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J. P. Morgan

John Pierpont Morgan Sr. was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance on Wall Street throughout the Gilded Age. As the head of the banking firm that became known as J. P. Morgan and Co. he was a driving force behind the wave of industrial consolidation in the United States spanning the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Over the course of his career on Wall Street, J. P. Morgan spearheaded the formation of several prominent multinational corporations including U. S. Steel Corporation, International Harvester and General Electric, he and his partners held controlling interests in numerous other American businesses including AT&T, Western Union and 24 railroads. Due to his financial dominance, Morgan came to wield enormous influence over the nation's lawmakers and finances. During the Panic of 1907, he organized a coalition of financiers that saved the American economy from collapse; as the Progressive Era's leading financier, J. P. Morgan's dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform the shape of the American economy.

Adrian Wooldridge characterized Morgan as America's "greatest banker". Morgan died in Rome, Italy, in his sleep in 1913 at the age of 75, leaving his fortune and business to his son, John Pierpont Morgan Jr. Biographer Ron Chernow estimated his fortune at only $118 million, a net worth which prompted John D. Rockefeller to say: "and to think, he wasn't a rich man." Morgan was born and raised in Hartford, the son of Junius Spencer Morgan and Juliet Pierpont of the influential Morgan family. Pierpont, as he preferred to be known, had a varied education due in part to his father's plans. In the fall of 1848, he transferred to the Hartford Public School to the Episcopal Academy in Cheshire, where he boarded with the principal. In September 1851, he passed the entrance exam for The English High School of Boston, which specialized in mathematics for careers in commerce. In the April 1852, an illness struck Morgan which became more common as his life progressed: Rheumatic fever left him in such pain that he could not walk, Junius sent him to the Azores to recover.

He convalesced there for a year returned to Boston to resume his studies. After graduation, his father sent him to Bellerive, a school in the Swiss village of La Tour-de-Peilz, where he gained fluency in French, his father sent him to the University of Göttingen to improve his German. He attained passable fluency within six months, a degree in art history. Morgan went into banking in 1857 at the London branch of merchant banking firm Peabody, Morgan & Co. a partnership between his father and George Peabody founded three years earlier. In 1858, he moved to New York City to join the banking house of Duncan, Sherman & Company, the American representatives of George Peabody and Company. During the American Civil War, in an incident known as the Hall Carbine Affair, Morgan financed the purchase of five thousand rifles from an army arsenal at $3.50 each, which were resold to a field general for $22 each. Morgan had avoided serving during the war by paying a substitute $300 to take his place. From 1860 to 1864, as J. Pierpont Morgan & Company, he acted as agent in New York for his father's firm, renamed "J.

S. Morgan & Co." upon Peabody's retirement in 1864. From 1864–72, he was a member of the firm of Dabney and Company. In 1871, he partnered with the Drexels of Philadelphia to form the New York firm of Drexel, Morgan & Company. At that time, Anthony J. Drexel became Pierpont's mentor at the request of Junius Morgan. After the death of Anthony Drexel, the firm was rechristened J. P. Morgan & Company in 1895, retaining close ties with Drexel & Company of Philadelphia. S. Morgan & Company of London. By 1900 it was one of the world's most powerful banking houses, focused on reorganizations and consolidations. Morgan had many partners over the years, such as George W. Perkins, but always remained in charge, he took over troubled business and reorganized their structures and management to return them to profitability, a process that became known as "Morganization". His reputation as a banker and financier drew interest from investors to the businesses that he took over. In his ascent to power, Morgan focused on America's largest business enterprises.

He wrested control of the Albany and Susquehanna Railroad from Jay Gould and Jim Fisk in 1869. He raised large sums in Europe, he fought speculators interested only in profit and built a vision of an integrated transportation system. He marketed a large part of William H. Vanderbilt's New York Central holdings in 1883. In 1885 he reorganized the New York, West Shore & Buffalo Railroad, leasing it to the New York Central. In 1886 he reorganized the Philadelphia & Reading, in 1888 the Chesapeake & Ohio. After Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, Morgan set up conferences in 1889 and 1890 that brought together railroad presidents to help the industry follow the new laws and write agreements for the maintenance of "public, reasonable and stable rates"; the first of their kind, the conferences created a community of interest among competing lines, paving the

Pirates of the Caribbean (film series)

Pirates of the Caribbean is a series of fantasy swashbuckler films produced by Jerry Bruckheimer and loosely based on Walt Disney's eponymous theme park ride. Directors of the series include Rob Marshall and Joachim Rønning and Espen Sandberg; the series is written by Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio. The stories follow the adventures of Will Turner and Elizabeth Swann. Characters such as Hector Barbossa and Joshamee Gibbs follow Jack and Elizabeth in the course of the films; the fourth film features Blackbeard and Angelica, while the fifth film features Armando Salazar, Henry Turner and Carina Smyth. The films take place in a fictionalized historical setting; the film series started in 2003 with Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, which received positive reviews from critics and grossed US$654 million worldwide. After the first film's success, Walt Disney Pictures revealed; the franchise's second film, subtitled Dead Man's Chest, was released three years in 2006. Dead Man's Chest ended up being the number one film of the year upon earning $1.1 billion at the worldwide box office.

The third film in the series, subtitled At World's End, followed in 2007 earning $960 million, Disney released a fourth film, subtitled On Stranger Tides, in 2011 in conventional 2D, Digital 3-D and IMAX 3D. On Stranger Tides succeeded in grossing more than $1 billion, becoming the second film in the franchise and only the eighth film in history to achieve this; the franchise has grossed over $4.5 billion worldwide. Blacksmith Will Turner teams up with eccentric pirate Captain Jack Sparrow to save Turner's love, Elizabeth Swann, from cursed pirates led by Jack's mutinous former first mate, Hector Barbossa. Jack wants revenge against Barbossa, who left him stranded on an island before stealing his ship, the Black Pearl, along with 882 pieces of cursed Aztec Gold. Lord Cutler Beckett of the East India Trading Company arrests Will and Elizabeth for aiding Captain Jack Sparrow in the previous film. Beckett offers clemency if Will agrees to search for Jack's compass in a bid to find the Dead Man's Chest—and inside, the heart of villainous Davy Jones—which would give Beckett control of the seas.

However, Jack wants the Chest to escape from an unpaid debt with Jones, who made Jack captain of the Black Pearl for 13 years in exchange for 100 years of service aboard Jones' ship, the Flying Dutchman. Lord Beckett gains power over Davy Jones and, with the help of the Flying Dutchman, he is now executing his plans to extinguish piracy forever. To stand against the East India Trading Co. Will, Elizabeth and the crew of the Black Pearl set out to rescue Captain Jack Sparrow from Davy Jones' Locker; as one of the Nine Pirate Lords, Jack is needed in order to release an ancient goddess with the power to defeat Beckett's forces. Captain Jack Sparrow is on a quest to find the fabled Fountain of Youth and crosses paths with a former lover, Angelica, she forces Jack aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge, a ship captained by the infamous pirate Blackbeard, Angelica's father. Both are in search of the Fountain: Angelica to save her father's soul, Blackbeard to escape a prophecy of his demise at the hands of a one-legged man.

Joining the hunt is former pirate captain Barbossa, now a privateer in King George II's Navy, in a race against the Spanish for the Fountain of Youth. A group of ghostly Spanish Royal Navy soldiers led by Jack Sparrow's old nemesis, Captain Armando Salazar, escape from the Devil's Triangle, with the goal of killing every pirate at sea, including him. To survive, Jack seeks out the legendary Trident of Poseidon, a powerful artifact whose owner can control the seas and break curses. Shortly before the release of On Stranger Tides, it was reported that Disney was planning to shoot the fifth and the sixth films back-to-back, although only the fifth installment was developed. By March 2017, director Joachim Rønning stated that Dead Men was only the beginning of the final adventure, confirming that it would not be the last film of the series. In September 2017, producer Jerry Bruckheimer indicated that another Pirates of the Caribbean is still in development. In October of the same year, Kaya Scodelario stated that she is contractually signed to return for a sixth film.

Shortly after, it was confirmed. In October 2018, it was reported that Disney was planning on reinvigorating the franchise with Rhett Reese and Paul Wernick hired to write the script, with Jerry Bruckheimer again serving as producer. In December 2018, Walt Disney Studios President of Production, Sean Bailey, stated: "We want to bring in a new energy and vitality. I love the movies, but part of the reason Paul and Rhett are so interesting is that we want to give it a kick in the pants, and that's what I've tasked them with". The presence of Captain Jack Sparrow in the next movie has not yet been confirmed nor denied officially. By February 2019, Reese and Wernick quit the project. In October of that year, Craig Mazin and Ted Elliott joined the project as co-screenwrite

Richland Township, Venango County, Pennsylvania

Richland Township is a township in Venango County, United States. The population was 744 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 22.4 square miles, of which, 22.2 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 744 people, 291 households, 213 families residing in the township; the population density was 33.5 people per square mile. There were 341 housing units at an average density of 15.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.33% White, 0.13% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.67% of the population. There were 291 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.9% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.01. In the township the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males. The median income for a household in the township was $33,661, the median income for a family was $39,688. Males had a median income of $27,500 versus $20,972 for females; the per capita income for the township was $16,940. About 8.7% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.0% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over