Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game; the game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller having 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough and various hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most seen format at all levels, but most at the elite level.
The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship known as the British Open, first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland; this is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U. S. Open, the PGA Championship. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated; some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.
The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as chambot in France; the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier; the modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with". To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.
The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, played at Leith, Scotland. The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, golf's first major, is The Open Championship, first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U. S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground, set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway and other hazards, the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin and cup; the levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right.
This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice. A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches; this gave rise to the term "golf links" applied to seaside courses and those built on sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892; the course is still there today. Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout; each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typ
Milton Friedman was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the complexity of stabilization policy. With George Stigler and others, Friedman was among the intellectual leaders of the second generation of Chicago price theory, a methodological movement at the University of Chicago's Department of Economics, Law School and Graduate School of Business from the 1940s onward. Several students and young professors who were recruited or mentored by Friedman at Chicago went on to become leading economists, including Gary Becker, Robert Fogel, Thomas Sowell and Robert Lucas Jr. Friedman's challenges to what he called "naive Keynesian" theory began with his 1950s reinterpretation of the consumption function. In the 1960s, he became the main advocate opposing Keynesian government policies and described his approach as using "Keynesian language and apparatus" yet rejecting its "initial" conclusions.
He theorized that there existed a "natural" rate of unemployment and argued that unemployment below this rate would cause inflation to accelerate. He argued that the Phillips curve was in the long run vertical at the "natural rate" and predicted what would come to be known as stagflation. Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as "monetarism" and argued that a steady, small expansion of the money supply was the preferred policy, his ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation and deregulation influenced government policies during the 1980s. His monetary theory influenced the Federal Reserve's response to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008. Friedman was an advisor to Republican President Ronald Reagan and Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, his political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. He once stated that his role in eliminating conscription in the United States was his proudest accomplishment.
In his 1962 book Capitalism and Freedom, Friedman advocated policies such as a volunteer military floating exchange rates, abolition of medical licenses, a negative income tax and school vouchers and opposed the war on drugs. His support for school choice led him to found the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice renamed EdChoice. Friedman's works include monographs, scholarly articles, magazine columns, television programs and lectures and cover a broad range of economic topics and public policy issues, his books and essays have had global influence, including in former communist states. A survey of economists ranked Friedman as the second-most popular economist of the 20th century following only John Maynard Keynes and The Economist described him as "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century... of all of it". Friedman was born in Brooklyn, New York on July 31, 1912, his parents, Sára Ethel and Jenő Saul Friedman, were Jewish immigrants from Beregszász in Carpathian Ruthenia, Kingdom of Hungary.
They both worked as dry goods merchants. Shortly after his birth, the family relocated to New Jersey. In his early teens, Friedman was injured in a car accident. A talented student, Friedman graduated from Rahway High School in 1928, just before his 16th birthday, he was awarded a competitive scholarship to Rutgers University. In 1932, Friedman graduated from Rutgers University, where he specialized in mathematics and economics and intended to become an actuary. During his time at Rutgers, Friedman became influenced by two economics professors, Arthur F. Burns and Homer Jones, who convinced him that modern economics could help end the Great Depression. After graduating from Rutgers, Friedman was offered two scholarships to do graduate work—one in mathematics at Brown University and the other in economics at the University of Chicago. Friedman chose the latter, thus earning a Master of Arts degree in 1933, he was influenced by Jacob Viner, Frank Knight, Henry Simons. It was at Chicago that Friedman met economist Rose Director.
During the 1933–1934 academic year he had a fellowship at Columbia University, where he studied statistics with renowned statistician and economist Harold Hotelling. He was back in Chicago for the 1934–1935 academic year, working as a research assistant for Henry Schultz, working on Theory and Measurement of Demand; that year, Friedman formed what would prove to be lifelong friendships with George Stigler and W. Allen Wallis. Friedman was unable to find academic employment, so in 1935 he followed his friend W. Allen Wallis to Washington, D. C. where Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal was "a lifesaver" for many young economists. At this stage, Friedman said that he and his wife "regarded the job-creation programs such as the WPA, CCC, PWA appropriate responses to the critical situation," but not "the price- and wage-fixing measures of the National Recovery Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration." Foreshadowing his ideas, he believed price controls interfered with an essential signaling mechanism to help resources be used where they were most valued.
Indeed, Friedman concluded that all government intervention associated with the New Deal was "the wrong cure for the wrong disease," arguing that the money supply should have been expanded, instead of contracted. Friedman and his colleague Anna Schwartz wrote A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960, which argued that the Great Depression was caused by a
The Hundred Year Association of New York
The Hundred Year Association of New York, founded in 1927, is a non-profit organization in New York City aimed at recognizing and rewarding dedication and service to the City of New York by businesses and organizations that have been in operation in the city for a century or more and by individuals who have devoted their lives to the city as city employees. The association provides services to its members to promote to the public their history and contributions to the educational and civic affairs of New York and to preserve and perpetuate high ideals and worthy traditions that have been handed down through the years in the business and professional life of the city, it stands ready to use the background of experience of its members for the common good as opportunity arises. Any association, partnership or individual proprietorship whose continuity in its own right, or as successor to an organization in business for over 100 years is eligible for membership. Organizations 75 years or older may join as associate members.
Individuals can join the association's'Century Society.' Notable current members include ConEdison, National Grid, The Chief-Civil Service Leader, The Brooklyn Bar Association, Rosenwach Tank Company, John Gallin & Son, Hagedorn & Company, Christie & Company, Modell's Sporting Goods, Henry W. T. Mali & Company, New York University, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Bowne & Co. General Tool & Instruments, The New York Post, Sellew & Douglas, James Thompson & Co; the Guardian Life Insurance Company of America, Bank of New York Mellon, Richmond County Savings Bank, E. J. Electric, Marvin & Martin, Scientific American, STV Group, The Hotel Wales, The Delta Kappa Epsilon Club of New York and Ferrara Cafe; the association is led by a board of governors. The most recent chairman, Richard A. Cook, died in June 2007 after a long illness; the current president is Clinton W. Blume, III; the association's executive director is Luke Vander Linden. Past presidents have included James A. Farley. Initiated in 1958, the association grants the'Isaac Liberman Public Service Awards' annually to career New York City civil servants who have excelled beyond their normal duties during the course of the year.
Employees are nominated by their supervisor and department's commissioner or director and awards are determined by the association's Awards Committee in conjunction with the City of New York's Department of Citywide Administrative Services. The public service awards are named for Isaac Liberman, founder of The Hundred Year Association when he was president of Arnold Constable Stores in Brooklyn; the annual'E. Virgil Conway College Scholarships' are awarded to the sons and daughters of New York City employees every year, they are named after E. Virgil Conway, who conceived of the scholarship program in 1971. More than $1,200,000 has been granted since the awards program's inception; each year since 1930, the association has presented its'Gold Medal Award' "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York." While presented to a single individual, the award has been granted on occasion to more than one person or an organization. Past winners have been: 1930 Julius Miller 1931 Harvey Dow Gibson 1932 Justice Samuel Seabury 1933 Grover A. Whalen 1934 Robert Moses 1935 John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 1936 Thomas E. Dewey 1937 James Speyer 1938 Eleanor Robson Belmont 1939 Cleveland E. Dodge 1940 Fiorello H.
La Guardia 1946 Francis Spellman, Helen Rogers Reid 1947 Frederick H. Ecker 1948 William O'Dwyer 1949 Millicent C. McIntosh 1950 Oscar Hammerstein II, Richard Rodgers 1951 Alfred P. Sloan 1952 Howard S. Cullman 1953 John Hay Whitney 1954 Arthur Hays Sulzberger 1955 Brigadier General David Sarnoff 1956 Robert J. Wagner 1957 Keith S. McHugh 1958 Samuel D. Leidesdorf 1959 John D. Rockefeller III 1960 Howard A. Rusk 1961 Minnie Guggenheimer 1962 James A. Farley 1963 Paul R. Screvane 1964 Edmund F. Wagner 1965 David Rockefeller 1966 Austin J. Tobin 1967 John A. Coleman 1968 Gustave L. Levy 1969 J. Victor Herd 1970 Jack I. Straus 1971 William S. Renchard 1972 Robert S. Curtiss 1973 Gilbert W. Fitzhugh 1974 Leonard H. Goldenson 1975 George Champion 1976 William M. Ellinghaus 1977 Ellmore C. Patterson 1978 J. Henry Smith 1980 Harry Helmsley 1981 Richard R. Shinn 1982 Museum of the City of New York 1983 Edward J. Mortola 1984 J. Peter Grace 1985 Gene F. Jankowski 1986 E. Virgil Conway 1987 Edmund T. Pratt, Jr. 1988 Delbert C. Staley 1989 John J. Phelan, Jr. 1990 Felix G. Rohatyn 1991 Carnegie Hall 1992 William R. Chaney 1993 Tony Randall 1994 John F. McGillicuddy 1995 David A. Olsen 1996 Kenneth J. Gorman 1997 Simon J. Critchell 1998 Rudolph W. Giuliani 1999 Robert R. Douglass 2000 Robert M. Johnson 2001 Robert B.
Catell, Charles J. Hamm 2002 Charles J. Urstadt 2003 Mark S. Sisk 2004 The New York Post 2005 Robert M. Morgenthau 2006 Raymond W. Kelly 2007 John C. Cushman III 2008 Hon. Michael R. Bloomberg 2009 The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America 2010 Ralph K. Smith 2011 The Crew of US Airways Flight 1549 2011 Dominick M. Servedio. P. E; the Hundred Year Association of New York website
Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois, he graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman.
Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, was re-elected in 1970, he twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years in 1980, he won the nomination and defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have assumed office until Donald Trump in 2017. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U. S. president, 525, or 97.6 percent of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U. S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5 percent or 523 of the 531 electoral votes.
Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.
He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed; when Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68 percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era, he was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent, he died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, he is an icon among conservatives.
Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, he was the younger son of Jack Reagan. Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary, while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent. Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan, became an advertising executive. Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut. Reagan's family lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until settling in Dixon. After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House private quarters, he would quip that he was "living above the store again". Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and did".
She attended the Disciples of Christ church and was active, influential, within it.
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta and known as the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military and noble nature. It is the continuation of the medieval Order of Saint John known as the Knights Hospitaller, under international law; as a chivalric order, it was founded c. 1099 by the Blessed Gerard in medieval Jerusalem. As a subject of international law, it is an establishment of the 19th century, recognized at the Congress of Verona of 1822, since 1834 headquartered in Palazzo Malta in Rome; the order is led by Grand Master. Its motto is obsequium pauperum; the order venerates the Virgin Mary as its patroness, under the title of Our Lady of Mount Philermos. The headquarters of the Order of Saint John had been located in Malta from 1530 until 1798, it was technically a vassal of the Kingdom of Sicily, holding Malta in exchange for a nominal fee, but declared independence in 1753.
It was expelled from Malta under the French occupation in 1798 and, from 1805 to 1812, much of its possessions in Protestant Europe were confiscated, resulting in the fragmentation of the order into a number of Protestant branches, since 1961 united under the umbrella of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 confirmed the loss of Malta, but the Congress of Verona in 1822 guaranteed the continued existence of the Catholic order as a sovereign entity; the seat of the order was moved to Ferrara in 1826 and to Rome in 1834, the interior of Palazzo Malta being considered extraterritorial sovereign territory of the order. The grand priories of Lombardy-Venetia and of Sicily were restored from 1839 to 1841; the office of Grand Master was restored by Pope Leo XIII in 1879, after a vacancy of 75 years, confirming Giovanni Battista Ceschi a Santa Croce as the first Grand Master of the restored Order of Malta. The Holy See was established as a subject of international law in the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
In the following decades, the connection between the Holy See and the Order of Malta was seen as so close as to call into question the actual sovereignty of the order as a separate entity. This has prompted constitutional changes on the part of the Order, which were implemented in 1997. Since the Order has been recognized as a sovereign subject of international law in its own right, it maintains diplomatic relations with 107 states, has permanent observer status at the United Nations, enters into treaties and issues its own passports and postage stamps. Its two headquarters buildings in Rome enjoy extraterritoriality, similar to embassies, it maintains embassies in other countries; the three principal officers are counted as citizens. The Order has 13,500 Knights and auxiliary members. A few dozen of these are professed religious; until the 1990s, the highest classes of membership, including officers, required proof of noble lineage. More a path was created for Knights and Dames of the lowest class to be specially elevated to the highest class, making them eligible for office in the order.
The order employs about 42,000 doctors, nurses and paramedics assisted by 80,000 volunteers in more than 120 countries, assisting children, handicapped and terminally ill people and lepers around the world without distinction of ethnicity or religion. Through its worldwide relief corps, Malteser International, the order aids victims of natural disasters and war. In several countries, including France and Ireland, local associations of the order are important providers of medical emergency services and training, its annual budget is on the order of 1.5 billion euros funded by European governments, the United Nations and the European Union and public donors. The order has a large number of local priories and associations around the world, but there exist a number of organizations with similar-sounding names that are unrelated, including numerous fraudulent orders seeking to capitalize on the name. In the ecclesiastical heraldry of the Catholic Church, the Order of Malta is one of only two orders whose insignia may be displayed in a clerical coat of arms.
The shield is surrounded with a silver rosary for professed knights, or for others the ribbon of their rank. Members may display the Maltese cross behind their shield instead of the ribbon. In order to protect its heritage against frauds, the order has registered 16 versions of its names and emblems in some 100 countries; the birth of the order dates back to around 1048. Merchants from the ancient Marine Republic of Amalfi obtained from the Caliph of Egypt the authorisation to build a church and hospital in Jerusalem, to care for pilgrims of any religious faith or race; the Order of St. John of Jerusalem–the monastic community that ran the hospital for the pilgrims in the Holy Land–became independent under the guidance of its founder, the religious brother Gerard. With the Papal bull Pie postulatio voluntatis dated 15 February 1113, Pope Paschal II approved the foundation of the Hospital and placed it under the aegis of the Holy See, granting it the right to elect its superiors without interference from other secular or religious authorities.
By virtue of the Papal Bull
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer