General James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog or J. B. M. Hertzog, was a South African politician and soldier, he was a Boer general during the second Anglo-Boer War who became Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. Throughout his life he encouraged the development of Afrikaner culture, determined to protect the Afrikaners from Britain's influences, he is the only South African Prime Minister to have served under three British Monarchs. Hertzog first studied law at Victoria College in Cape Colony. In 1889 he went to the Netherlands to read law at the University of Amsterdam, where he prepared a dissertation on the strength of which he received his doctorate in law on 12 November 1892. Hertzog had a law practice in Pretoria from 1892 until 1895, when he was appointed to the Orange Free State High Court. During the Boer War of 1899–1902 he rose to the rank of general, becoming the assistant chief commandant of the military forces of the Orange Free State.
Despite some military reverses, he gained renown as a daring and resourceful leader of the guerilla forces continuing to fight the British. Convinced of the futility of further bloodshed, he signed the May 1902 Treaty of Vereeniging. With South Africa now at peace, Hertzog entered politics as the chief organiser of the Orangia Unie Party. In 1907, the Orange River Colony gained self-government and Hertzog joined the cabinet as Attorney-General and Director of Education, his insistence that Dutch as well as English be taught in the schools met bitter opposition. He was appointed national Minister of Justice in the newly formed Union of South Africa, he continued in office until 1912. His antagonism to imperialism and Premier Botha led to a ministerial crisis. In 1913 he led a secession of the Old Boer and anti-imperialist section from the South African Party. At the outbreak of the South African rebellion in 1914, Hertzog remained neutral. In the years following the war, he headed the opposition to the government of General Smuts.
In the general election of 1924, his National Party defeated the South African Party of Jan Smuts and formed a coalition government with the South African Labour Party, which became known as the Pact Government. In 1934, the National Party and the South African Party merged to form the United Party, with Hertzog as Prime Minister and leader of the new party; as prime minister, Hertzog presided over the passage of a wide range of social and economic measures which did much to improve conditions for working-class whites. According to one historian, “The government of 1924, which combined Hertzog’s NP with the Labour Party, oversaw the foundations of an Afrikaner welfare state.”A Department of Labour was established while the Wages Act laid down minimum wages for unskilled workers, although it excluded farm labourers, domestic servants, public servants. It established a Wage Board that regulated pay for certain kinds of work, regardless of racial background; the Old Age Pensions Act provided retirement benefits for white workers.
Coloureds received the pension, but the maximum for Coloureds was only 70% that of whites. The establishment of the South African Iron and Steel Industrial Corp in 1930 helped to stimulate economic progress, while the withdrawal of duties on imported raw materials for industrial use encouraged industrial development and created further employment opportunities, but at the cost of a higher cost of living. Various forms of assistance to agriculture were introduced. Dairy farmers, for instance, were aided by a levy imposed on all butter sales, while an increase in import taxes protected farmers from international competition. Farmers benefited from preferential railway tariffs and from the widening availability of loans from the Land Bank; the government assisted farmers by guaranteeing prices for farm produce, while work colonies were established for those in need of social salvage. Secondary industries were established to improve employment opportunities, which did much to reduce white poverty and enabled many whites to join the ranks of both semi-skilled and skilled labour.
An extension of worker's compensation was carried out, while improvements were made in the standards specified under a contemporary Factory Act, thus bringing the Act into line with international standards with regard to the length of the working week and the employment of child labour. A law on miners' phthisis was overhauled, increased protection of white urban tenants against eviction was introduced at a time when houses were in short supply; the civil service was opened up to Afrikaners through the promotion of bilingualism, while a widening of the suffrage was carried out, with the enfranchisement of white women. The pact instituted ‘penny postage’, automatic telephone exchanges, a cash-on-delivery postal service, an experimental airmail service, made permanent; the Department of Social Welfare was established in 1937 as a separate governmental department to deal with social conditions. Increased expenditure was made on education for both whites and coloureds. Spending on coloured education rose by 60%, which led to the number of coloured children in school grow by 30%.
Grants for the blind and the disabled were introduced in 1936 and 1937 while unemployment benefits were introduced in 1937. That same year, the coverage of maintenance grants was extended. Although the social and economic policies pursued by Hertzog and his ministers did much to improve social and economic conditions for whites, they did not benefit the majority of South Africans, who found themselves the targets of discriminatory la
Camp Point is a village in Adams County, United States. The population was 1,132 at the 2010 census, it is part of the IL -- MO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Camp Point is located at 40°2′30″N 91°3′54″W. According to the 2010 census, Camp Point has a total area of all land. Camp Point was founded in 1835 by Peter Garrett and was called Garrett's Mills. A school house was built here in 1836. A family named the Farlow started to build the town more; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,244 people, 469 households, 314 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,312.1 people per square mile. There were 514 housing units at an average density of 542.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.20% White, 0.08% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.48% of the population. There were 469 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families.
29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.09. In the village, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 20.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $31,094, the median income for a family was $43,646. Males had a median income of $28,000 versus $21,466 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,211. About 9.5% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.9% of those under age 18 and 17.3% of those age 65 or over. F. D. Thomas House Baily Park Allan Nevins and historian. Brother of Allan Nevins. Rick Reuschel, Major league All-Star pitcher, won 214 career games.
Samuel Doyle Riddle was an American businessman and racehorse owner. He was born in Glen Riddle, Pennsylvania, a small town southwest of Philadelphia given the family name by his father. Samuel D. Riddle, a native of Delaware County and operated a woolen mill started by his father, Samuel Riddle, but is best known as a sportsman, his father Samuel Riddle was born in Ireland and arrived in America in 1825. His mother was Lydia Doyle, he had Leander W. Riddle, his sisters were Charlotte Buffington Riddle. Miss Riddle, member number 25516 of the Daughters of the American Revolution, married Mr. Homer Lee, their children were Homer Lee, Jr.. The owner of Glen Riddle Farm, Riddle raced Thoroughbred race horses, his most famous horses were Man o' War and U. S. Triple Crown winner, War Admiral. In partnership with Walter M. Jeffords, Sr. the husband of his Elizabeth Dobson Riddle's niece, Samuel D. Riddle purchased and operated Faraway Farm on Huffman Mill Pike near Lexington Kentucky where they stood Man o' War.
In 1939, Riddle turned down an offer of a unheard of $1 million for Man o' War. Upon his death in January 1951, Mr. Riddle's will stipulated that his estate be used to provide a hospital for the community of Media, the nearest town to Glen Riddle. With the $2.5 million and the 72 acres of land, fronted by Baltimore Pike, provided by Mr. Riddle, a charter for the hospital was granted on November 29, 1956. Riddle Memorial Hospital was built, on 34 acres of land, it was thought appropriate that the balance of the land be used at some future date in some manner related to the health and well-being of the community. The Riddlewood residential housing development in Middletown Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, is named for Mr. Riddle and its streets are named for the horses he owned
Reinoud IV redirects here. It can refer to Reinoud IV, 13th Lord of Brederode. Reinald IV, Duke of Guelders and Jülich aka Reginald IV was the son of William II, Duke of Jülich and Maria of Guelders, daughter of Reinald II, Duke of Guelders. Reinald IV became the second Duke of Guelders and Jülich upon his brother William's death in 1402 without heirs. Reinald, in conjunction with the Wittelsbach Counts of Holland and Zeeland, tried in vain to slow the emergence of Burgundy in the Netherlands area and in 1406 was unable to enforce old claims against Burgundy to Brabant-Limburg, he allied himself with Rupert, King of Germany, supporting his coronation in Aachen and remained connected with the House of Orléans. In 1407, Reinald supported his brother-in-law, John of Arkel, against the Dutch and in 1409 received the city of Gorinchem from John; this started a new feud with Holland which ended in 1412 when Reinald ceded Gorinchem for a large sum of money. He conceded the city of Emmerich as a result of an earlier promise to the Duke of Cleves.
Reinald led the traditional feuds of his House those against the Bishops of Utrecht and against Holland and Friesland. He occupied Arkel. Reinald stood against the House of Cleves in the Niederrhein area and maintained a lot of influence over Guelders. On 5 May 1405, Reinald married daughter of John VI, Count of Harcourt. Reinald was buried at Kloster Monkhuizen; as Reinald died without legitimate issue, the Duchy of Jülich descended to Adolf, Duke of Berg, son of Reinald's cousin William VII of Jülich, 1st Duke of Berg. In 1426, Reinald's widow married Adolf's son Rupert, but he died in 1431 without heirs and the Duchy of Jülich-Berg descended to Adolf's nephew Gerhard; the Duchy of Guelders descended to Reinald's great-nephew, Arnold of Egmond, although the House of Jülich fought unsuccessfully against the House of Egmond for this title. Genealogie-Mittelalter.de Lower Rhine Nobility
San Francesco is a Roman Catholic church located on Via Roma in the town center of Correggio, province of Reggio Emilia, region of Emilia-Romagna, Italy. A Franciscan convent was putatively established in town in 1322. Archeologic studies suggest. Documents do verify work in 1443 on the complex; the church was rebuilt in 1463-1490 under the patronage of Manfredo II of Correggio and his wife Agnese Pio. Over the next century the convent gained more dormitories. Further construction continued over the following centuries, including designs for a refurbishment of the monastery in 1766 by the architect Francesco Cipriano Forti. In 1846, his grandson Francesco Forti, continued work on the convent. In 1926, the church underwent restoration; the earthquake of October 15, 1996 damaged the structure of its bell tower. Extensive restorations have been pursued since. Little movable artwork remains; the interior structure has a central nave separated from lateral aisles by brick columns and pilasters. The vaults are ribbed in Gothic-style.
This church once housed two important works by Antonio Allegri: the Madonna di San Francesco, now in Dresden, was the main altarpiece, the Rest on the Flight to Egypt with St Francis is now at the Uffizi in Florence. Allegri was buried in tombs with his family; the painting of the Madonna was removed by the Duke Francesco I d'Este in 1663
Wojciech Alojzy Świętosławski was a Polish physical chemist, considered the "father of modern thermochemistry". He developed a new method of testing coal. Świętosławski was Vice-Chairman of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and created the foundations for a new branch of physical chemistry: polyazeotropy. In 1933 he became a member of the Temporary Scientific and Advisory Committee Świętosławski was born on June 21, 1881 in the village of Kiryjowka, Podolian Governorate, Russian Empire, he spent his early years in Kiev. In 1906, he graduated with an engineering degree at Chemistry Department of Kiev Technical University, his first research paper, "Thermochemical Analysis of Organic Compounds" was published in 1908, in "Polish Yearly Magazine. In appreciation of his work, Świętosławski was awarded the Mendeleyev Award by Russian Scientific Association. In the 1910s, Świętosławski went to Moscow, where he took a job at Chemical Laboratory of Moscow University. In 1917 he completed his thesis.
In the mid-, late 1910, Świętosławski remained in Moscow, among others, on Aromatic hydrocarbon, Nitric acid, Nitro compound and burning in bomb calorimeters. In 1918 Świętosławski returned to Poland, leaving his laboratory in Moscow and urging other qualified Polish scientists to follow him. In 1919, he was named Professor of Physical Chemistry at Warsaw University of Technology, returned to scientific research, working on enthalpy of vaporization. In 1920, at the Conference of International Chemical Union in Rome, he made a motion to accept benzoic acid as an international standard of marking the bomb calorimeters. In 1922, his motion was accepted, Świętosławski was named head of the Thermochemical Data Commission, which coordinated research on marking the heat of combustion. In the early 1920s, Świętosławski developed a new direction in the calorimetrical research, which he called microcalorimetry, he constructed microcalorimeters, which worked in isometric and adiabatic conditions as well as microcalomieters based on partial heat exchange with the surroundings.
Due to his research, it became possible, among others, to mark the value of radiation of uranium aperture. On, he worked on measuring of Vapor pressure and boiling temperature. Furthermore, he constructed the ebulliometer. In 1928, Świętosławski was named deputy chairman of International Chemical Union. In 1934 he was appointed chairman of Commission of Physical-Chemical Data. At the same time, he held the post of dean of Warsaw University of Technology, he was chairman of Polish Chemical Association, wrote for "Chemical Annual", was a member of Warsaw Scientific Society, Polish Academy of Learning, Academy of Technical Sciences and Temporary Advisory and Scientific Committee. From November 1935 until 1939, Świętosławski was Minister of Religious Denominations and Public Enlightenment in the governments of Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski and Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski. In 1935 - 1939, he was a member of the Polish Senate. After the outbreak of World War Two, Świętosławski left Poland for the United States, where he remained until the end of the war.
He worked at the University of Pittsburgh, was a Senior Fellow at the Carnegie Mellon Institute of Industrial Research. He wrote three monographies of Polish science in the English language, contributing to popularization of Polish scientific achievements in the USA. In 1946 Świętosławski returned to Poland, he re-created Physical Chemistry Department at the Warsaw University returned to work at the Warsaw University of Technology. Upon the creation of Polish Academy of Sciences he became the manager of Department of Physical Chemistry of Organic Raw Materials. Furthermore, he wrote several scientific papers, continued working until 1960. Twice nominated to the Nobel Prize, he received a number of important Polish and international wards and was named doctor honoris causa of eight Polish universities. Wojciech Świętosławski died in Warsaw, on April 29, 1968, was buried at the Powązki Cemetery in Warsaw. In 2013, a monument dedicated to Świętosławski was unveiled at the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute where he used to study.