The Quest Kodiak is an American utility aircraft built by Quest Aircraft. The high-wing, single-engine turboprop has a fixed tricycle landing gear and is suitable for STOL operations from unimproved airfields. Design began in 1999, it made its maiden flight on October 16, 2004 and was certified on 31 May 2007 before first delivery in January 2008. By 2018, 250 were delivered. Engineering design began in 1999; the design was type certified by the US Federal Aviation Administration on 31 May 2007. In June 2010, Inc. was granted Supplemental Type Certification allowing Wipline 7000 Amphibious Floats to be installed on Kodiaks. In November of that same year it was certified for flight into known icing after the installation of a TKS system, which protects exposed surfaces via glycol-based fluids. In 2014, an executive "Summit interior" with club seating was introduced. In April 2017, The Kodiak received its type certificate from the European Aviation Safety Agency. In May 2018, Quest Aircraft unveiled the Series II, priced at $2.15 million.
The airframe has improved cargo door step mechanism and wing root sealing, new crew door stays, optional single-point refueling and new paint schemes. The cockpit has compact backup instruments, a faster Garmin G1000 NXi with HSI map displaying traffic, weather and obstacles and an MFD showing terrain, usable for weight and balance and permitting autopilot visual approaches; the utility aircraft can accommodate 10 people. It features good useful load, its STOL performance comes from a fixed, discontinuous leading edge on the outboard wing and the 750 hp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 turboprop engine. Passenger seats are track-mounted and removable, it has access doors for the pilots and the aft clamshell door, with automatic steps, allows cargo loading or eight passengers boarding; the Kodiak's aluminum fuselage offers a 54 in × 57 in cargo door. Optional Aerocet carbon-fiber floats can be fitted and weigh 700 lb with wheels or 400 lb without wheels, 380 lb lighter than aluminum floats while cruising 8 kn faster and are more watertight.
The Aerocet floats can be operated in 18–20 in waves. The Kodiak Series II is more refined and has upgraded door and wing root seals to reduce wind leaks and exhaust odors; the model's upgraded Garmin G1000NXi avionics are similar to the original G1000 with three 10 inch screens, but is more responsive and offers more PFD insets, including a mini moving map, which can display traffic, terrain and weather. The Kodiak is smaller than the DHC-3 Otter or Cessna Caravan, it takes off in less space than the Caravan. The first Kodiak was delivered to launch customer Spirit Air in January 2008. By September 2013, 100 Kodiaks had been built, with the 100th aircraft being delivered to US operator Sunstate Aviation; the Kodiak was designed for use by mission societies, several aircraft have been delivered to organisations such as Mission Aviation Fellowship and JAARS. Some of the Kodiaks built have been produced under Quest Aircraft's Quest Mission Team program; the QMT program aims to sell one of every 11 Kodiaks built to a mission organisation at cost price.
The 200th aircraft was delivered in December 2016 for a record yearly production of 36 Kodiaks, while the production facility was extended by 25 percent in September to cope with growing demand. The 250th was delivered as the highest time aircraft surpassed 5,000 hours. Kodiak 100 Base model, FAA certificated 31 May 2007. Kodiak 100 Series II Model introduced in May 2018, incorporating improvements, including a Garmin G1000NXi avionics suite, Flight Stream 510 tablet connection device, an angle-of-attack indicator and a digital standby four instrument group. Air Claw A surveillance modification by Northrop Grumman with a FLIR systems Star Saphire sensor and a Persistent Surveillance Systems Hawkeye wide area sensor; the largest single order was announced on 15 November 2016 for 20 aircraft from Sky Trek, to be delivered within a year. Tokyo-based Sky Trek plans to begin air charter services in the first half of 2017 and is a start-up membership-based operator owned by Mitsui and Setouchi Holdings.
Setouchi was the Quest dealer for Japan and purchased Quest Aircraft in 2015. In November 2017, 220 Quest Kodiaks are flying worldwide as freighters, for skydiving and as business aircraft. India's SpiceJet intends to buy a $400 million deal, it has applied for financial support from Narendra Modi as part of the national aviation expansion program UDAN for connecting its population by air, despite limited infrastructure. As only 3% of Indians travel by air, it is hoped that the Kodiak will stimulate air travel by operating from waterways and unimproved runways; the aircraft has been demonstrated as a seaplane demonstrations will happen next. Aerocet carbon-fiber amphibious floats are a $400,000 option. By October 2018, there had been 16 Kodiak aviation accidents and incidents reported in the Aviation Safety Network database, including five hull-losses and three lethal accidents, causing five fatalities. Data from BrochureGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 9 passengers Payload: 248 cu ft Length: 34’2” Wingspan: 45 ft Height: 15’3” Wing area: 240 ft² Aspect ratio: 8.44 Empty weight: 3,770 lb Useful load: 3,535 lb Max.
Takeoff weight: 7,255 lb Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 turboprop, 750 hp takeoff, 700 hp continuous (559 kW takeoff, 522 kW continu
Torah has a range of meanings. It can most mean the first five books of the 24 books of the Tanakh, it is printed with the rabbinic commentaries, it can mean the continued narrative from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, it can mean the totality of Jewish teaching and practice, whether derived from biblical texts or rabbinic writings. Common to all these meanings, Torah consists of the origin of Jewish peoplehood: their call into being by God, their trials and tribulations, their covenant with their God, which involves following a way of life embodied in a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws. In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both the Oral Torah; the Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. According to rabbinic tradition, all of the teachings found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today.
According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, was used as the blueprint for Creation. The majority of Biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian captivity, based on earlier written sources and oral traditions, that it was completed during the period of Achaemenid rule. Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the presence of a congregation. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases of Jewish communal life; the word "Torah" in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, which in the hif'il conjugation means'to guide' or'to teach'. The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the Alexandrian Jews who translated the Septuagint used the Greek word nomos, meaning norm, doctrine, "law". Greek and Latin Bibles began the custom of calling the Pentateuch The Law. Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, guidance, or system.
The term "Torah" is used in the general sense to include both Rabbinic Judaism's written law and Oral Law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law" may be an obstacle to understanding the ideal, summed up in the term talmud torah. The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses"; this title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua and Kings. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" and "The Book of the Torah", which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God". Christian scholars refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the'Pentateuch', a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria.
The Torah starts from the beginning of God's creating the world, through the beginnings of the people of Israel, their descent into Egypt, the giving of the Torah at biblical Mount Sinai. It ends with the death of Moses, just before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the specific teachings given explicitly or implicitly embedded in the narrative. In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the incipits in each book, it is divisible into the Primeval history and the Ancestral history. The primeval history sets out the author's concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world, good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God; the Ancestral history tells of the prehistory of Israel, God's chosen people
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth.
Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum, the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.
The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.
It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.
During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.
Waxhaw, North Carolina
Waxhaw is a town in Union County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 9,859 according to the 2010 Census. Waxhaw is located at 34°55′42″N 80°44′41″W. Stephen Maher is the current mayor of the Town of Waxhaw. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 11.54 square miles. Waxhaw is located north of Lancaster, South Carolina and lies about twelve miles south of the Charlotte city limit. Waxhaw is located in the historic region called the Waxhaws and named after the indigenous Native American tribe that lived there prior to colonial settlement. Waxhaw is in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, a wooded area with rolling hills; this region is. The Howie Gold Mine is not far from the city limits; the original inhabitants of the region were a Native American people group known alternately as either the Wysacky or the Waxhaws. The first European to record contacting the group was the Spanish conquistador Juan Pardo. In 1711 the Waxhaw aided the colonists of North Carolina in their war against the Tuscarora, a decision which antagonized the Tuscaroras Iroquoian allies in New York who subsequently began raiding the Waxhaw tribe.
These raids continued until 1715 when the Waxhaw joined the Yamasee war effort against the colony of South Carolina. The tribes involvement in the Yamasee War led to their destruction at the hands of South Carolina's Catawba allies and the freeing of their land for European settlement; the area was first settled by European-Americans in the mid-eighteenth century. Most settlers were of Scots-Irish origin. Settlers were known for being independent. Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the United States, was born nearby in 1767. There is some disagreement as to which of the Carolinas was his birthplace because of the proximity of the border; the arrival of the railroad in 1888 created access to the markets of Atlanta and helped the town reach prosperity. The railroad tracks were laid through the center of town to show the importance of the railroad system to the community; the railroad remains in the center of town and is now bordered by a green grassy strip that divides the rows of stores on each side.
Beginning in the late 19th century, the community began to develop cotton mill factories for manufacturing textiles. The railroad helped increase access for its products. Cotton manufacturing was important to the region through the 1940s. Postwar changes in the economy, with shifts of the textile industry to jobs in other areas and out of the country, required the community to adapt to new conditions. Waxhaw has evolved as an fine dining center, its Small Town Main Street committee is working on an integrated approach to developing and marketing the historic center of town. Waxhaw has dozens of specialty shops and dining restaurants. Restaurants located in town range from pop restaurants to fine dining bistros; the Waxhaw Historic District is on the National Register of Historic Places. It includes retail businesses as well as architecturally significant houses near the center of town. Listed is the Pleasant Grove Camp Meeting Ground. Residents and town officials are working on additional improvement plans.
In the downtown area, there is a skate park for youths. New housing has been built along NC 75 to the west of town, as well as NC 16 to the north. Near Waxhaw is Cane Creek Park, a 1,050-acre park, featuring scenic areas and recreation activities; the facility, on Harkey Road south of Waxhaw, was a cooperative venture between Union County, the Union Conservation District, the Soil Conservation Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Waxhaw has a Board of Commissioners. All five members are elected to 4 year terms in non-partisan elections that take place on odd numbered years. Three seats are up one year and two years the other 2 seats come up for election at the same time as the mayor. There are no districts and the top vote recipients win the seats; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,859 people, 3,242 households, 2,626 families residing in the town. For the population density, there were 854.0 people per 3,517 housing units. As for the racial makeup of the town, there were 78.1% White, 11.00% African American, 2.1% from two or more races, 2.0% Asian, 0.04% Native American.
The Hispanic or Latino of any race was 6.4% of the population. There were 3,242 households out of which 41.8% had children under the age of eighteen living with them, 81.0% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.0% were non-families. The average household size was 3.04 and the average family size was 3.41. In the town, the population age range was from 34.6% under the age of 18, 3.1% from 20 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.5 years. For every 100 females there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $73,188; the per capita income for the town was $27,949. The percentage of people below the poverty line was 8.9%. Kensington Elementary School Sandy Ridge Elementary School Waxhaw Elementary School Western Union Elementary School Newtown Elementary School Rea View Elementary School Wesley Chapel Elementary School Marvin Elementary School Prospect Elementary School Weddington Elementary Marvin Ridge Middle School Parkwood Middle school Cuthbertson Middle School Marvin Ridge High School South Providence High School Parkwood High School Cuthbertson High School Central Academy of Technology and Arts
The Bell 206 is a family of two-bladed, single- and twin-engined helicopters, manufactured by Bell Helicopter at its Mirabel, plant. Developed as the Bell YOH-4 for the United States Army's Light Observation Helicopter program, it was not selected by the Army. Bell redesigned the airframe and marketed the aircraft commercially as the five-place Bell 206A JetRanger; the new design was selected by the Army as the OH-58 Kiowa. Bell developed a seven-place LongRanger, offered with a twin-engined option as the TwinRanger, while Tridair Helicopters offers a similar conversion of the LongRanger called the Gemini ST; the ICAO-assigned model designation "B06" is used on flight plans for the JetRanger and LongRanger, the designation "B06T" is used for the twin-engined TwinRangers. On October 14, 1960, the United States Navy solicited responses from 25 aircraft manufacturers to a request for proposals on behalf of the Army for the Light Observation Helicopter. Bell entered the competition along with 12 other manufacturers, including Hiller Aircraft and Hughes Tool Co.
Aircraft Division. Bell submitted the D-250 design, which would be designated as the YHO-4. On May 19, 1961, Bell and Hiller were announced as winners of the design competition. Bell developed the D-250 design into the Bell 206 aircraft, redesignated as YOH-4A in 1962, produced five prototype aircraft for the Army's test and evaluation phase; the first prototype flew on December 8, 1962. The YOH-4A came to be known as "The Ugly Duckling" in comparison to the other contending aircraft. Following a fly-off of the Bell and Fairchild-Hiller prototypes, the Hughes OH-6 was selected in May 1965; when the YOH-4A was eliminated by the Army, Bell went about solving the problem of marketing the aircraft. In addition to the image problem, the helicopter lacked cargo space and only provided cramped seating for the planned three passengers; the solution was a redesigned fuselage and aesthetically appealing, adding 16 ft3 of cargo space in the process. A Bell executive contributed to this redesign by drawing on a sketch two lines extending the fuselage to where it meets the tail.
The redesign was designated Bell 206A, Bell President Edwin J. Ducayet named it the JetRanger, denoting an evolution from the popular Model 47J Ranger. On January 24, 2008, Bell Helicopter announced plans to end production of the Bell 206B-3 version after current order commitments were fulfilled in 2010 In 2011, used 206B-3s sold for around $1.4 million depending upon the equipment and configuration. Bell intends for the Bell 505 Jet Ranger X to replace the 206 five-seat versions from around 2015 and compete with the Robinson R66; the 206L LongRanger is a stretched variant with seating for seven. The fuselage, stretched a total of 30 inches, adds two rear-facing seats between the front and rear seats. Since 1975, Bell has produced more than 1,700 LongRangers across all variant types. In 1981, a military version, the 206L TexasRanger was released; the original 206L used an Allison 250-C20B engine, a series of model upgrades replaced this engine with more powerful versions. In both applications, the 250-C30P is derated from 650 hp for takeoff and 501 hp continuous.
The 206L-3 is transmission-limited to 435 hp for take-off, the 206L-4 is transmission-limited to 495 hp. The derating of the C30P produces an advantage in hot-day and high-altitude operations as it can produce the rated horsepower at higher altitudes and temperatures where applications that use the maximum rating of the engine at sea level suffer accelerated performance deterioration with increases in temperature and altitude; the 206L-3 and L-4 have not been offered in a twin configuration under those model designations. In 2007, Bell announced an upgrade program for the 206L-1 and 206L-3, designed to modify the aircraft to the 206L-4 configuration. Modifications include strengthened airframe structural components, improved transmission, upgraded engine for the L-1, all of which result in a maximum gross weight increase of 300 pounds and increased performance; as of 2018, production of the 206L-4 is ongoing. The TwinRanger name dates from the mid-1980s when Bell developed the Bell 400 TwinRanger, but it never entered production.
In 1989, Tridair Helicopters began developing a twin-engine conversion of the LongRanger, the Gemini ST. The prototype's first flight was on January 16, 1991, while full FAA certification was awarded in November. Certification covers the conversion of LongRanger L-3s and L-4s to Gemini ST configuration. In mid-1994 the Gemini ST was certificated as the first Single/Twin aircraft, allowing it to operate either as a single or twin engine aircraft throughout all phases of flight; the Bell 206LT TwinRanger was a new-build production model equivalent to Tridair's Gemini ST, was based on the 206L-4. Thirteen 206LTs were built, the first being delivered in January 1994, the last in 1997; the TwinRanger was replaced in Bell's lineup by the mostly-new Bell 427. The first Bell 206A flew on January 10, 1966, the aircraft was revealed that month at the Helicopter Association of America convention. On October 20, 1966, the JetRanger received FAA certification. Delivery of the JetRanger to customers began on January 13, 1967, with the first aircraft being purchased by Harry Holly, CEO of the Hollymatic Corporation and previous owner of a Bell Ranger.
In 1968, the United States Navy selected the 206A as the TH-57 Sea Ranger. The Army eventually selected the 206A for a light observation helicopter as the OH-58 Kiowa; the basic shape and design of the JetRang
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Information technology is the use of computers to store, retrieve and manipulate data, or information in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of communications technology. An information technology system is an information system, a communications system or, more speaking, a computer system – including all hardware and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users. Humans have been storing, retrieving and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review. We shall call it information technology." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs. The term is used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones.
Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, electronics, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce. Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical, electromechanical, electronic; this article focuses on the most recent period, which began in about 1940. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years initially in the form of a tally stick; the Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed. Electronic computers, using either valves, began to appear in the early 1940s.
The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task, it lacked the ability to store its program in memory. The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Baby, which ran its first program on 21 June 1948; the development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version.
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of, the mercury delay line; the first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in 1932 and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. IBM introduced the first hard disk drive as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.
Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape, it has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling every 3 years. Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System, still deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically, but in the 1970s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables and columns; the first commercially available relational database management system was available from Oracle in 1981. All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultan