Agano ware is a type of Japanese pottery traditionally made in Fukuchi, Tagawa District, Fukuoka. The beginnings of its production was supported by Hosokawa Sansai, otherwise known as the daimyō Hosokawa Tadaoki, it was associated with the tea ceremony. Agano Kawara ware is a type of Agano ware traditionally made in Fukuoka Prefecture. Takeshi, Nagatake. Japanese ceramics from the Tanakamaru collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Media related to Agano ware at Wikimedia Commons http://www.aganoyaki.or.jp/
Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery, fired below 1200°C. Porcelain, bone china and stoneware, all fired at high enough temperatures to vitrify, are the main other important types of pottery. Earthenware comprises "most building bricks, nearly all European pottery up to the seventeenth century, most of the wares of Egypt and the near East. Pit fired earthenware dates back to as early as 29,000–25,000 BC, for millennia, only earthenware pottery was made, with stoneware developing some 5,000 years ago, but apparently disappearing for a few thousand years. Outside East Asia, porcelain was manufactured only from the 18th century AD, initially as an expensive luxury. After it is fired, earthenware is opaque and non-vitreous and capable of being scratched with a knife; the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities describes it as being made of selected clays sometimes mixed with feldspars and varying amounts of other minerals, white or light-colored. Earthenware bodies exhibit higher plasticity than most whiteware bodies and hence are easier to shape by RAM press, roller-head or potter's wheel than bone china or porcelain.
Due to its porosity, with a water absorption of 5-8%, must be glazed to be watertight. Earthenware has lower mechanical strength than bone china, porcelain or stoneware, articles are made in thicker cross-section, although they are still more chipped. Darker-colored terracotta earthenware orange or red due to a comparatively high content of iron oxide, are used for flower pots and some decorative and oven ware. A general body formulation for contemporary earthenware is 25% kaolin, 25% ball clay, 35% quartz and 15% feldspar. Modern earthenware may be biscuit fired to temperatures between 1,000 to 1,150 °C and glost-fired to between 950 to 1,050 °C, the usual practice in factories and some studio potteries; some studio potters follow the reverse practice, with a low-temperature biscuit firing and a high-temperature glost firing. The firing schedule will be determined by the raw materials used and the desired characteristics of the finished ware; such high temperatures were unattainable in most cultures and periods until modern times, though Chinese ceramics were far ahead of other cultures in this respect.
Earthenware can be produced at firing temperatures as low as 600 °C and many clays will not fire above about 1,000 °C. Much historical pottery was fired somewhere around 800 °C, giving a wide margin of error where there was no precise way of measuring temperature, variable conditions within the kiln. After firing, most earthenware bodies will be colored buff or red. For red earthenware, the firing temperature affects the color of the clay body. Lower temperatures produce a typical red terracotta color. Higher firing temperatures may cause earthenware to bloat. Despite the most valued types of pottery switching to stoneware and porcelain as these were developed by a particular culture, there are many artistically important types of earthenware. All Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman pottery is earthenware, as is the Hispano-Moresque ware of the late Middle Ages, which developed into tin-glazed pottery or faience traditions in several parts of Europe notably the painted maiolica of the Italian Renaissance, Dutch Delftware.
With a white glaze, these were able to imitate porcelains both from East Europe. The most complicated earthenware made was the rare Saint-Porchaire ware of the mid-16th century made for the French court. In the 18th century in English Staffordshire pottery, technical improvements enabled fine wares such as Wedgwood's creamware, that competed with porcelain with considerable success, as his huge creamware Frog Service for Catherine the Great showed; the invention of transfer printing processes made decorated wares cheap enough for far wider sections of the population in Europe. In China, sancai glazed wares were lead-glazed earthenware, as elsewhere, terracotta remained important for sculpture; the Etruscans had made large sculptures such as statues in it, where the Romans used it for figurines and Campana reliefs. Chinese painted or Tang dynasty tomb figures were earthenware, as were sculptures such as the near life-size Yixian glazed pottery luohans. After the ceramic figurine was revived in European porcelain, earthenware figures followed, such as the popular English Staffordshire figures.
There are other several types of earthenware, including: Terracotta: a term used for a rather random group of types of objects, rather than being defined by technique Redware Victorian majolica Lusterware with special iridescent glazes Raku Ironstone china, on the border of earthenware and stoneware Yellowware Rado, P. An Introduction to the Technology Of Pottery. 2nd edition. Pergamon Press, 1988. Ryan W. and Radford, C. Whitewares: Production, Testing And Quality Control. Pergamon Press, 1987. Hamer and Janet; the Potter's Dictionary of Techniques. A & C Black Publishers Limited, England, Third Edition, 1991. ISBN 0-8122-3112-0. "Petersons": Peterson, Peterson, The Craft and Art of Clay: A Complete Potter's Handbook, 2003, Laurence King Publishing, ISBN 1856693546, 9781856693547, google books Digital Version of "A Representation
Nagasaki Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Nagasaki. Nagasaki Prefecture was created by merging of the western half of the former province of Hizen with the island provinces of Tsushima and Iki. Facing China and Korea, the region around Hirado was a traditional center for pirates. During the 16th century, Catholic missionaries and traders from Portugal arrived and became active in Hirado and Nagasaki, which became a major center for foreign trade. After being given free rein in Oda Nobunaga's period, the missionaries were forced out little by little, until in the Tokugawa era, Christianity was banned under the Sakoku national isolation policy: Japanese foreign trade was restricted to Chinese and Dutch traders based at Dejima in Nagasaki. However, Kirishitan worship continued underground; these Kakure Kirishitan were tried at every step, forced to step on fumi-e to prove that they were non-Christian. With the banishment of all Catholic missionaries, traders from Catholic countries were forced out of the country.
Along with them, their children, half Japanese and half European, were forced to leave. The majority was sent to Jagatara and are still remembered by the locals as the people who wrote the poignant letters which were smuggled across the sea to their homeland. Today, Nagasaki has prominent Catholic churches, the Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region, have been included on the UNESCO World Heritage List. During the Meiji Restoration and Sasebo became major ports for foreign trade, major military bases and shipbuilding centers for the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries up to World War II. On August 9, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, which destroyed all buildings in a 1.6 kilometres radius from the point of impact and extensively damaged other parts of the city. 39,000 people were killed, including 27,778 Japanese munitions workers, 2,000 Korean forced workers, 150 Japanese soldiers. About 68-80% of the industrial production was destroyed to the point it would not recover for months or at least a year.
Nagasaki Prefecture contains many areas prone to heavy landslide damage. In July 1957 in the Isahaya area, damage from heavy rains and landslides lead to a death toll of 586, with 136 people missing and 3,860 injured. In July 1982, typhoon damage in the Nagasaki area lead to 299 fatalities, according to a report by the Japanese government. Nagasaki borders Saga Prefecture on the east, is otherwise surrounded by water, including Ariake Bay, the Tsushima Straits, the East China Sea, it includes a large number of islands such as Tsushima and Iki. Most of the prefecture is near the coast and there are a number of ports such as Nagasaki and a United States Navy base at Sasebo; as of 1 April 2014, 18% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Saikai and Unzen-Amakusa National Parks. Thirteen cities are located in Nagasaki Prefecture: These are the towns and villages of each district: The following municipalities have been dissolved since the year 2000. Kitamatsuura District: Emukae, Ikitsuki, Kosaza, Ōshima, Shikamachi, Takashima, Yoshii Minamimatsuura District: Arikawa, Kamigotō, Miiraku, Naru, Shin'uonome, Tomie, Wakamatsu Nishisonogi District: Iōjima, Kinkai, Kōyagi, Nomozaki, Ōseto, Ōshima, Sakito, Seihi, Takashima, Tarami Kitatakaki District: Iimori, Moriyama, Takaki Minamitakaki District: Aino, Arie, Chidiwa, Futsu, Kitaarima, Kunimi, Minamikushiyama, Nishiarie, Obama Kamiagata District: Kamiagata, Mine Shimoagata District: Izuhara, Toyotama Iki District: Ashibe, Ishida, Katsumoto Nagasaki is the most Christianized area in Japan with Roman Catholic missions having been established there as early as the 16th century.
Shusaku Endo's novel Silence draws from the oral history of the local Christian communities, both Kakure Kirishitan and Hanare Kirishitan. As of 2002, there are 68,617 Catholics in Nagasaki Prefecture, accounting for 4.52 percent of the population of the prefecture. The Nagasaki Saints of the Shikoku-Kyūshū Island League make Nagasaki Prefecture their home. Nagasaki Ōura Church Urakami Cathedral Confucius Shrine, Nagasaki Glover Garden Nagasaki Shinchi Chinatown Mount Inasa Kōfuku-ji Sōfuku-ji Suwa Shrine Hirado Hirado Castle Sakikata Park Sasebo Kujū-ku Islands Huis Ten Bosch Tenkaihō Saikai Nagasaki Bio Park Shimabara Peninsula Mount Unzen Shimabara Castle JR Kyushu Nagasaki Main Line Sasebo Line Omura Line Shimabara Railway Matsuura Railway Nishi-Kyūshū Line Nagasaki Electric Tramway Nagasaki Expressway West Kyushu Expressway Nagasaki Dejima Road Kawahira Toll Road Kunimi Toll Road Kawahira Toll Road Route 34 Route 35 Route 57 Route 202 Route 204 Route 205 Route 206 Route 207 Route 251 Route 324 Route 382 Route 383 Route 384 Route 389 Route 444 Route 498 Route 499 Nagasaki Port Sasebo Port Matsuura Port Hirado Port Shimabara Port Fukue Port Izuhara Port of Tsushima Gonoura Port of Iki Island Nagasaki Airport Fukue Airport Iki Airport Tsushima Airport The current governor of Nagasaki is former vice-governor Hōdō Nakamura.
First elected in 2010 to succeed Genjirō Kaneko, he was reelected for a second term in 2014. The prefectura
Odai Yamamoto I site
The Odai Yamamoto I site is a Jōmon-period archaeological site in Sotogahama, Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Excavations in 1998 uncovered forty-six earthenware fragments which have been dated as early as 14,500 BC; as the earliest in Japan, this marks the transition from the Japanese Paleolithic to Incipient Jōmon. Other pottery of a similar date has been found at Khummy on the lower Amur River; such a date puts the development of pottery before the warming at the end of the Pleistocene. 148 m2 was excavated in 1998. Finds included axes, arrowheads, scapers and anvils of local shale but some of obsidian; the arrowheads are of special significance as they push back the beginnings of the history of archery. The site forms part of a serial nomination submitted in 2009 for future inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List, under criteria iii and iv: Jōmon Archaeological Sites in Hokkaidō, Northern Tōhoku, other regions. Thirty of the forty-six fragments of pottery, all from the same vessel, had carbonized residues, suggesting its use for the cooking of foodstuffs.
Eight AMS radiocarbon dates were generated from five of the fragments and three pieces of associated charred wood. With calibration, this dating was pushed back to 14,500 to 14,000, as early as around 16,500 BP. Other datings have given a range between 13780 ± 170 and 12680 ± 140 BC; this makes the site important to the understanding of the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene. In recognition of their importance, the excavated artefacts have been designated a Municipal Cultural Property. Jōmon Archaeological Sites in Hokkaidō, Northern Tōhoku, other regions List of Historic Sites of Japan Thermoluminescence dating
Kutani ware is a style of Japanese porcelain traditionally supposed to be from Kutani, now a part of Kaga, Ishikawa, in the former Kaga Province. It is divided into two phases: Ko-Kutani, from the 17th and early 18th centuries, Saikō-Kutani from the revived production in the 19th century; the more prestigious Ko-Kutani wares are recognised by scholars to be a complex and much mis-represented group often not from Kutani at all. Kutani ware in the Ko-Kutani period, is marked by vivid dark colors that epitomize lavish aesthetics, it is theorized that the long and grey winters of the Hokuriku region led to a desire among people living there for ceramic ware to show strong and bold colours. The classical five colours style is known as gosai-de which includes green, yellow and red; the designs are bold and depict landscapes, the beauty of nature, people, cover most of the surface of each piece. In recognition of the modern understanding that much, if not most, of the Ko-Kutani production was around Arita, the wares are now sometimes grouped with Imari ware, or the wider groupings of Arita ware or Hizen ware.
The term kutani means "Nine Valleys". The first mention was in 1655 during the Meireki era. According to tradition, clays suitable for porcelain making were found in the Kutani mines of the Daishōji clan, a cadet branch of the Maida clan who ruled Daishōji Domain. Gotō Saijirō, a member of the Maeda clan, was sent by orders of Maeda Toshiharu, daimyō of Kaga Domain to Arita in Hizen Province to learn how to make porcelain, he set up a kiln in the village of Kutani. The daimyō of Kaga Domain became great patrons of Kutani. Porcelains from this early period are called old Kutani and are rare. Ko-Kutani enjoyed popularity for the next few decades after 1655; the styles of the old Kutani were Aote, which used colours of deep green, dark blue and purple, Iroe, which used colours of red, purple, dark blue, yellow. Arita however produced a number of vessels in the ko-Kutani style, as well as Kakiemon porcelain. Production closed down in 1730; the reasons for this closure are debated. Theories put forward include that supplies of the pigments necessary for the glazing were difficult to find, or that there were financial difficulties.
A memorial stone stele to Gotō was erected near an old Kutani ware kiln in Kaga. In 1804, or 1807, production was re-established with the help of several kamamoto, or production potters. New overglaze painting techniques from various kamamoto were infused in the development of what became known as revived Kutani. In the 19th century the style shifted to a more red design called aka-e, which features intricate designs; the gold technique is called kinran-de, the combination became aka-e kinran-de Kutani. One of the first important exhibitions abroad was in 1873 at the Vienna World Exposition, where kinran-de was exhibited; this contributed to the growth of exports to Europe. The style of producing Kutani was named a traditional craft in 1975. There are now several hundred companies. Many artists today are located in Komatsu and Terai. Well-known artists are Tatsuya Mitsui, Buzan Fukushima, Takayama Kazuo and Akaji Ken who work in the traditional style, Tojiro Kitade and Fujio Kitade who work in the modern movement.
Tokuda Yasokichi III was designated a Living National Treasure for his enamel work in ao-de ko-Kutani. Yoshida Minori is a third generation master who specialises in the yūri-kinsai technique and was designated a Living National Treasure. Asakura Isokichi II was renowned and received the Order of Culture in 1996. Apart from traditional vessels such chawan, Kutani artists have branched out in recent times to produce items such as a sneaker made out of porcelain with lively colours and accessories such as USB flash drives. Six different over-glazing techniques dominate the revised form of Kutani: Mokubei style, influenced by Chinese ink painting techniques Yoshidaya style, marked by the colours of green, yellow and dark blue as the basis Eiraku style, in contrast to the Yoshidaya style, with its simplistic coatings of gold on the first coat of red colour Iidaya style, or the Hachirode, which breaks away from the conventional nature-themed Kutani style, with minute paintings of human figures on a red-gold aka-e kinran-de mix background Shoza style, a blend of all four techniques of overglazingIn a normal production process the artisan receives a plain white ceramic piece.
The artisan will paint a komon fine pattern, shown on kimono. The outlines are painted with zaffre; the vessel is fired in the kiln, which turns the zaffre dark. It takes around seven hours to finish; the surface is covered again in regular intervals. For the patterns and decoration, for example, the five colours called gosai-de made out of vitreous enamel are painted on the vessel with thick strokes, making the whole piece more three-dimensional in the end; the ratio used in each glaze determines the specific tones of the colours. The vessel is fired again in the kiln at 800 Celsius; the chemical reaction due to the heat turns the pigment into the translucent colours desired by the artisan. The paint changes into a transparent glass and the fine komon design gives it depth. Nowadays electric kilns are preferred. A unique feature of Kutani ware is the application of fine calligraphy called saiji, miniature in size; the founder of this
Haji pottery is a type of plain, reddish-brown Japanese pottery or earthenware, produced during the Kofun and Heian periods of Japanese history. It was used for both ritual and utilitarian purposes, many examples have been found in Japanese tombs, where they form part of the basis of dating archaeological sites. Haji ware evolved in the 4th century AD from the Yayoi pottery of the preceding period; the ornate decorations of Yayoi pottery were replaced by a plain, undecorated style, the shapes began to become standardized. Great amounts of this pottery were produced by dedicated craft workshops in what became the provinces of Yamato and Kawachi, spread from there throughout western Japan reaching the eastern provinces; some Haji ware pottery has been found in the enormous tombs of the Japanese emperors. By the end of the 5th century, Haji pottery was imitating Sue ware forms. During this time, the Haniwa clay figurines were produced. In the Nara period, Haji ware was burnished and smoke-blackened by being fired in an oxygen-reduction atmosphere but at low temperatures.
This sub-style is known as kokushoku-doki. Haji ware came to an end with the development of ceramics in the late Heian period. During a 2007 underwater archaeology survey on Ojikajima by the Asian Research Institute of Underwater Archaeology, examples of Chinese ceramics and Haji ware were recovered. Haji ware is a rust-red pottery, made of clay, built up in rings or coils, rather than being thrown on a potters wheel; the exterior and the interior surfaces were finished by scraping smooth with a piece of wood. It was fired at temperatures below 1000 deg C in surface fires or oxidizing fires rather than kilns. Most of Haji ware has wide rims; however and funerary objects were made in the form of houses, animals, hunters and warriors, which were placed inside tombs On occasion, these objects were placed outside the tomb to guard it. One pot, found at an archaeological site in Hachiōji, Tokyo has a globular body, averted mouth, rounded base, solid triangular handle, painted in dark grey pigment on one side with a human face painted on the front.
Wilson, Richard L. Inside Japanese Ceramics: Primer of Materials and Traditions. Weatherhill, ISBN 0-8348-0442-5. Honolulu Academy of Arts. Yakimono:4000 years of Japanese Ceramics. Honolulu Academy of Arts, ISBN 0-937426-67-9. Media related to Haji pottery at Wikimedia Commons
Pottery is the process of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware and porcelain; the place where such wares are made by a potter is called a pottery. The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials, is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical and refractory products." In archaeology of ancient and prehistoric periods, "pottery" means vessels only, figures etc. of the same material are called "terracottas". Clay as a part of the materials used is required by some definitions of pottery, but this is dubious. Pottery is one of the oldest human inventions, originating before the Neolithic period, with ceramic objects like the Gravettian culture Venus of Dolní Věstonice figurine discovered in the Czech Republic dating back to 29,000–25,000 BC, pottery vessels that were discovered in Jiangxi, which date back to 18,000 BC.
Early Neolithic pottery artefacts have been found in places such as Jōmon Japan, the Russian Far East, Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Pottery is made by forming a ceramic body into objects of a desired shape and heating them to high temperatures in a kiln and induces reactions that lead to permanent changes including increasing the strength and solidity of the object's shape. Much pottery is purely utilitarian, but much can be regarded as ceramic art. A clay body can be decorated after firing. Clay-based pottery can divided in three main groups: earthenware and porcelain; these require more specific clay material, higher firing temperatures. All three are made for different purposes. All may be decorated by various techniques. In many examples the group a piece belongs to is visually apparent, but this is not always the case; the fritware of the Islamic world does not use clay, so technically falls outside these groups. Historic pottery of all these types is grouped as either "fine" wares expensive and well-made, following the aesthetic taste of the culture concerned, or alternatively "coarse", "popular" "folk" or "village" wares undecorated, or so, less well-made.
All the earliest forms of pottery were made from clays that were fired at low temperatures in pit-fires or in open bonfires. They were hand undecorated. Earthenware can be fired as low as 600°C, is fired below 1200°C; because unglazed biscuit earthenware is porous, it has limited utility for the storage of liquids, eating off. However, earthenware has a continuous history from the Neolithic period to today, it can be made from a wide variety of clays, some of which fire to a buff, brown or black colour, with iron in the constituent minerals resulting in a reddish-brown. Reddish coloured varieties are called terracotta when unglazed or used for sculpture; the development of ceramic glaze which makes it impermeable makes it a popular and practical form of pottery. The addition of decoration has evolved throughout its history. Stoneware is pottery, fired in a kiln at a high temperature, from about 1,100°C to 1,200°C, is stronger and non-porous to liquids; the Chinese, who developed stoneware early on, classify this together with porcelain as high-fired wares.
In contrast, stoneware could only be produced in Europe from the late Middle Ages, as European kilns were less efficient, the right sorts of clay less common. It remained a speciality of Germany until the Renaissance. Stoneware is tough and practical, much of it has always been utilitarian, for the kitchen or storage rather than the table, but "fine" stoneware has been important in China and the West, continues to be made. Many utilitarian types have come to be appreciated as art. Porcelain is made by heating materials including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C; this is higher than used for the other types, achieving these temperatures was a long struggle, as well as realizing what materials were needed. The toughness and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Although porcelain was first made in China, the Chinese traditionally do not recognise it as a distinct category, grouping it with stoneware as "high-fired" ware, opposed to "low-fired" earthenware.
This confuses the issue of. A degree of translucency and whiteness was achieved by the Tang Dynasty, considerable quantities were being exported; the modern level of whiteness was not reached until much in the 14th century. Porcelain was made in Korea and in Japan from the end of the 16th century, after suitable kaolin was located in those countries, it was not made outside East Asia until the 18th century. Before being shaped, clay must be prepared. Kneading helps to ensure an moisture content throughout the body. Air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed; this is called de-airing and can be accomplished either by a machine called a vacuum pug or manually by wedging. Wedging can help produce an moisture content. Once a clay body has been kneaded and de-aired or wedged, it is shaped by a variety of techniques. After it has been shaped, it is dried and fired. Greenware refers to unfired objects. At sufficient moisture content, bodies at this stage are in their most plastic form (as they are soft and mal