J. J. Thomson

Sir Joseph John Thomson was a British physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery of the electron, the first subatomic particle to be discovered. In 1897, Thomson showed that cathode rays were composed of unknown negatively charged particles, which he calculated must have bodies much smaller than atoms and a large charge-to-mass ratio. Thomson is credited with finding the first evidence for isotopes of a stable element in 1913, as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays, his experiments to determine the nature of positively charged particles, with Francis William Aston, were the first use of mass spectrometry and led to the development of the mass spectrograph. Thomson was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the conduction of electricity in gases. Joseph John Thomson was born on 18 December 1856 in Cheetham Hill, Lancashire, England, his mother, Emma Swindells, came from a local textile family. His father, Joseph James Thomson, ran.

He had a brother, Frederick Vernon Thomson, two years younger than he was. J. J. Thomson was a devout Anglican, his early education was in small private schools where he demonstrated outstanding talent and interest in science. In 1870, he was admitted to Owens College in Manchester at the unusually young age of 14, his parents planned to enroll him as an apprentice engineer to Sharp-Stewart & Co, a locomotive manufacturer, but these plans were cut short when his father died in 1873. He moved on to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1876. In 1880, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics, he applied for and became a Fellow of Trinity College in 1881. Thomson received his Master of Arts degree in 1883. In 1890, Thomson married Rose Elisabeth Paget. Beginning in 1882, women lectures at the University of Cambridge. Rose Paget, daughter of Sir George Edward Paget, KCB, a physician and Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge at the church of St. Mary the Less, was interested in physics, she attended demonstrations, lectures, among them Thomson's.

Their relationship developed from there. They had one son, George Paget Thomson, one daughter, Joan Paget Thomson. Joan Paget Charnock was an author of children's books, biographies. On 22 December 1884, Thomson was appointed Cavendish Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge; the appointment caused considerable surprise, given that candidates such as Osborne Reynolds or Richard Glazebrook were older and more experienced in laboratory work. Thomson was known for his work as a mathematician, he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1906, "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases." He was knighted in 1908 and appointed to the Order of Merit in 1912. In 1914, he gave the Romanes Lecture in Oxford on "The atomic theory". In 1918, he became Master of Trinity College, where he remained until his death. Joseph John Thomson died on 30 August 1940. One of Thomson's greatest contributions to modern science was in his role as a gifted teacher.

One of his students was Ernest Rutherford, who succeeded him as Cavendish Professor of Physics. In addition to Thomson himself, six of his research assistants won Nobel Prizes in physics, two won Nobel prizes in chemistry. In addition, Thomson's son won the 1937 Nobel Prize in physics for proving the wave-like properties of electrons. Thomson's prize-winning master's work, Treatise on the motion of vortex rings, shows his early interest in atomic structure. In it, Thomson mathematically described the motions of William Thomson's vortex theory of atoms. Thomson published a number of papers addressing both mathematical and experimental issues of electromagnetism, he examined the electromagnetic theory of light of James Clerk Maxwell, introduced the concept of electromagnetic mass of a charged particle, demonstrated that a moving charged body would increase in mass. Much of his work in mathematical modelling of chemical processes can be thought of as early computational chemistry. In further work, published in book form as Applications of dynamics to physics and chemistry, Thomson addressed the transformation of energy in mathematical and theoretical terms, suggesting that all energy might be kinetic.

His next book, Notes on recent researches in electricity and magnetism, built upon Maxwell's Treatise upon electricity and magnetism, was sometimes referred to as "the third volume of Maxwell". In it, Thomson emphasized physical methods and experimentation and included extensive figures and diagrams of apparatus, including a number for the passage of electricity through gases, his third book, Elements of the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism was a readable introduction to a wide variety of subjects, achieved considerable popularity as a textbook. A series of four lectures, given by Thomson on a visit to Princeton University in 1896, were subsequently published as Discharge of electricity through gases. Thomson presented a series of six lectures at Yale University in 1904. Several scientists, such as William Prout and Norman Lockyer

24 Oras

24 Oras is a Philippine television newscast show broadcast by GMA Network. Anchored by Mel Tiangco, Mike Enriquez, Vicky Morales,and Iya Villania, it premiered on March 15, 2004 replacing Frontpage: Ulat ni Mel Tiangco and worldwide on GMA Pinoy TV. The show is the network's flagship national network newscast, broadcasting on radio through Super Radyo DZBB 594 in Mega Manila and its regional Super Radyo stations nationwide. 24 Oras with its tagline, "Dahil Hindi Natutulog ang Balita" premiered on March 15, 2004 at 6:15 pm and it was first broadcast from the Studio 2 of GMA Network Center, replacing Frontpage: Ulat ni Mel Tiangco. Frontpage anchor Mel Tiangco was joined by former Saksi anchor Mike Enriquez, its first headline featured the 2004 Philippine elections, followed by a one-on-one live interview with Senator Panfilo Lacson discussing on Actor Fernando Poe Jr. proposed tandem meeting. In the telecast, TV host Pia Guanio was introduced as the new host for Showbiz Time renamed Chika Minute.

Weekend editions were aired. The show moved its timeslot to 6:30 pm, was extended to 90 minutes the following year, the newscast began airing internationally through GMA Pinoy TV. On December 1, 2005, the coverage by 24 Oras of a siege of Camp Bagong Diwa was mentioned in the best news program category in the Asian Television Awards in Singapore; the show relaunched on April 17, 2006 with a new graphics package, OBB and a new set with floating large rear projection screens that allow the anchors to "talk" to correspondents in live feeds the anchors are doing stand-up news delivery. The studio set was shared by Saksi during that time. PAGASA's Nathaniel Cruz anchors weather news during severe weather conditions. On August 11, 2008, the show was relaunched again with a multi-million peso studio set using LED, a new desk, identical to the desk used by CBS Evening News, new graphics, new titles, its new tagline "Tahanan ng Katotohanan", while the "Dahil Hindi Natutulog ang Balita" tagline was dropped, but it was still used in the closing remarks.

In April 2010, the show became the home of Vizrt Touchscreen system a real-time broadcast solutions system, used in the YouScoop segment designed and developed by GMA New Media.24 Oras became instrumental and controversial on covering the Manila hostage crisis, the authorities ordered a media blackout, but failed, when covering live the arrest of the brother of the hostage-taker, the hostage-taker was monitoring GMA-7 and found out about it. The coverage ate up its primetime block, from 6:30-9:30pm, giving 19.7% of its audience share from AGB Nielsen. On December 6, 2010, the news program updated its graphics. A day it updated its OBB and title card. On February 21, 2011, along with Unang Hirit, GMA Flash Report, the newscast transferred its new studios, Studio 5; the new theme music is a remix of 24 Oras 2008–2011 theme music and an element of an opera voice used as a promo plug in 2010. On October 10, 2011, 24 Oras updated only its graphics; this use a new font Antique Olive on their graphics, replacing Myriad font, used on other GMA newscasts.

On June 4, 2012, 24 Oras launched its new weather segment titled I. M. Ready: GMA Weather. In June 2013, 24 Oras introduced its augmented reality graphics used at the beginning of the show for presentation/demonstration purposes, it is used for US Dollar exchange rate, Metro Manila air index, some live crosses and for other occasional purposes. A notable coverage of GMA News for "Super Typhoon Yolanda", covering the devastating Typhoon Haiyan, won its 4th George Foster's Peabody Awards in 2014. On November 10, 2014, as part of GMA News' shakeup, Vicky Morales joined the 24 Oras team as its third anchor, This was Morales' return to primetime newscast after she teamed up with Enriquez on GMA Network News and Saksi. GMA Regional newscasts for Bicol, Davao, Northern Mindanao, Iloilo and Ilocos adopted the 24 Oras branding. Along with Saksi and Balitanghali, a flat graphic package introduced, a new title cards, the return of the Myriad font for 24 Oras and the OBB, along with its energetic theme music.

All of these changes are answers to competition of ABS-CBN's TV Patrol. On April 2015, with GMA Network's plans of streamlining regional operations, the Ilokano and Northern Mindanao editions were axed by the management, followed by the Iloilo edition on November 13. All of its news staff were given severance pay to those affected. On February 1, 2016, North Central Luzon and Central Visayas editions of the newscast reverted to their respective titles: Balitang Amianan and Balitang Bisdak, respectively. With the said downgrade, the Southern Mindanao edition became the only regional edition of the newscast across the entire network. In a

Balakh Sher Mazari

Sardar Mir Balakh Sher Mazari is the tumandar and the paramount sardar of the Mazari tribe, situated on the tristate area between Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. As the chieftain of his tribe, he holds the title of "Mir" but goes by the styles of "Tumandar" or "Sardar". Mazari is the seventh Mir of the Mazaris. Alongside Mazari, his brother Sherbaz Khan Mazari played a role in the politics of Pakistan, his grandson Mir Dost Mohammad Mazari is a Pakistan Peoples Party parliamentarian from NA-175 Rajanpur who served as the parliamentary secretary for the Ministry of Water and Power. Mazari served as the 14th Prime Minister of Pakistan in an acting capacity after the Nawaz government was overthrown by president Ghulam Ishaq Khan. Mazari's tenure as caretaker prime minister ended abruptly on 26 May 1993 when the Supreme Court revoked the presidential order and reinstated Nawaz Sharif as the prime minister. Mazari was born on 8 July 1928 to the 21st Sardar and the sixth Mir of the Mazari tribe, Murad Buksh Khan Mazari.

He was elevated to become the Mazari chieftain in 1933 after the death of his father who had ruled as chieftain for nine months. After the completion of his education from Aitchison College in 1945 went on to live in Rojhan-Mazari, from where he joined active politics in 1951, he has been elected Member of the Senate, Member of the National Assembly and Member of the Provincial Assembly on many occasions. On 19 April 1993, president Ghulam Ishaq Khan exercised his extra-constitutional presidential powers, instituted to him through the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, to resolve the power struggle in Pakistan and dismissed the government of prime minister Nawaz Sharif. After dissolving both, the national and the provincial assemblies, Khan appointed Mazari as the caretaker prime minister. After being appointed as the caretaker prime minister, Mazari had to serve as the head of the government for 90 days, a mandatory period required to set up a framework for the next general elections.

Mazari scheduled the general elections for 14 July 1993. Mazari, Sherbaz Khan. A Journey to Disillusionment. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-579076-4