The Irish people are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 9,000 years according to archaeological studies, for most of Irelands recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland, the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities, including Irish, Northern Irish, British, or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports, although Irish was their main language in the past, today the huge majority of Irish people speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, there have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Irelands conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the fathers of Europe, followed by saints Cillian and Fergal.
The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the father of chemistry, famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker and James Joyce, notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Robert McClure, Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides, many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry. The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are mainly in English-speaking countries, especially the United Kingdom. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand, the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country. Many Icelanders have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears, in its summary of their article Who were the Celts.
The National Museum Wales notes It is possible that genetic studies of ancient. However, early studies have, so far, tended to produce implausible conclusions from very small numbers of people and using outdated assumptions about linguistics, nineteenth century anthropology studied the physical characteristics of Irish people in minute detail. During the past 10,000 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores, the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are almost unknown. Neither their languages nor terms they used to describe themselves have survived, as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves. Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Van Heflin was an American theatre and film actor. He played mostly character parts over the course of his film career and he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Johnny Eager. Heflin was born Emmett Evan Heflin, Jr. in Walters, the son of Fanny Bleecker and Dr. Emmett Evan Heflin and he was of Irish and French ancestry. Heflins sister was Daytime Emmy-nominated actress Frances Heflin, Heflin attended Classen High School in Oklahoma City and the University of Oklahoma, where he received a bachelors degree in 1932 and was a member of Phi Delta Theta fraternity. He earned a degree in theater at Yale University. Heflin began his career on Broadway in the early 1930s before being signed to a contract by RKO Radio Pictures. He made his debut in A Woman Rebels, opposite Katharine Hepburn. MGM began to groom him as a man in B movies. Heflin continued to hone his skills throughout the early 1940s. Heflin served during World War II in the United States Army Air Corps as a cameraman in the Ninth Air Force in Europe.
Heflin performed on stage throughout his acting career, playing a huge variety of roles in both films and on stage, probably his best-known film became the 1953 classic western Shane, in which he co-starred with Alan Ladd. As Joe Starrett, the plain, honest farmer who tries to unite a small community of sodbusters his performance is a bedrock of the film, although it was not recognised among the awards of 1953. The Adventures of Philip Marlowe was a detective drama that aired from June 17,1947, through September 15,1951. He acted on the Lux Radio Theatre, Cavalcade of America and his film Cry of Battle was playing at the Texas Theatre in Dallas on November 22,1963. His name and the title appear on the marquee. It was that theater where Lee Harvey Oswald was apprehended in the aftermath of President Kennedys assassination, Heflin appeared in a short but dramatic role as an eyewitness of Jesus raising of Lazarus from death in the 1965 Bible film, The Greatest Story Ever Told. After seeing the miracle he ran from Bethany to the walls of Jerusalem and he played D. O.
Guerrero, a failure who schemes to blow himself up on an airliner so that his wife can collect on a life insurance policy. After a six-month marriage to actress Eleanor Shaw, he married RKO contract player Frances Neal and they had two daughters, actresses Vana OBrien and Cathleen Heflin, and a son, Tracy
The Hatchet Man
The Hatchet Man is a Pre-Code film directed by William A. Wellman and starring Edward G. Robinson, warner Bros. had purchased the David Belasco/Achmed Abdullah play The Honorable Mr. Wong about the Tong gang wars. Wong Low Get is the most highly respected man of his Tong. Having sworn total allegiance, he turn down an order. His friend forgives him in advance of his execution, begging only that Wong raise his daughter Toya San as his own, Wong does as he has sworn, but as she grows up, he falls in love with her. She marries him out of a sense of obligation, but a handsome younger gangster, Harry En Hai, gets her to leave Wong, disgracing him and leading to a shocking turn of events. Makeup artists had noticed that audiences were likely to reject Western actors in Asian disguise if the faces of actual Asians were in near proximity. Rather than cast the film with all Asian actors, which would have meant no star names to attract American audiences. That said, this contains a number of Asian actors in minor roles.
Leung, Toshia Mori, Willie Fung, Otto Yamaoka and Anna Chang
Dracula vs. Frankenstein
Dracula vs. Frankenstein is a 1971 United States horror film directed by Al Adamson. It was released as Blood of Frankenstein in the UK and was retitled The Revenge of Dracula on early VHS releases, Dracula comes to the scientist, promising to help him revive Frankensteins monster in return for Dureas serum which he hopes will grant him immunity to sunlight. As a cover, the duo out of the Creature Emporium. They bring the Monster back to life and send him out to revenge on the man who discredited Durea. Las Vegas showgirl Judith Fontaine has arrived, looking for her missing sister Joanie who was last seen hanging out with a group of hippies led by Strange, Judith has gotten no satisfaction from Sgt. She says she is going to investigate on her own and does so, attracting the attention of biker Rico and his gang. Rico slips her some LSD at a bar and Judith, while on a trip, is taken by Strange. Judith, Mike and Strange go to the Creature Emporium and show Durea a picture of Joanie, but he says hes never seen her.
Judith and Mike go to the Emporium and confront Durea who explains the girls were frightened before their deaths, Durea sends Groton and the dwarf Grazbo, the ticket taker at the Emporium, after them. Grazbo falls on an ax, killing him and Groton goes after Judith and Strange arrive with the police and they shoot Groton off the roof, while Durea falls into a guillotine in the exhibit and is decapitated. Dracula confronts Mike who sticks a lit car flare in the Monsters face and as he is running away with Judith, Dracula blasts Mike with his ruby ring, disintegrating him. Dracula literally rips off the Monsters arms and head, but gets caught in the rays of the sun before he can make it back to the church, Judith manages to free herself and picks up Draculas ring, but drops it and leaves. Chaney filmed his part in mid-1969 when the film was titled The Blood Seekers, naish filmed additional footage in 1970 when Dracula and the Frankenstein Monster were added to the story. Director Adamsons wife, Regina Carrol, appears in the film as Judith Fontaine, one of the people who discover the two title monsters.
The film was released on DVD by Troma Entertainment and by Media Blasters under its Shriek Show imprint in widescreen, cheezy Flicks released it on DVD as well. Two other films titled Dracula vs. Frankenstein were made around the time as Adamsons film. In 1969, Spanish horror film icon Paul Naschy starred in Los Monstruos del Terror which was released on VHS as Dracula vs. Frankenstein. Meanwhile, in 1972, famed Spanish schlock film director Jesus Franco turned out his Dracula vs. Frankenstein, the film was met with negative reception from critics
Big City Blues (1932 film)
Big City Blues is a 1932 Warner Bros. pre-Code drama film directed by Mervyn LeRoy. The film is based on the play New York Town by Ward Morehouse and stars Joan Blondell and Eric Linden, bud Reeves is an innocent young man who once lived in a small town. After inheriting money, he moves to New York City where he meets his cousin Gibby and he introduces him to chorus girl Vida Fleet, who he falls in love with. Troubles start to come when they decide to throw a party where a woman is killed after accidentally being hit on her head and Vita try to escape from the police and after arresting everybody, the real killer is soon revealed. Bud immediately goes back to his home in Indiana, but wants to go back to New York to marry Vida, carrol Naish as Bootlegger Dick Powell as Radio Announcer Lyle Talbot as Len Lenny Sully Big City Blues at the Internet Movie Database allmovie/synopsis, Big City Blues
The Beast of the City
The Beast of the City is a 1932 American Pre-Code gangster film featuring cops as vigilantes and known for its singularly vicious ending. Written by W. R. Burnett, Ben Hecht, and John Lee Mahin, and directed by Charles Brabin, the film stars Walter Huston, Jean Harlow, Wallace Ford Jean Hersholt, and Tully Marshall. Police Captain Jim Fitzpatrick is a family man and crime fighter not averse to using violence to fight violence. Although hes been demoted for political reasons, public outcry forces the mayor to take aggressive action against sleazy gang boss Sam Belmonte. His younger brother, Police Detective Ed Fitzpatrick, allows himself to be seduced by a languorously sexy Belmonte gang moll, after a crooked lawyer is able to get those guilty off on all charges, the relentlessly determined Chief turns to vigilantism to rid the city of its Beasts. Carrol Naish as Pietro Cholo Cast notes Mickey Rooney, in an uncredited appearance, the original release included a prologue by Hoover, which was edited out and disappeared.
The film was produced under the working title City Sentinels, principal photography took place from 4 November to December 1931 at MGMs studios in Culver City. After the film was completed, Mayer decided that it was not quite right for MGMs image as the home of entertainment, because it was too violent. Mayer ordered that it be exhibited as the feature on double bills. The film was Jean Harlows opportunity to show MGM that she would cooperate with the studio, and she was rewarded with better roles which shortly would lead to stardom
Two Seconds is a 1932 American Pre-Code crime drama film directed by Mervyn LeRoy and starring Edward G. Robinson, Vivienne Osborne and Preston Foster. It was based on a successful Broadway play of the name by Elliott Lester. The title refers to the two seconds it takes the person to die in the electric chair after the executioner throws the switch. Preston Foster reprises the role he played on the Broadway stage, as John Allen, a condemned murderer, is led to the electric chair, a witness asks the prison warden how long it takes for the condemned person to die. A strongly built man like John Allen and he is told, Itll take two seconds. The witness remarks, Thatll be the longest two seconds of his life, as the executioner throws the switch, the events that led up to the execution appear in flashback. Allen works with his friend and flatmate Bud Clark, as a riveter, high up on the girders of a skyscraper under construction, getting paid $62.50 a week, more than a college professor. Bud is engaged to be married, and tries to set up a date for Allen that night and John go out on the town after Bud winning $38 on the horses.
John sees that the girl that Bud has brought along for him to date is another firewagon, so he splits off on his own, going to a Taxi dance hall nearby. After dancing and talking to Shirley for some time, he indicates that they should talk some more, get a handful so we can dance a lot together. In the five minutes Allen is away buying tickets, Shirley has gone off with another customer and that customer gropes her, and Shirley Day causes a scene, shouting at the customer. He paid a dime and he thinks that entitles him to privileges, John Allen Wades in, punching the customer to the floor. Tony, the dance hall owner, tells both to get out, firing Shirley Day. Allen takes Shirley for a milk shake, Allen had earlier said to Tony that he wanted a woman with an education, Aint no use both of us being dumb. She feigns respectability, telling him that she works in the dance hall to support her sick parents, who live on a farm in Idaho. Shirley pretends to be interested in attending a lecture with him, Bud is remonstrating with John about him having hooked up with a dance hall dame.
How much money has she had off you Bud asks, were going to a lecture, John said. Bud, if a dame tells a guy shes going to a lecture that means one thing, John indicates that he doesnt want to fall out with Bud, trying to get him to like Shirley, She knows things
A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge is written by American playwright Arthur Miller, first staged on September 29,1955, as a one-act verse drama with A Memory of Two Mondays at the Coronet Theatre on Broadway. The play was unsuccessful and Miller subsequently revised the play to two acts, this version is the one with which audiences are most familiar today. The two-act version premiered in the New Watergate theatre club in Londons West End under the direction of Peter Brook on October 11,1956, the play is set in 1950s America, in an Italian American neighborhood near the Brooklyn Bridge in New York. It employs a chorus and narrator in the character of Alfieri, the tragic protagonist, has an improper love of, and almost obsession with, his wife Beatrices orphaned niece, so he does not approve of her courtship of Beatrices cousin Rodolfo. Kazan directed On the Waterfront, which dealt with the same subject, Miller said that he heard the basic account that developed into the plot of A View from the Bridge from a lawyer who worked with longshoremen, who related it to him as a true story.
The action is narrated by Alfieri who, being raised in 1900s Italy but now working as an American lawyer, represents the Bridge between the two cultures. But there are exceptions, and he begins to narrate the story of Eddie Carbone. Eddie is a man who, although ostensibly protective and fatherly towards Catherine. We learn that he has not had sex with his wife for three months. Beatrice is more supportive of Catherines ventures and persuades Eddie to let her take the job, Eddie returns home one afternoon with the news that Beatrices two cousins, brothers Marco and Rodolpho, have safely arrived in New York as illegal immigrants. He has agreed to them saying that he is honoured to be able to help family. Marco is quiet and thoughtful, possessing a remarkable strength, whereas Rodolpho is more unconventional, Marco has a family starving in Italy and plans to return after working illegally for several years, whereas Rodolpho intends to stay. Although Eddie and Catherine are at first excellent hosts, cracks appear when Rodolpho, Eddie convinces himself that Rodolpho is homosexual and is only expressing interest in Catherine so he can marry her and gain status as a legal citizen.
He confronts Catherine with his beliefs and she turns to Beatrice for advice, starting to realize Eddies true feelings, tells her that she should marry Rodolpho and move out. In the meantime, Eddie turns to Alfieri, hoping for help from the law, Alfieri tells him that the only recourse he has is to report Rodolpho and Marco as undocumented. Seeing no solution to his problem, Eddie becomes increasingly desperate and takes his anger out on Rodolpho and, in teaching him to box, Marco reacts by quietly threatening Eddie, showing his strength by holding a heavy chair above Eddies head with one hand. Act 2 – A few months have passed and Eddie reaches a point when he discovers that Catherine. Drunk, he kisses Catherine and attempts to prove that Rodolpho is gay by suddenly and passionately kissing him also, after a violent confrontation, Eddie orders Rodolpho to leave the apartment
Tonight or Never (1931 film)
Tonight or Never is a 1931 American Pre-Code comedy film directed by Mervyn LeRoy, starring Gloria Swanson and featuring Boris Karloff. Nella Vargo is a Hungarian prima donna whose latest performances include singing Tosca in Venice, although she is praised by the audience, her music teacher Rudig feels that she can not be the greatest opera singer in history until she performs in New York City. When she is criticized for not putting her soul into the song, she gets mad and she becomes smitten with the man, until Rudig claims that he is a gigolo whose latest client is Marchesa Bianca San Giovanni, a former diva with a notorious past. Later that night, Nella decides to head to Budapest, accompanied by Rudig, her butler Conrad, her maid Emma and her fiancé Count Albert von Gronac, whom she is not in love with. She is shocked when she finds out the man is on board as well. Rudig again suggests that she never be a great singer if she does not experience love. The next day, Rudig announces that Fletcher is in town to sign European artists, that afternoon, she finds out her fiancé is having an affair with one of her enemies.
Furious and upset with her life, she goes to the hotel where she is staying and decides to hire the mysterious man, Jim, in hopes of experience love. She is attracted to him, but is afraid to have her as his admirer, who is actually agent Fletcher, soon finds out that Nella thinks that he is a gigolo. Instead of revealing the truth, he pretends to be one and dominantly forces her to make a decision, Nella decides to spend the night with him, but leaves the next morning before he awakes. That night, she gives a performance of Tosca, which is acclaimed as her best in her entire career. After returning home, she is overcome by joy to find out that she has landed a contract with the Metropolitan Opera, but feels guilty for what she has done the night before. The same day, Jim visits her, returning the necklace she has left to pay for his services and demanding her to choose between him and the contract. When she tears up the contract, he realizes that she is in love him and he reveals himself to be a nephew of the marchesa.
Now, Nella can have the successful New York career she has dreamt of, in the film, Melvyn Douglas, Ferdinand Gottschalk, Robert Greig, Greta Meyer and Warburton Gamble recreated their roles they had played in the play. In June 1931, Adela Rogers St. Johns was assigned to write the screenplay, a month later, she was replaced with Sheridan Gibney, who was eventually replaced as well. According to a January 1931 news article, George Fitzmaurice was initially set to direct, LeRoy as a young unknown had appeared uncredited playing a newsboy in Swansons 1923 silent societal drama Prodigal Daughters. Joseph Schenck assigned Gloria Swanson to play the role, thinking it would help the actress getting out of her career slump
Lon Chaney Jr.
He portrayed Lennie Small in Of Mice and Men. Chaney had English and Irish ancestry, and his career in movies and television spanned four decades and his parents troubled marriage ended in divorce in 1913 following his mothers scandalous public suicide attempt in Los Angeles. Young Creighton lived in homes and boarding schools until 1916. From an early age, he worked hard to get out of his famous fathers shadow, in young adulthood, his father discouraged him from show business, and he attended business college and became successful in a Los Angeles appliance corporation. Creighton, who had working for a plumbing company, married Dorothy Hinckley the daughter of his employer Ralph Hinckley. But Creightons life changed forever when his father was diagnosed with throat cancer, many articles and biographies over the years report that Creighton was led to believe his mother had died while he was a boy, and was only made aware she lived after his fathers death. Creighton always maintained he had a tough childhood and it was only after his fathers death that Chaney started acting in films, beginning with an uncredited bit part in the 1932 film Girl Crazy.
He appeared in films under his name until 1935, when he began to be billed as Lon Chaney Jr. From 1942 onward, he was billed as Lon Chaney although the Jr. was usually added by others when they referred to him to him from his more famous father. Chaney first achieved stardom and critical acclaim in the 1939 feature film version of Of Mice and Men, Chaney was asked to test for the role of Quasimodo for the 1939 remake of The Hunchback of Notre Dame. The role went to Charles Laughton, with his third-billed character role in One Million B. C. as Victor Matures caveman father, Chaney began to be viewed as a character actor in the mold of his father. Put under contract by Universal Pictures Co. Inc, Chaney was cast in Man-Made Monster, a science-fiction horror thriller originally written with Karloff in mind. He played the character, Count Alucard—Dracula spelled in reverse—in Son of Dracula. Chaney is thus the only actor to portray all four of Universals major horror characters, the Wolf Man, Frankensteins Monster, the Mummy and he starred in a series of radio show appearances, including psychological mysteries on the Inner Sanctum radio show.
Chaney appeared in on the stage in productions as Born Yesterday. Kramer told the press at the time whenever a script came in with a role too difficult for most actors in Hollywood. He became quite popular with baby boomers after Universal released its back catalog of films to television in 1957. The series ended after 39 episodes, roger Smith played the young Creighton