Everyman's Library is a series of reprints of classic literature from the Western canon. It is published in hardback by Random House, it was an imprint of J. M. Dent, who continue to publish Everyman Paperbacks. Everyman's Library was conceived in 1905 by London publisher Joseph Malaby Dent, whose goal was to create a 1,000-volume library of world literature, affordable for, that appealed to, every kind of person, from students to the working classes to the cultural elite. Dent followed the design principles and to a certain extent the style established by William Morris in his Kelmscott Press; this style was replaced in 1935 by Eric Ravilious's designs. Everyman's Library books were pocket-sized hardcovers that sold for what was the remarkably low price of a shilling apiece; the original U. S. distribution rights were granted to E. P. Dutton; the name of the publication series was suggested by poet and editor Ernest Rhys, named head editor of the series and asked to find a suitable name to encompass Dent's goal.
Rhys tried and discarded many ideas before recalling a quotation from the medieval play Everyman in which the character of Knowledge says to Everyman: Everyman, I will go with thee, be thy guide, In thy most need to go by thy side. This quotation appears on the title page of all volumes of Everyman's Library and Everyman Paperbacks. J. M. Dent and Company commenced the series in 1906 with a James Boswell's Life of Johnson, published with a quotation on the title page from the works of John Milton: "A good book is the precious life-blood of a master-spirit and treasured upon purpose to a life beyond life." In 1910, 500 books had been published under the Everyman trademark, in 1956, fulfilling Dent's original goal—the thousandth volume, Aristotle's Metaphysics, having been selected for the honor, was published. By 1975, Dent's vision had been well surpassed, as Everyman's Library consisted of 994 titles published in 1,239 volumes; each book belonged to one of the following genres: Travel, Fiction, Theology & Philosophy, Classical, For Young People, Oratory, Poetry & Drama, Biography and Romance.
The appropriate genre was printed inside and used to organize the periodically released lists of the series. After ceasing publication of new titles in the 1970s, the hardback rights to Everyman's Library were sold to the newly formed David Campbell Publishers in 1991 and relaunched with the support of the Random House Group in the United Kingdom and through Alfred A. Knopf in the United States, a move praised by many notable authors. Control of Everyman's Library passed to US-based Random House in 2002, who continue to publish it under the Knopf Publishers imprint there and as Random House UK elsewhere. J. M. Dent & Sons was acquired by Weidenfeld & Nicolson in 1988, itself acquired by the Orion Publishing Group in 1991, now both part of Hachette Livre. Orion continues to publish the unrelated Everyman Paperbacks under the J. M. Dent imprint in the UK and via Charles E. Tuttle Co. in the US. The current membership of the Honorary Editorial Committee includes Harold Bloom, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Toni Morrison, Cynthia Ozick and Simon Schama.
A notable addition to the library was a multi-volume encyclopedia, added to the range in 1913. Individual volumes could be purchased separately; the fifth edition was published in 1967, by which time it consisted of 12 volumes, containing 7763 pages. The page size was 9 by 5 inches, but as the printing was 8 point, a large amount of information was contained in each volume; as a volume only weighed about 1.25 kg, it was considered a better size for use by children. Library of America Modern Library Oxford World's Classics Penguin Classics George Routledge Routledge Albatross Books Tauchnitz publishers Everyman's Library Index of Everyman's Library books and authors Collecting Everyman's Library A Complete Serial List of Everyman's Library titles McVety, Margaret A. Dictionary catalogue of the first 505 volumes of Everyman's Library. London, J. M. Dent. P. Dutton. 1911. Via Internet Archive. Annotated catalog of first 505 titles. Buying and Selling Everyman's Library: A Primer Complete Everyman's Library Catalog, author list, dust jacket images, other useful Everyman's Library information
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson was a British poet. He was the Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. In 1829, Tennyson was awarded the Chancellor's Gold Medal at Cambridge for one of his first pieces, "Timbuktu", he published his first solo collection of poems, Poems Chiefly Lyrical in 1830. "Claribel" and "Mariana", which remain some of Tennyson's most celebrated poems, were included in this volume. Although decried by some critics as overly sentimental, his verse soon proved popular and brought Tennyson to the attention of well-known writers of the day, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Tennyson's early poetry, with its medievalism and powerful visual imagery, was a major influence on the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Tennyson excelled at penning short lyrics, such as "Break, Break", "The Charge of the Light Brigade", "Tears, Idle Tears", "Crossing the Bar". Much of his verse was based on classical mythological themes, such as "Ulysses", although "In Memoriam A.
H. H." was written to commemorate his friend Arthur Hallam, a fellow poet and student at Trinity College, after he died of a stroke at the age of 22. Tennyson wrote some notable blank verse including Idylls of the King, "Ulysses", "Tithonus". During his career, Tennyson attempted drama. A number of phrases from Tennyson's work have become commonplaces of the English language, including "Nature, red in tooth and claw", "'Tis better to have loved and lost / Than never to have loved at all", "Theirs not to reason why, / Theirs but to do and die", "My strength is as the strength of ten, / Because my heart is pure", "To strive, to seek, to find, not to yield", "Knowledge comes, but Wisdom lingers", "The old order changeth, yielding place to new", he is the ninth most quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Tennyson was born on 6 August 1809 in Somersby, England, he was born into a middle-class family distantly descended from John Savage, 2nd Earl Rivers. His father, George Clayton Tennyson, was rector of Somersby rector of Benniworth and Bag Enderby, vicar of Grimsby.
Rev. George Clayton Tennyson raised a large family and "was a man of superior abilities and varied attainments, who tried his hand with fair success in architecture, painting and poetry, he was comfortably well off for a country clergyman and his shrewd money management enabled the family to spend summers at Mablethorpe and Skegness on the eastern coast of England". Alfred Tennyson's mother, Elizabeth Fytche, was the daughter of Stephen Fytche, vicar of St. James Church and rector of Withcall, a small village between Horncastle and Louth. Tennyson's father "carefully attended to the education and training of his children". Tennyson and two of his elder brothers were writing poetry in their teens and a collection of poems by all three was published locally when Alfred was only 17. One of those brothers, Charles Tennyson Turner married Louisa Sellwood, the younger sister of Alfred's future wife. Another of Tennyson's brothers, Edward Tennyson, was institutionalised at a private asylum. Tennyson was a student of King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth from 1816 to 1820.
He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1827, where he joined a secret society called the Cambridge Apostles. A portrait of Tennyson by George Frederic Watts is in Trinity's collection. At Cambridge, Tennyson met Arthur Hallam and William Henry Brookfield, who became his closest friends, his first publication was a collection of "his boyish rhymes and those of his elder brother Charles" entitled Poems by Two Brothers, published in 1827. In 1829, Tennyson was awarded the Chancellor's Gold Medal at Cambridge for one of his first pieces, "Timbuktu". "it was thought to be no slight honour for a young man of twenty to win the chancellor's gold medal". He published his first solo collection of poems, Poems Chiefly Lyrical in 1830. "Claribel" and "Mariana", which took their place among Tennyson's most celebrated poems, were included in this volume. Although decried by some critics as overly sentimental, his verse soon proved popular and brought Tennyson to the attention of well-known writers of the day, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
In the spring of 1831, Tennyson's father died, requiring him to leave Cambridge before taking his degree. He returned to the rectory, where he was permitted to live for another six years and shared responsibility for his widowed mother and the family. Arthur Hallam came to stay with his family during the summer and became engaged to Tennyson's sister, Emilia Tennyson. In 1833 Tennyson published his second book of poetry, which notably included the first version of The Lady of Shalott; the volume met heavy criticism, which so discouraged Tennyson that he did not publish again for ten years, although he did continue to write. That same year, Hallam died and unexpectedly after suffering a cerebral haemorrhage while on a holiday in Vienna. Hallam's death had a profound effect on Tennyson and inspired several poems, including "In the Valley of Cauteretz" and In Memoriam A. H. H. A long poem detailing the "Way of the Soul". Tennyson and his family were allowed to stay in the rectory for some time, but moved to Beech Hill Park, High Beach, deep within Epping Forest, about 1837.
Tennyson’s son recalled: “there was a pond in the park on which in winter my father might be seen skating, sailing about on the ice in his long blue cloak. He liked the nearness of London, whither he resorted to see his friends, but he could not stay in town for a
Life of Samuel Johnson
The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL. D. is a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson written by James Boswell; the work was a critical success when first published. It is regarded as an important stage in the development of the modern genre of biography. While Boswell's personal acquaintance with his subject only began in 1763, when Johnson was 54 years old, Boswell covered the entirety of Johnson's life by means of additional research; the biography takes many critical liberties with Johnson's life, as Boswell makes various changes to Johnson's quotations and censors many comments. Nonetheless, modern biographers have found Boswell's biography an important source of information on Johnson and his times. On 16 May 1763, Johnson met 22-year-old Boswell, the man who would become his first major biographer, for the first time in the book shop of Johnson's friend, Tom Davies, they became friends, although Boswell would return to his home in Scotland or travel abroad for months at a time. During his life, Boswell kept a series of journals that detailed the various moments that he felt were important.
This journal, when published in the 20th century, filled eighteen volumes, it was from this large collection of detailed notes that Boswell would base his works on Johnson's life. Johnson, in commenting on Boswell's excessive note taking playfully wrote to Hester Thrale, "One would think the man had been hired to spy upon me". On 6 August 1773, eleven years after first meeting Boswell, Johnson set out to visit his friend in Scotland, to begin "a journey to the western islands of Scotland", as Johnson's 1775 account of their travels would put it. Boswell's account, The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, was a preliminary attempt at a biography before his Life of Johnson. With the success of that work, Boswell started working on the "vast treasure of his conversations at different times" that he recorded in his journals, his goal was to recreate Johnson's "life in scenes". However, Boswell suffered the problem of having not met Johnson until Johnson was 53, this created an imbalance on what portions of Johnson's life were discussed.
Furthermore, as literary critic Donald Greene has pointed out, Boswell's works only describe 250 days that Boswell could have been present with Johnson, the rest of the information having to come from either Johnson himself or from secondary sources recounting various incidents. Before Boswell could publish his biography of Johnson, there were many other friends of Johnson's who published or were in the middle of publishing their own biographies or collections or anecdotes on Johnson: John Hawkins, Frances Burney, Anna Seward, Elizabeth Montagu, Hannah More, Horace Walpole among many; the last edition Boswell worked on was the third, published in 1799. There are many biographies and biographers of Samuel Johnson, but James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson is the one best known to the general reader, yet opinion among 20th-century Johnson scholars such as Edmund Wilson and Donald Greene is that Boswell's Life "can hardly be termed a biography at all", being "a collection of those entries in Boswell's diaries dealing with the occasions during the last twenty-two years of Johnson's life on which they met... strung together with only a perfunctory effort to fill the gaps".
Furthermore, Greene claims that the work "began with a well-organized press campaign, by Boswell and his friends, of puffing and of denigration of his rivals. Instead of being called a "biography", Greene suggests that the work should be called an "Ana", a sort of table talk; the cause for concern is that Boswell's original Life "corrects" many of Johnson's quotations, censors many of the more vulgar comments, ignores Johnson's early years. In particular, Boswell creates a somewhat mythic version of Johnson, as William Dowling puts it: In a sense, the Life's portrayal of Johnson as a moral hero begins in myth... As the biographical story unfolds, of course, this image dissolves and there emerges the figure of an infinitely more complex and heroic Johnson whose moral wisdom is won through a constant struggle with despair, whose moral sanity is balanced by personal eccentricities too visible to be ignored, whose moral penetration derives from his own sense of tragic self-deception, yet the image never dissolves for in the end we realize there has been an essential truth in the myth all along, that the idealized and disembodied image of Johnson existing in the mind of his public...
In this way the myth serves to expand and authenticate the more complex image of Johnson". Modern biographers have since corrected Boswell's errors; this is not to say that Boswell's work is wrong or of no use: scholars such as Walter Jackson Bate appreciate the "detail" and the "treasury of conversation" that it contains. All of Johnson's biographers, according to Bate, have to go through the same "igloo" of material that Boswell had to deal with: limited information from Johnson's first forty years and an extreme amount for those after. Put, "Johnson's life continues to hold attention" and "every scrap of evidence relating to Johnson's life has continued to be examined and many more details have been added" because "it is so close to general human experience in a wide variety of ways". Edmund Burke told King George III. Robert Anderson, in his Works of the British Poets, wrote: "With some venial exceptions on the score of egotism and indiscriminate admiration, his work exhibits the most copious and finished pict
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books. Since 1991 it has been a division of the Orion Publishing Group. George Weidenfeld and Nigel Nicolson founded Weidenfeld & Nicolson in 1949 with a reception at Brown's Hotel, London. Among many other significant books published Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita and Nicolson's Portrait of a Marriage, a frank biography of his mother, Vita Sackville-West and father Harold Nicolson. In its early years Weidenfeld published nonfiction works by Isaiah Berlin, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Rose Macaulay, novels by Mary McCarthy and Saul Bellow, it published titles by world leaders and historians, along with contemporary fiction and glossy illustrated books. Weidenfeld & Nicolson acquired the publisher Arthur Baker Ltd in 1959 and ran it as an imprint into the 1990s. Weidenfeld was one of Orion's first acquisitions after the group's founding in 1991, formed the core of its offerings. At that time Weidenfeld imprints included its own establishment much earlier.
Orion was acquired in turn by Hachette Livre in 1998. The hardcover rights to Everyman Library were sold in 1991, survive as a Random House property, paperbacks Everyman Classics continued under Orion. Late in 2013, W&N published the British edition of I Am Malala, the memoir of Pakistani-born teenager Malala Yousafzai with Christina Lamb. Malala Yousafzai is a female education activist, the Nobel Peace Prize winner in 2014. Illustrated Novel Library Lives Pleasures and Treasures The Young Historian Books World University Library Weidenfeld & Nicolson blog The Orion Publishing Group A brief history of the Orion Publishing Group at the Wayback Machine Weidenfeld & Nicolson Publishing Archives
Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane. It is associated with the former fruit-and-vegetable market in the central square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, with the Royal Opera House, known as "Covent Garden"; the district is divided by the main thoroughfare of Long Acre, north of, given over to independent shops centred on Neal's Yard and Seven Dials, while the south contains the central square with its street performers and most of the historical buildings and entertainment facilities, including the London Transport Museum and the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. The area was settled in the 7th century when it became the heart of the Anglo-Saxon trading town of Lundenwic, abandoned at the end of the 9th century. By 1200, part of it had been walled off by Westminster Abbey for use as arable land and orchards. Referred to as "the garden of the Abbey and Convent", "the Covent Garden", it was seized by Henry VIII and granted to the Earls of Bedford in 1552.
The 4th Earl commissioned Inigo Jones to build some fine houses to attract wealthy tenants. Jones designed the Italianate arcaded square along with the church of St Paul's; the design of the square was new to London and had a significant influence on modern town planning, acting as the prototype for new estates as London grew. By 1654 a small open-air fruit-and-vegetable market had developed on the south side of the fashionable square. Both the market and the surrounding area fell into disrepute, as taverns, coffee-houses and brothels opened up. By the 18th century it had become a well-known red-light district. An Act of Parliament was drawn up to control the area, Charles Fowler's neo-classical building was erected in 1830 to cover and help organise the market; the market grew and further buildings were added: the Floral Hall, Charter Market, in 1904 the Jubilee Market. By the end of the 1960s traffic congestion was causing problems, in 1974 the market relocated to the New Covent Garden Market about three miles south-west at Nine Elms.
The central building re-opened as a shopping centre in 1980 and is now a tourist location containing cafes, small shops, a craft market called the Apple Market, along with another market held in the Jubilee Hall. Covent Garden falls within the London boroughs of Westminster and Camden and the parliamentary constituencies of Cities of London and Westminster and Holborn and St Pancras; the area has been served by the Piccadilly line at Covent Garden Underground station since 1907. What would become the Strand on the southern boundary of the future Covent Garden was used during the Roman period as part of a route to Silchester, known as Iter VII on the Antonine Itinerary. Excavations in 2006 at St Martin-in-the-Fields revealed a late Roman grave, suggesting the locale had been a sacred site; the area to the north of the Strand was long thought to have remained as unsettled fields until the 16th century, but theories by Alan Vince and Martin Biddle that there had been an Anglo-Saxon settlement to the west of the old Roman town of Londinium were borne out by excavations in 1985 and 2005.
These revealed Covent Garden as the centre of a trading town called Lundenwic, developed around 600 AD, which stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych. Alfred the Great shifted the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, the site returned to fields. A document from 1200 AD mentions a walled garden owned by the Benedictine monks of the Abbey of St Peter, Westminster. A document, dated between 1250 and 1283, refers to "the garden of the Abbot and Convent of Westminster". By the 13th century this had become a 40-acre quadrangle of mixed orchard, meadow and arable land, lying between modern-day St Martin's Lane and Drury Lane, Floral Street and Maiden Lane; the use of the name "Covent"—an Anglo-French term for a religious community, equivalent to "monastery" or "convent"—appears in a document in 1515, when the Abbey, letting out parcels of land along the north side of the Strand for inns and market gardens, granted a lease of the walled garden, referring to it as "a garden called Covent Garden".
This is how it was recorded from on. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1540, Henry VIII took the land belonging to Westminster Abbey for himself, his son, Edward VI, granted it to the John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, in 1552. The Russell family, who in 1694 were advanced in their peerage from Earl to Duke of Bedford, held the land until 1918. Russell built Bedford House and garden on part of the land, with an entrance on the Strand, the large garden stretching back along the south side of the old walled-off convent garden. In 1630, 4th Earl of Bedford, Francis Russell commissioned Inigo Jones to design and build a church and three terraces of fine houses around a large square or piazza; this had been prompted by Charles I taking offence at the condition of the road and houses along Long Acre, which were the responsibility of Russell and Henry Carey, 2nd Earl of Monmouth. Russell and Carey complained that under the 1625 Proclamation concerning Buildings, which restricted building in and around London, they could not build new houses.
For a fee of £2,000, the King granted Russell a licence to build as many new houses on his land as he "shall thinke fitt and convenient". The houses attracted the wealthy, though they moved out when a market developed on the south side of the square around 1654, coffee houses and prostitutes moved in; the Bedford Estate was expanded in 1669 to include Bloomsbury, when L
Charles Lamb was an English essayist and antiquarian, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the children's book Tales from Shakespeare, co-authored with his sister, Mary Lamb. Friends with such literary luminaries as Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, William Hazlitt, Lamb was at the centre of a major literary circle in England, he has been referred to by E. V. Lucas, his principal biographer, as "the most lovable figure in English literature". Lamb was born in the son of Elizabeth Field and John Lamb. Lamb was the youngest child, with a sister 11 years older named Mary and an older brother named John, his father John Lamb was a lawyer's clerk and spent most of his professional life as the assistant to a barrister named Samuel Salt, who lived in the Inner Temple in the legal district of London. It was there in Crown Office Row that Charles Lamb was spent his youth. Lamb created a portrait of his father in his "Elia on the Old Benchers" under the name Lovel. Lamb's older brother was too much his senior to be a youthful companion to the boy but his sister Mary, being born eleven years before him, was his closest playmate.
Lamb was cared for by his paternal aunt Hetty, who seems to have had a particular fondness for him. A number of writings by both Charles and Mary suggest that the conflict between Aunt Hetty and her sister-in-law created a certain degree of tension in the Lamb household. However, Charles speaks fondly of her and her presence in the house seems to have brought a great deal of comfort to him; some of Lamb's fondest childhood memories were of time spent with Mrs Field, his maternal grandmother, for many years a servant to the Plummer family, who owned a large country house called Blakesware, near Widford, Hertfordshire. After the death of Mrs Plummer, Lamb's grandmother was in sole charge of the large home and, as Mr Plummer was absent, Charles had free rein of the place during his visits. A picture of these visits can be glimpsed in the Elia essay Blakesmoor in H—shire. Why, every plank and panel of that house for me had magic in it; the tapestried bed-rooms – tapestry so much better than painting – not adorning but peopling the wainscots – at which childhood and anon would steal a look, shifting its coverlid to exercise its tender courage in a momentary eye-encounter with those stern bright visages, staring reciprocally – all Ovid on the walls, in colours vivider than his descriptions.
Little is known about Charles's life before he was seven other than that Mary taught him to read at a early age and he read voraciously. It is believed that he suffered from smallpox during his early years, which forced him into a long period of convalescence. After this period of recovery Lamb began to take lessons from Mrs Reynolds, a woman who lived in the Temple and is believed to have been the former wife of a lawyer. Mrs Reynolds must have been a sympathetic schoolmistress because Lamb maintained a relationship with her throughout his life and she is known to have attended dinner parties held by Mary and Charles in the 1820s. E. V. Lucas suggests that sometime in 1781 Charles left Mrs Reynolds and began to study at the Academy of William Bird, his time with William Bird did not last long, because by October 1782 Lamb was enrolled in Christ's Hospital, a charity boarding school chartered by King Edward VI in 1553. A thorough record of Christ's Hospital is to be found in several essays by Lamb as well as The Autobiography of Leigh Hunt and the Biographia Literaria of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, with whom Charles developed a friendship that would last for their entire lives.
Despite the school's brutality, Lamb got along well there, due in part to the fact that his home was not far distant, thus enabling him, unlike many other boys, to return to its safety. Years in his essay "Christ's Hospital Five and Thirty Years Ago", Lamb described these events, speaking of himself in the third person as "L". "I remember L. at school. His friends lived in town, were near at hand. Christ's Hospital was a typical English boarding school and many students wrote of the terrible violence they suffered there; the upper master of the school from 1778 to 1799 was Reverend James Boyer, a man renowned for his unpredictable and capricious temper. In one famous story Boyer was said to have knocked one of Leigh Hunt's teeth out by throwing a copy of Homer at him from across the room. Lamb seemed to have escaped much of this brutality, in part because of his amiable personality and in part because Samuel Salt, his father's employer and Lamb's sponsor at the school, was one of the institute's governors.
Charles Lamb suffered from a stutter and this "inconquerable impediment" in his speech deprived him of Grecian status at Christ's Hospital, thus disqualifying him for a clerical career. While Coleridge and other scholarly boys were able to go on to Cambridge, Lamb left school at fourteen and was forced to find a more prosaic career. For a short time he worked in the office of Joseph Paice, a London merchant, for 23 weeks, until 8 February 1792, held a small post in the Examiner's Office of the South Sea House, its subsequent downfall in a pyramid scheme after Lamb left would be contrasted to the company's prosperity in the first Elia essay. On 5 April 1792 he went to work in the Accountant's Office for the British East India Company, the death of his father's