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J. D. Salinger

Jerome David Salinger was an American writer best known for his novel The Catcher in the Rye. Salinger published several short stories in Story magazine in the early 1940s before serving in World War II. In 1948, his critically acclaimed story "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" appeared in The New Yorker, which became home to much of his work; the Catcher in the Rye became an immediate popular success. Salinger's depiction of adolescent alienation and loss of innocence in the protagonist Holden Caulfield was influential among adolescent readers; the novel was read and controversial. The success of The Catcher in the Rye led to public scrutiny. Salinger became reclusive, he followed Catcher with Nine Stories. His last published work, a novella entitled "Hapworth 16, 1924," appeared in The New Yorker on June 19, 1965. Afterward, Salinger struggled with unwanted attention, including a legal battle in the 1980s with biographer Ian Hamilton and the release in the late 1990s of memoirs written by two people close to him: Joyce Maynard, an ex-lover.

Jerome David Salinger was born in Manhattan, New York on January 1, 1919. His father, Sol Salinger, sold kosher cheese, was from a Jewish family of Lithuanian descent, his own father having been the rabbi for the Adath Jeshurun Congregation in Louisville, Kentucky. Salinger's mother, was born in Atlantic, Iowa, of German and Scottish descent, but changed her name to Miriam and considered herself Jewish after marrying Salinger's father. Salinger did not learn that his mother was not of Jewish ancestry until just after he celebrated his bar mitzvah, he had an older sister, Doris. In his youth, Salinger attended public schools on the West Side of Manhattan. In 1932, the family moved to Park Avenue, Salinger was enrolled at the McBurney School, a nearby private school. Salinger had trouble fitting in at his new school and took measures to conform, such as calling himself Jerry, his family called him Sonny. At McBurney, he wrote for the school newspaper and appeared in plays, he "showed an innate talent for drama,".

His parents enrolled him at Valley Forge Military Academy in Wayne, Pennsylvania. Salinger began writing stories "under the covers, with the aid of a flashlight". Salinger was the literary editor of Crossed Sabres, he participated in the Glee Club, Aviation Club, French Club, the Non-Commissioned Officers Club. Salinger's Valley Forge 201 file reveals that he was a "mediocre" student, unlike the overachievement enjoyed by members of the Glass family about whom he wrote, his recorded IQ between 111 and 115 was above average, he graduated in 1936. Salinger started his freshman year at New York University in 1936, he dropped out the following spring. That fall, his father urged him to learn about the meat-importing business, he went to work at a company in the Austrian city of Vienna and the Polish city of Bydgoszcz. Salinger went willingly, but he was so disgusted by the slaughterhouses that he decided to embark on a different career path, his disgust for the meat business and his rejection of his father most influenced his vegetarianism as an adult.

He left Austria one month before it was annexed by Nazi Germany on March 12, 1938. In the fall of 1938, Salinger attended Ursinus College in Collegeville and wrote a column called "skipped diploma," which included movie reviews, he dropped out after one semester. In 1939, Salinger attended the Columbia University School of General Studies in Manhattan, where he took a writing class taught by Whit Burnett, longtime editor of Story magazine. According to Burnett, Salinger did not distinguish himself until a few weeks before the end of the second semester, at which point "he came to life" and completed three stories. Burnett told Salinger that his stories were skillful and accomplished, accepting "The Young Folks," a vignette about several aimless youths, for publication in Story. Salinger's debut short story was published in the magazine's March–April 1940 issue. Burnett became Salinger's mentor, they corresponded for several years. In 1942, Salinger started dating daughter of the playwright Eugene O'Neill.

Despite finding her immeasurably self-absorbed, he called her and wrote her long letters. Their relationship ended when Oona began seeing Charlie Chaplin, whom she married. In late 1941, Salinger worked on a Caribbean cruise ship, serving as an activity director and as a performer; the same year, Salinger began submitting short stories to The New Yorker. Seven of Salinger's stories were rejected by the magazine that year, including "Lunch for Three," "Monologue for a Watery Highball," and "I Went to School with Adolf Hitler." In December 1941, the publication accepted "Slight Rebellion off Madison," a Manhattan-set story about a disaffected teenager named Holden Caulfield with "pre-war jitters". When Japan carried out the attack on Pearl Harbor that month, the story was rendered "unpublishable." Salinger was devastated. In Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters, he wrote, "I think I'll hate 1942 till I die, just on general principles." The story did not appea

Jack Balkin

Jack M. Balkin is an American legal scholar, he is the First Amendment at Yale Law School. Balkin is the founder and director of the Yale Information Society Project, a research center whose mission is "to study the implications of the Internet, telecommunications, the new information technologies for law and society." He directs the Knight Law and Media Program and the Abrams Institute for Free Expression at Yale Law School. Balkin publishes the legal blog, is a correspondent for The Atlantic, he is a leading scholar of Constitutional and First Amendment law. In addition to his work as a legal scholar, he has written a book on memes and cultural evolution and has translated and written a commentary on the ancient Chinese Book of Changes, or I Ching. Born in Kansas City, Balkin received his A. B. and J. D. degrees from Harvard University and his Ph. D. in philosophy from the University of Cambridge. He clerked for Judge Carolyn Dineen King of the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. From 1982 to 1984 he was a litigation associate at the New York law firm of Swaine & Moore.

He taught at the University of Missouri at Kansas City from 1984 to 1988 and at the University of Texas from 1988 to 1994. He joined the Yale faculty in 1994, he has taught at Harvard University, New York University, Tel Aviv University, Queen Mary College at the University of London. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2005. Balkin's 1998 book, Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology, argued that ideology could be explained in terms of memes and processes of cultural evolution, he argued that ideology is an effect of the "cultural software" or tools of understanding that become part of human beings and that are produced through the evolution and transmission of memes. At the same time, Balkin argued that all ideological and moral analysis presupposes a transcendent ideal of truth and "a transcendent value of justice." Like T. K. Seung, he suggests that a transcendent idea of justice—although incapable of perfect realization and "indeterminate"—underlies political discourse and political persuasion.

Balkin coined the term ideological drift to describe a phenomenon by which ideas and concepts change their political valence as they are introduced into new social and political contexts over time. Along with Duncan Kennedy, Balkin developed the field of legal semiotics. Legal semiotics shows how legal arguments feature recurrent tropes or topoi that respond to each other and whose opposition is reproduced at higher and lower levels of doctrinal detail as legal doctrines evolve. Hence Balkin claimed. Balkin employed deconstruction and related literary theories to argue that legal thought was structured in terms of "nested oppositions"—opposed ideas or concepts that turn into each other over time or otherwise depend on each other in novel and unexpected ways. Although he draws on literary theory in his work on legal rhetoric and his frequent co-author Sanford Levinson contend law is best analogized not to literature but to the performing arts such as music and drama. Balkin and Levinson argue that constitutional revolutions in judicial doctrine occur through a process called partisan entrenchment.

The party that controls the White House can stock the federal courts with new judges and Justices who have views on key constitutional issues similar to those of the President. This shifts the median Justice on the Supreme Court and changes the complexion of the lower federal courts, which, in turn affects constitutional doctrine. If enough new judges are appointed in a short period of time, changes will occur more producing a constitutional revolution. For example, a constitutional revolution occurred following the New Deal because Franklin Roosevelt was able to appoint eight new Supreme Court Justices between 1937 and 1941. Balkin and Levinson's theory contrasts with Bruce Ackerman's theory of constitutional moments, which argues that constitutional revolutions occur because of self-conscious acts of democratic mobilization that establish new standards of political legitimacy. Balkin and Levinson view partisan entrenchment as but imperfectly democratic. Balkin's constitutional theory, developed in his 2011 book, Living Originalism, is both originalist and living constitutionalist.

He argues. Interpreters must follow the original meaning of the constitutional text but not its original expected application. Balkin's "framework originalism" views the Constitution as an initial framework for governance that sets politics in motion and makes politics possible; this process of building out the Constitution is living constitutionalism. Balkin's work on the First Amendment argues that the purpose of the free speech principle is to promote what he calls a democratic culture; the idea of democratic culture is broader than a concern with democratic deliberation or democratic self-government, emphasizes individual freedom, cultural participation and mutual influence. A democratic culture is one in which ordinary individuals can participate in the forms of culture that in turn help shape and constitute them as persons. Balkin argues that free speech on the Internet is characterized by two features: "routing around" media gatekeepers, "glomming on"—non-e

USS Thistle (1862)

The first USS Thistle was a Union Army steamer acquired by the United States Navy during the American Civil War. Thistle was placed in service and used by the Union Navy as a tugboat and, when the opportunity presented itself, as a gunboat, in the blockade of ports of the Confederate States of America. Thistle—formerly the Army tug Spiteful—was transferred by the War Department to the Union Navy on 1 October 1862. Thistle deployed with the Mississippi Squadron as a tug and reconnaissance vessel in October 1862 and participated in the capture of Fort Hindman, Arkansas, on 11 January 1863. From 14 to 27 March, she took part in an expedition in the Steele's Bayou Expedition in Mississippi, attempting to find an entrance into the Yazoo River, a rear approach to the Confederate stronghold at Vicksburg, Mississippi. After the expedition failed, Thistle rejoined the squadron in the Mississippi River. There, she performed reconnaissance duty for the remainder of the war. Thistle was decommissioned at Illinois.

On 12 August was sold at public auction there on 17 August to J. T. Haight. Anaconda Plan List of United States Navy ships This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here

Mike Mandel

Mike Mandel is an American conceptual artist and photographer. According to his artist profile, his work "questions the meaning of photographic imagery within popular culture and draws from snapshots, news photographs, public and corporate archives."Most of the publications Mandel has been involved with have been self-published: his own, his early conceptual collaborations with Larry Sultan, his collaborations with Chantal Zakari. He is best known for Evidence, a book of found photographs he and Sultan assembled, regarded as "one of the most influential photography titles of the past 50 years". Mandel has had a solo exhibition at San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and his work is in the permanent collections of major institutions. Mandel was born in 1950 in Los Angeles, grew up in the San Fernando Valley, he was a student at San Fernando Valley State College, northwest of LA moved up the coast to San Francisco in 1973 for graduate studies at San Francisco Art Institute. The 1970s was an productive decade for Mandel.

Before he turned 21 Mandel completed People in Cars and Myself: Timed Exposures among a number of conceptual photography projects, many of them self-published in book form that were collected and re-published as a boxed edition of facsimile books and objects entitled Good 70s, edited by Mandel, Jason Fulford and Sharon Helgason Gallagher The publication led to a recognition of his 1970s projects in two concurrent solo exhibitions, one at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and the other at Robert Mann Gallery in New York City, both in 2017. Good 70s included People in Cars, Myself: Timed Exposures, Mike's Motels and Motel Postcards, Mrs. Kilpatric, Seven Never Before Published Portraits of Edward Weston, The Baseball Photographer Trading Cards, a set of letters ostensibly written by Sandra S. Phillips, Curator Emerita at SFMOMA, to Mandel during the 1970s, Letters from Sandra; the letters are real, but the dates fictional as they were written by Phillips for the 2015 publication of the box set as a tongue in cheek contextualizing device describing her feelings about Mandel's works in progress while at the same time providing a running commentary on the Watergate scandal.

For People in Cars Mandel found a street corner near his home in Van Nuys, in the late afternoon light, using a wide-angle lens, he photographed people making right hand turns capturing the images of drivers and passengers in the front and back seats. Good 70s included a poster of this work, but a more extensive book was published in 2017 by Stanley/Barker, UK, Robert Mann GalleryMandel self-published Myself: Timed Exposures while still an undergraduate in 1971, a book of thirty-six self-portraits made alongside strangers, using the camera's self-timer. There was a measure of chance involved in making the photos as Mandel would identify a potential photographic opportunity, set up the tripod and camera and walk into the picture during the 10 second delay. Mandel and his girlfriend at the time, Alison Woolpert, began collecting postcards from sleazy little motels, but Mandel started taking pictures himself, taking the viewer on a sort of ghostly tour of long-gone 70s design and road culture."

"These photos have glowing, lonesome appeal you just can't shake. You can just imagine the kids of the early 60’s escaping to these motels for vacation and kicks but now these destinations have turned into places where people go to become ghosts."Paul Sorene on October 18, 2017 quotes Mandel in his Flashbak article, about his project where he photographed a middle aged housewife who lived down the street from him in Santa Cruz, California in 1974. Boardwalk Minus Forty is a look back at life on the beach, created during the artist's time living in Santa Cruz, California while a student at the San Francisco Art Institute; the book was published in 2017 by TBW Books as part of Series #5, one of a four book set that included books by Susan Meiselas, Bill Burke and Lee Friedlander. In 1974 Mandel self-published his conceptual art piece, Seven Never Before Published Portraits of Edward Weston, a book of responses to questionnaires he sent to various men named Edward Weston, along with their photographs and letters.

In 1974 Mandel and Alison Woolpert, traveled across America, making portraits in the style of baseball cards of 134 photographers and curators. These included Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Harry Callahan, Minor White, Aaron Siskind, William Eggleston, Ed Ruscha, John Szarkowski, they collected personal statistics and comments. Mandel created a set of baseball cards and sold them through museums and galleries, in packs of 10, at a dollar a pack. In March, 2015, SFMOMA made a video interview of Mandel describing his 70s projects including The Baseball Photographer Trading Cards. Marty Appel> writes in Sports Collectors Digest: SF Giants Oral History about the book Mandel self-published in 1979 about his favorite baseball team, the San Francisco Giants. Mandel is quoted: "I liked Studs Terkel’s books, as an artist I thought that it didn’t matter what the subject matter might be, but that an artist would approach the project with a more open ended attitude. Of course, I was a Giants fan since I was eight, in 1958, so I grew up with the team in San Francisco."

Larry Sultan and Mandel first met as MFA students at the San Francisco Art Institute. Over the next thirty years, their artistic partnership produced an impressive body of work as well as a lifelong friendship; the two collaborated on Billboards, 15 different subvertising series display


Flieth-Stegelitz is a municipality in the Uckermark district, in Brandenburg, Germany. It is part of the Amt Gerswalde; the municipality arose on 31 December 2001 by merging the former autonomous municipalities of Flieth and Stegelitz. The municipal area is located in the rural Uckermark region of northeastern Brandenburg, within the Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve. In the north it borders on the shore of Lake Oberuckersee and drained by the Uecker River; the municipality contains six localities: Both Flieth and Stegelitz in the Margraviate of Brandenburg were first mentioned in a 1269 deed founded by the scions of one Stegelitz noble dynasty. While Flieth passed to the Arnim noble family in the mid 15th century, Stegelitz was sold several times, until both villages were devastated during the Thirty Years' War. In 1734 the Arnim dynasty held Flieth and Stegelitz, they built a lavish manor house in Suckow, burnt to the ground in the late days of World War II

Tanintharyi Line

Tanintharyi Line is a 1,000 mm gauge railway line in Myanmar's southernmost region, Tanintharyi Region, operated by Myanmar Railways. The line runs from Mawlamyine Railway Station to the Dawei area, with connections to Yangon Central Railway Station, it is under construction extending towards Myeik from the current terminus of Thayetchaung Station, which lies just after Dawei Station. Current section in operation includes the part from Mawlamyaing Station to Thayetchaung, it is expected to become a part of a pan-Asian railway network, allowing spur connections to Thailand. A spur connection between the SRT rail head at Nam Tok Station in Kanchanaburi Province to Dawei Station through mountains is planned by Thai interests backed by Japanese funding, though other rail connections are possible; until there is an air bridge in the north end with Nok Air flights from Mae Sot Airport, Thailand to Mawlamyaing to bypass rough and politically conflicted overland connections. 1994 saw the start of construction of the isolated 160 km Ye-Dawei railway, completed March 1998.

This was joined to the route north at Ye by the new 250 m road/rail bridge across the Ye River, opened November 2003. In April 2008, the tracks were extended across the 2.4 km Thanlwin Bridge, a road/rail bridge located in Moulmein, provision having been made in its design when it was opened a few years earlier. This allowed the long isolated section south to Ye and Dawei to receive trains from the north of the country. A 20 mile extension to Thayetchaung Station was opened to traffic in June 2011. Yangon Central Railway Station via Mawlamyaing Station. Thanlwin River Bridge Mawlamyaing 178 Mawlamyaing 182 1/4 Kawt Kha Ni 185 3/4 Hpar Auk 189 Hmein Ga Nein 194 Mudon 197 1/2 Taw Ku 202 1/2 Ka Mar Wet 206 Ka Lawt Thawt 209 Kun Hlar 213 1/2 Thanbyuzayat 217 1/4 Pa Nga 223 1/4 Ka Yoke Pi 226 An Khe 229 1/2 Htin Shu 233 1/2 Ah Nin 239 1/2 Hnit Kayin 246 Lamaing 252 Taung Bon 258 Paing Wan 261 1/4 Pa Yan Maw - Pa Laing Kee 266 1/4 Ye 271 1/2 Ye River Bridge Chaung Taung 272/11 Kalawt Kyi - Koe Maing 279/19 Pauk Pin Kwin 288/5 Nat Kyi Zin 296/23 Sein Bon 299.62 Yae Ngan Gyi 301.77 Sin Swei 303.17 Min Tha 308/22 Hsin Ku 309.70 Ein Da Ra Za 318/22 Gan Gaw Taung 320 In Hpya - Kalein-Aung 333/0 Yae Pone - Hein Ze 341/20 Tha Ke Kwa 350/6 Dauk Lauk - Yebyu 362/19 Nyin Htway 365/13 Maung Mei Shaung 368/?

Za Har 371/0 Dawei 373/12 Thayetchaung Station 393 Myeik Station