine, all-steel body, front independent suspension, hydraulic shock absorbers, hot-water heating, central speedometer. 25,374 Kapitäns left the factory before the intensification of World War II brought automotive manufacturing to a temporary stop in the Autumn of 1940, by order of the government. World War II brought to Rüsselsheim the only year in the history of Opel – 1945 – in which it produced fewer vehicles since that first Lutzmann-authored Opel was made in 1899. Before the conflict broke out, the Adam Opel AG had established itself as the largest motor vehicle manufa
Nykøbing Falster is a southern Danish city, seat of the Guldborgsund kommune. It belongs to Region Sjælland; the city lies on Falster, connected by the 295-meter-long Frederick IX Bridge over the Guldborgsund waterway to the island of Lolland. The town has a population of 16,503. Including the satellite town Sundby on the Lolland side, with a population of 2,797, the total population is 19,300. Nykøbing Falster is the largest city on the islands of Lolland and Falster, is called "Nykøbing F." to distinguish it from at least two other cities in Denmark with the name of Nykøbing. Nykøbing Falster is the seat of state and regional authorities. In addition to those two namesakes, a city in Sweden is called Nyköping, which means the same in the related language. There is a 0.5 kilometer long commercial district, walking street on the Falster side of the city with a wide selection of shops. At the end of the street is a large plaza where special events are arranged; these include popular late-night events.
It has a large central library in the center of town. The town receives many visitors during the summer from Sydfalster. Nykøbing Falster was founded around a 12th-century medieval castle. At the end of the 12th century, fortifications were set up on a peninsula on Guldborgsund for protection against the Wends, these were converted into Nykøbing Castle; the town of Nykøbing Falster grew up around these fortifications. After the Reformation, the castle was the residence of widowed Danish queens; as several queens of German descent resided here, many Germans came to the town. Situated on a headland, the castle was protected from all sides. In its early days, the castle belonged to the royal house. Medieval documents issued in this region reveal that the royal court visited the castle; this is the castle where Christian V was married. Christian, Prince Elect of Denmark resided here; the castle was chartered in 1539. REF The castle and the entire crown land on Falster were put up for sale in 1763 to help improve the poor state of government finances.
The castle was sold for demolition, only the modest ruin of one of the towers, Fars Hat is in existence today. From 1970 to 2006, Nykøbing was the administrative seat of the former county of Storstrøm as well as the Nykøbing Falster municipality. On the 1st of January 2007, the former Nykøbing Falster municipality merged with Nysted, Nørre Alslev, Sakskøbing, Stubbekøbing, Sydfalster municipalities to form Guldborgsund municipality; this municipal reform, created a municipality with an area of 907 square kilometres and a total population of 63,533 and will belong to the new Region Sjælland. The former Nykøbing Falster municipality covered an area of 134 square kilometres with a total population of 25,483; the city has a few noteworthy buildings, including a wooden house from 1580 and Czarens Hus, named in memory of Tsar Peter the Great of Russia, who stayed there in 1716. The most noteworthy attraction is the city's old water tower, Nykøbing Vandtårn, built in 1909 and remains an icon of the city and the surrounding areas.
Today, the water tower houses a small cultural center holding cultural events. Other attractions include: the City Museum the Middle Ages Center, located in Sundby Ejegod Windmill with its toy museum The abbey church founded in 1419. Guldborgsund Zoo; the fire fighting museum Nykøbing Falster has a railway station operated by Danish State Railways. It is the terminus for regular local passenger-train services from Copenhagen via Ringsted. International trains operating between Copenhagen and Hamburg call at the station; the Lollandsbanen operates a rail service to Nakskov. Nykøbing Falster is twinned with: Lublin, Poland Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow Queen of Denmark and Norway by marriage to Frederick II of Denmark, she was the mother of King Christian IV of Denmark. Anne Palles was an alleged Danish witch, hired by Ingeborg Olufsdatter in Nykøbing Falster to drug and murder her abusive and violent husband Jørgen Wichfeld a Danish landowner and deputy district judge Edward Tesdorpf a German-Danish landowner, agricultural pioneer and from 1884 a sugar manufacturer Ludvig Grundtvig a Danish photographer and portrait painter Christian Blangstrup a Danish encyclopedist Peter Freuchen, a Danish Arctic explorer, author and anthropologist Gert Petersen a journalist and politician who helped found the Socialist People's Party Claus Meyer a culinary entrepreneur, food activist, cookbook author, professor and TV host Henrik Danielsen a Danish-Icelandic chess grandmaster and Icelandic Chess Champion in 2009.
Martin Geertsen Venstre party politician Pilgrimz a rock band formed in 1998 in Nykøbing Falster Carl Andersen a Danish gymnast at the 1908 Summer Olympics and an architect. Aage Kirkegaard a Danish field hockey player who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics Børge Hougaard a Danish rower who competed at the 1948 Summer Olympics Jørgen Nielsen a Danish former football goalkeeper, 340 club caps Michael Hansen a Danish former professional football player, over 460 club caps Claus Jensen a former
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg. It directly borders the German capital, is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, it is situated on the River Havel 24 kilometres southwest of Berlin's city centre. Potsdam was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser until 1918, its planning embodied ideas of the Age of Enlightenment: through a careful balance of architecture and landscape, Potsdam was intended as "a picturesque, pastoral dream" which would remind its residents of their relationship with nature and reason. Around the city there are a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks, in particular the parks and palaces of Sanssouci, the largest World Heritage Site in Germany; the Potsdam Conference in 1945 was held at the palace Cecilienhof. Babelsberg, in the south-eastern part of Potsdam, was a major film production studio before the 1930s and has enjoyed success as a major center of European film production since the fall of the Berlin Wall.
The Filmstudio Babelsberg is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world. Potsdam developed into a centre of science in Germany in the 19th century. Today, there are three public colleges, the University of Potsdam, more than 30 research institutes in the city; the area was formed from a series of large moraines left after the last glacial period. Today, the city is three-quarters green space, with just a quarter as urban area. There are about 20 lakes and rivers in and around Potsdam, such as the Havel, the Griebnitzsee, Templiner See, Tiefer See, Teltowkanal, Heiliger See and the Sacrower See; the highest point is the 114-metre high Kleiner Ravensberg. Potsdam is divided into seven historic city Bezirke and nine new Stadtteile, which joined the city in 2003; the appearance of the city quarters is quite different. Those in the north and in the centre consist of historical buildings, the south of the city is dominated by larger areas of newer buildings; the city of Potsdam is divided into 34 Stadtteile, which are divided further into 84 statistical Bezirke.
Today one distinguishes between the older parts of the city - these are the city center, the western and northern suburbs, Bornstedt, Potsdam South, Drewitz and Kirchsteigfeld - and those communities incorporated after 1990 which have since 2003 become Stadtteile - these are Eiche, Golm, Groß Glienicke, Marquardt, Neu Fahrland and Uetz-Paaren. The new Stadtteile are located in the north of the city. For the history of all incorporations, see the relevant section on incorporation and spin-offs. Structure with statistical numbering: Officially the climate is oceanic - more degraded by being far from the coast and to the east, but using the 1961-1990 normal and the 0 °C isotherm the city has a humid continental climate, which shows a slight influence of the continent different from the climates predominantly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Low averages below freezing for all winter causing snows that are frequent and winters are cold, but not as stringent as inland locations or with greater influence from the same.
Summer is relatively warm with temperatures between 23 to 24 ° C, the heat waves being influenced by the UHI of Potsdam. The average winter high temperature is 3.5 °C, with a low of −1.7 °C. Snow is common in the winter. Spring and autumn are short. Summers are mild, with a high of 23.6 °C and a low of 12.7 °C. The name "Potsdam" seems to have been Poztupimi. A common theory is that it derives from an old West Slavonic term meaning "beneath the oaks", i.e. the corrupted pod dubmi/dubimi. However some question this explanation; the area around Potsdam shows signs of occupancy since the Bronze Age and was part of Magna Germania as described by Tacitus. After the great migrations of the Germanic peoples, Slavs moved in and Potsdam was founded after the 7th century as a settlement of the Hevelli tribe centred on a castle, it was first mentioned in a document in 993 as Poztupimi, when Emperor Otto III gifted the territory to the Quedlinburg Abbey led by his aunt Matilda. By 1317, it was mentioned as a small town.
It gained its town charter in 1345. In 1573, it was still a small market town of 2,000 inhabitants. Potsdam lost nearly half of its population due to the Thirty Years' War. A continuous Hohenzollern possession since 1415, Potsdam became prominent, when it was chosen in 1660 as the hunting residence of Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg, the core of the powerful state that became the Kingdom of Prussia, it housed Prussian barracks. After the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Potsdam became a centre of European immigration, its religious freedom attracted people from France, the Netherlands and Bohemia. The edict accelerated economic recovery; the city became a full residence of the Prussian royal family. The buildings of the royal residences were built during the reign of Frederick the Great. One of these is the Sanssouci Palace, famed for Rococo interiors. Other royal residences include the Orangery. In 1815, at the formation of the Province of Brandenburg, Potsdam became the provincial capital until 1918, except for a period between 1827 and 1843 when Berlin was the provincial capital.
The province comprised two governorates named after their capitals Potsdam and Frankfurt (O
Zwickau is a town in Saxony and the capital of the Zwickau district. It is situated in a valley at the foot of the Erzgebirge mountains, it is part of Central Germany and geographically linked to the urban areas of Leipzig-Halle and Chemnitz, the town has 100,000 inhabitants. From 1834 until 1952 Zwickau was the seat of the government of the south-western region of Saxony. Zwickau is the centre of the Saxon automotive industry, with a tradition over one hundred years old, including car makers Horch, Auto Union and Volkswagen; the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau trains automotive engineers. The valley of the 166-kilometre long Zwickauer Mulde river stretches from the Vogtland to Colditz Castle at the other end; the Silver Road, Saxony's longest tourist route, connects Dresden with Zwickau. Zwickau can be reached by car via the nearby Autobahns A4 and A72, the main railway station, via a public airfield which takes light aircraft and by bike along river Zwickauer Mulde on the so called Mulderadweg.
The region around Zwickau was settled by Slavs as early as the 7th century AD. The name Zwickau is a Germanization of the Sorbian toponym Šwikawa, which derives from Svarozič, the Slavic Sun and fire god. In the 10th century, German settlers began arriving and the native Slavs were Christianized. A trading place known as terretorio Zcwickaw was mentioned in 1118; the settlement received a town charter in 1212, hosted Franciscans and Cistercians during the 13th century. Zwickau was a free imperial city from 1290–1323, but was subsequently granted to the Margraviate of Meissen. Although regional mining began in 1316, extensive mining increased with the discovery of silver in the Schneeberg in 1470; because of the silver ore deposits in the Erzgebirge, Zwickau developed in the 15th and 16th centuries and grew to be an important economic and cultural centre of Saxony. Its nine churches include the Gothic church of St. Mary, with a spire 285 ft. high and a bell weighing 51 tons. The church contains an altar with wood carvings, eight paintings by Michael Wohlgemuth and a pietà in carved and painted wood by Peter Breuer.
The late Gothic church of St. Catharine has an altar piece ascribed to Lucas Cranach the elder, is remembered because Thomas Müntzer was once pastor there; the town hall was rebuilt many times since. The municipal archives include documents dating back to the 13th century. Early printed books from the Middle Ages, historical documents and books are kept in the Town Archives, in the School Library founded by scholars and by the town clerk Stephan Roth during the Reformation.in In 1520 Martin Luther dedicated his treatise "On the Freedom of the Christian Man" to his friend Hermann Muehlpfort, the Lord Mayor of Zwickau. The Anabaptist movement of 1525 began at Zwickau under the inspiration of the "Zwickau prophets". After Wittenberg, it became the first city in Europe to join the Lutheran Reformation; the late Gothic was built in 1522 -- 24 and is now converted into a theatre. The city was damaged during the Thirty Years' War; the old city of Zwickau, perched on a hill, is surrounded by heights with extensive forests and a municipal park.
Near the town are the Hartenstein area, for example, with Stein and Wolfsbrunn castles and the Prinzenhöhle cav, as well as the Auersberg peak and the winter sports areas around Johanngeorgenstadt and the Vogtland. In the Old Town the Cathedral and the Gewandhaus originate in the 16th century and when Schneeberg silver was traded. In the 19th century the city's economy was driven by industrial coal mining and by automobile manufacturing. On 17 April 1945, US troops entered the city, they handed Zwickau to the Soviet Red Army. Between 1944 and 2003, the city had a population of over 100,000. A major employer is Volkswagen which assembles its Golf and Phaeton models in the Zwickau-Mosel vehicle plant. Coal mining is mentioned as early as 1348. However, mining on an industrial scale first started in the early 19th century; the coal mines of Zwickau and the neighbouring Oelsnitz-Lugau coalfield contributed to the industrialisation of the region and the town. In 1885 Carl Wolf invented an improved gas-detecting safety mining-lamp.
He held the first world patent for it. Together with his business partner Friemann he founded the "Wolf" factory. Coal mining ceased in 1978. About 230 million tonnes had been mined to a depth of over 1,000 metres. In 1992 Zwickau's last coke oven plant was closed. Many industrial branches developed in the town in the wake of the coal mining industry: mining equipment and steel works, machinery in addition to chemical, paper, dyestuffs, wire goods, tinware and curtains. There were steam saw-mills and glass polishing works, iron-foundries, breweries. In 1904 the Horch automobile plant was founded, followed by the Audi factory in 1909. In 1932 both brands retained their independent trademarks; the Auto Union racing cars, developed by Ferdinand Porsche and Robert Eberan von Eberhorst, driven by Bernd Rosemeyer, Hans Stuck, Tazio Nuvolari, Ernst von Delius, became well known all over the world. During World War II, the Nazi government operated a satellite camp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp in Zwickau, sited near the Horch Auto Union plant.
The Nazi administration built a hard labour prison camp at Osterstein Castle
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo