The Oakland Athletics referred to as the A's, are an American professional baseball team based in Oakland, California. They compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West division; the team plays its home games at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. They have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of all current MLB teams; the 2018 season was the club's 50th while based in Oakland. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the team was founded in Philadelphia in 1901 as the Philadelphia Athletics, they won three World Series championships from 1910 to 1913 and back-to-back titles in 1929 and 1930. The team's owner and manager for its first 50 years was Connie Mack and Hall of Fame players included Chief Bender, Frank "Home Run" Baker, Jimmie Foxx, Lefty Grove; the team left Philadelphia for Kansas City in 1955 and became the Kansas City Athletics before moving to Oakland in 1968. They won three consecutive World Championships between 1972 and 1974, led by players including Vida Blue, Catfish Hunter, Reggie Jackson, ace reliever Rollie Fingers, colorful owner Charlie O. Finley.
After being sold by Finley to Walter A. Haas Jr. the team won three consecutive pennants and the 1989 World Series behind the "Bash Brothers", Jose Canseco and Mark McGwire, as well as Hall of Famers Dennis Eckersley, Rickey Henderson and manager Tony La Russa. From 1901 to 2018, the Athletics' overall win–loss record is 8,931–9,387; the history of the Athletics Major League Baseball franchise spans the period from 1901 to the present day, having begun in Philadelphia before moving to Kansas City in 1955 and to its current home in Oakland, California, in 1968. The A's made their Bay Area debut on Wednesday, April 17, 1968, with a 4-1 loss to the Baltimore Orioles at the Coliseum, in front of an opening-night crowd of 50,164; the Athletics' name originated in the term "Athletic Club" for local gentlemen's clubs—dates to 1860 when an amateur team, the Athletic of Philadelphia, was formed. The team turned professional through 1875, becoming a charter member of the National League in 1876, but were expelled from the N.
L. after one season. A version of the Athletics played in the American Association from 1882 to 1891. After New York Giants manager John McGraw told reporters that Philadelphia manufacturer Benjamin Shibe, who owned the controlling interest in the new team, had a "white elephant on his hands", team manager Connie Mack defiantly adopted the white elephant as the team mascot, presented McGraw with a stuffed toy elephant at the start of the 1905 World Series. McGraw and Mack had known each other for years, McGraw accepted it graciously. By 1909, the A's were wearing an elephant logo on their sweaters, in 1918 it turned up on the regular uniform jersey for the first time. In 1963, when the A's were located in Kansas City, then-owner Charlie Finley changed the team mascot from an elephant to a mule, the state animal of Missouri; this is rumored to have been done by Finley in order to appeal to fans from the region who were predominantly Democrats at the time. Since 1988, the Athletics' 21st season in Oakland, an illustration of an elephant has adorned the left sleeve of the A's home and road uniforms.
Beginning in the mid 1980s, the on-field costumed incarnation of the A's elephant mascot went by the name Harry Elephante. In 1997, he took Stomper. Through the seasons, the Athletics' uniforms have paid homage to their amateur forebears to some extent; until 1954, when the uniforms had "Athletics" spelled out in script across the front, the team's name never appeared on either home or road uniforms. Furthermore, neither "Philadelphia" nor the letter "P" appeared on the uniform or cap; the typical Philadelphia uniform had only a script "A" on the left front, the cap had the same "A" on it. In the early days of the American League, the standings listed the club as "Athletic" rather than "Philadelphia", in keeping with the old tradition; the city name came to be used for the team, as with the other major league clubs. After buying the team in 1960, owner Charles O. Finley introduced new road uniforms with "Kansas City" printed on them, as well as an interlocking "KC" on the cap. Upon moving to Oakland, the "A" cap emblem was restored, although in 1970 an "apostrophe-s" was added to the cap and uniform emblem to reflect the fact that Finley was in the process of changing the team's name to the "A's".
While in Kansas City, Finley changed the team's colors from their traditional red and blue to what he termed "Kelly Green, Wedding Gown White and Fort Knox Gold". It was here that he began experimenting with dramatic uniforms to match these bright colors, such as gold sleeveless tops with green undershirts and gold pants; the innovative uniforms only increased after the team's move to Oakland, which came at the time of the introduction of polyester pullover uniforms. During their dynasty years in the 1970s, the A's had dozens of uniform combinations with jerseys and pants in all three team colors, in fact did not wear the traditional gray on the road, instead wearing green or gold, which helped to contribute to their nickname of "The Swingin' A's". After the team's sale to the Haas family, the team changed its primary color to a more subdued forest green and began a move back to more traditional uniforms; the team wears home uniforms with "Athletics" spelled out in script writing and road uniforms wit
The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division; the team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located on the city's North Side. The Cubs are one of two major league teams in Chicago; the Cubs, first known as the White Stockings, were a founding member of the NL in 1876, becoming the Chicago Cubs in 1903. The Cubs have appeared in a total of eleven World Series; the 1906 Cubs won 116 games, finishing 116–36 and posting a modern-era record winning percentage of.763, before losing the World Series to the Chicago White Sox by four games to two. The Cubs won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first major league team to play in three consecutive World Series, the first to win it twice. Most the Cubs won the 2016 National League Championship Series and 2016 World Series, which ended a 71-year National League pennant drought and a 108-year World Series championship drought, both of which are record droughts in Major League Baseball.
The 108-year drought was the longest such occurrence in all major North American sports. Since the start of divisional play in 1969, the Cubs have appeared in the postseason nine times through the 2017 season; the Cubs are known as "the North Siders", a reference to the location of Wrigley Field within the city of Chicago, in contrast to the White Sox, whose home field is located on the South Side. The Cubs have multiple rivalries. There is a divisional rivalry with the St. Louis Cardinals, a newer rivalry with the Milwaukee Brewers and an interleague rivalry with the Chicago White Sox; the Cubs began playing in 1870 as the Chicago White Stockings, joining the National League in 1876 as a charter member. Owner William Hulbert signed multiple star players, such as pitcher Albert Spalding and infielders Ross Barnes, Deacon White, Adrian "Cap" Anson, to join the team prior to the N. L.'s first season. The White Stockings played their home games at West Side Grounds and established themselves as one of the new league's top teams.
Spalding won forty-seven games and Barnes led the league in hitting at.429 as Chicago won the first National League pennant, which at the time was the game's top prize. After back-to-back pennants in 1880 and 1881, Hulbert died, Spalding, who had retired to start Spalding sporting goods, assumed ownership of the club; the White Stockings, with Anson acting as player-manager, captured their third consecutive pennant in 1882, Anson established himself as the game's first true superstar. In 1885 and'86, after winning N. L. pennants, the White Stockings met the champions of the short-lived American Association in that era's version of a World Series. Both seasons resulted in matchups with the St. Louis Brown Stockings, with the clubs tying in 1885 and with St. Louis winning in 1886; this was the genesis of what would become one of the greatest rivalries in sports. In all, the Anson-led Chicago Base Ball Club won six National League pennants between 1876 and 1886; as a result, Chicago's club nickname transitioned, by 1890 they had become known as the Chicago Colts, or sometimes "Anson's Colts", referring to Cap's influence within the club.
Anson was the first player in history credited with collecting 3,000 career hits. After a disappointing record of 59–73 and a ninth-place finish in 1897, Anson was released by the Cubs as both a player and manager. Due to Anson's absence from the club after 22 years, local newspaper reporters started to refer to the Colts as the "Orphans". After the 1900 season, the American Base-Ball League formed as a rival professional league, incidentally the club's old White Stockings nickname would be adopted by a new American League neighbor to the south. In 1902, who by this time had revamped the roster to boast what would soon be one of the best teams of the early century, sold the club to Jim Hart; the franchise was nicknamed the Cubs by the Chicago Daily News in 1902, although not becoming the Chicago Cubs until the 1907 season. During this period, which has become known as baseball's dead-ball era, Cub infielders Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers, Frank Chance were made famous as a double-play combination by Franklin P. Adams' poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon.
The poem first appeared in the July 1910 edition of the New York Evening Mail. Mordecai "Three-Finger" Brown, Jack Taylor, Ed Reulbach, Jack Pfiester, Orval Overall were several key pitchers for the Cubs during this time period. With Chance acting as player-manager from 1905 to 1912, the Cubs won four pennants and two World Series titles over a five-year span. Although they fell to the "Hitless Wonders" White Sox in the 1906 World Series, the Cubs recorded a record 116 victories and the best winning percentage in Major League history. With the same roster, Chicago won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first Major League club to play three times in the Fall Classic and the first to win it twice. However, the Cubs would not win another World Series until 2016; the next season, veteran catcher Johnny Kling left the team to become a professional pocket billiards player. Some historians think Kling's absence was significant enough to prevent the Cubs from winning a third straight title in 1909, as they finished 6 games out of first place.
When Kling returned the next year, the Cubs won the pennant again, but lost to the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1910 World Series. In 1914, adver
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
The Iowa Cubs are a Minor League Baseball team of the Pacific Coast League and the Triple-A affiliate of the Chicago Cubs. They are located in Des Moines and play their home games at Principal Park, which opened in 2004; the team was known as the Iowa Oaks when it was established as a member of the Triple-A American Association in 1969. The Cubs took on the moniker of their major league affiliate in 1982, they joined the PCL in 1998. Their only league title in franchise history is the 1993 American Association championship. Triple-A baseball came to Iowa's capital city in 1969, as the Iowa Oaks of the American Association began play; the Oaks were affiliates of the Oakland Athletics, the Chicago White Sox, the Houston Astros. In 1981, the team affiliated with the Chicago Cubs and, in 1982, adopted the nickname of the parent team, although it is shortened to "I-Cubs" by fans and media to avoid confusion with the major league team; the team became part of the Pacific Coast League in 1998 after the dissolution of the American Association.
The Iowa Cubs are one of only four Triple-A clubs. Most minor league teams have moved towards a nickname representative of their local community in order to provide consistent marketing regardless of what major league club their PDC is with, their home ballpark is Principal Park, located at the confluence of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers. The franchise attendance record of 576,310 was set in 2007; as of 2008, the I-Cubs are owned by Raccoon Baseball, Inc. an ownership group led by Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Michael Gartner. Sam Bernabe serves as the team's general manager; the mascot of the Iowa Cubs is "Cubbie Bear," a brown bear, the Iowa Cubs' unofficial ambassador to schools and charitable events throughout central Iowa. Many future Cubs stars have played in Des Moines; some notable I-Cubs alumni include Greg Maddux, Rafael Palmeiro, Mark Grace, Doug Glanville, Joe Carter, Corey Patterson, Carlos Zambrano, Kyle Farnsworth, Kerry Wood, Steve Trachsel, Tuffy Rhodes, Bruce Kimm, Shawon Dunston, Héctor Villanueva, Mark Prior, Sam Fuld, John Grabow, Rod Beck.
Wood and Prior both made rehabilitation starts for the I-Cubs in 2004 and 2005 before returning to the Chicago Cubs' active roster, many Cubs players such as Derrek Lee, Daryle Ward, Alfonso Soriano, Ryan Dempster have made stops in Des Moines for rehab purposes. Today many Cubs stars such as Kris Bryant, Kyle Schwarber, Anthony Rizzo, Javier Baez made stops in Iowa; the Iowa Oaks hosted many future Major League Baseball stars such as sluggers Bill McNulty, Harold Baines, Pat Tabler, 1971 Cy Young and MVP Award winning left-handed pitcher Vida Blue. Rod Beck gained national attention while pitching for Iowa during his comeback for living in a mobile home behind the team's Sec Taylor Stadium in Des Moines. Beck warmly welcomed fans to drop by and visit, use his restroom, have some Coors Light from his refrigerator. In 1993, Tuffy Rhodes hit an extra-inning home run to win the American Association championship for the Iowa Cubs. After failing to latch on to a major league team, in 1995, Rhodes went on to a successful career playing in Nippon Professional Baseball in Japan, where he is the career NPB home run leader by a non-Japanese player with 430 home runs.
In addition to these players, Mike Quade, a former manager of the Chicago Cubs, managed the Iowa Cubs from 2003 to 2006. Another former Chicago Cubs manager Bruce Kimm is an Iowa native who managed the Iowa Cubs from 2001 to 2002. In 2010, the I-Cubs had one of their best seasons with manager Ryne Sandberg named Pacific Coast League 2010 Manager of the Year. Former St. Louis Cardinals manager Tony La Russa managed the Iowa Oaks in 1979 prior to becoming manager for the Chicago White Sox. In May 2014, Manny Ramirez signed a contract as a part-time player/coach for the I-Cubs. Former Iowa Cubs broadcasters include: Vince Cotroneo Brett Dolan Dave Raymond Official Iowa Cubs website Iowa Cubs year-by-year records Iowa Cubs playoff history Iowa Cubs single season leaders
Mike Myers (baseball)
Michael Stanley Myers is a left-handed former Major League Baseball relief pitcher. Myers attended high school at Crystal Lake Central High School in Illinois and attended Iowa State University, where he played college baseball for the Iowa State Cyclones baseball team. In the summers of 1988 and 1989, he pitched for the Brewster Whitecaps of the Cape Cod Baseball League. Myers was in the minor leagues for parts of six seasons. In his final four minor league seasons, he was 14-27 with a 4.29 ERA. He was used as a starting pitcher until 1995, when he pitched 42 games, all in relief, for the Charlotte Knights and Toledo Mud Hens; the San Francisco Giants drafted Myers in the fourth round of the 1990 Major League Baseball Draft. Before he played for the Giants at the major league level, he was drafted by the Florida Marlins in the 1992 Rule 5 draft, he made his major league debut with the Marlins on April 25, 1995, pitching an inning of scoreless relief. In August of that year, the Marlins traded Myers to the Detroit Tigers as the player to be named from an earlier deal between the two clubs, in which the Marlins acquired Buddy Groom.
He went a combined 1-9 for Detroit between the 1997 seasons. He did lead the Majors in appearances, appearing in 83 and 88 games in both seasons. Myers pitched for Detroit through the 1997 season. After the season, Myers was traded by the Tigers with Rick Greene and Santiago Perez to the Milwaukee Brewers for Bryce Florie. Myers pitched for the Brewers for two seasons, pitching in 70 games in 1998 and 71 in 1999. After the 1999 season, the Brewers traded Myers to the Colorado Rockies for Curt Leskanic. In 2000, Myers had the best season of his career while pitching half his games in Coors Field, he had a 2.05 ERA in 43 games at Coors Field in 2000. He finished the season with a career low 1.99 ERA in 78 games. The following season, Myers pitched in 73 games for the Rockies, going 2-3 with a 3.60 ERA. Before the 2002 season, the Rockies traded Myers to the Arizona Diamondbacks for JD Closser and Jack Cust. In 2002, he had a 4.38 ERA in 69 games. He signed as a free agent with the Seattle Mariners for the 2004 season, but was selected off of waivers by the Boston Red Sox in August 2004.
He signed as a free agent with the St. Louis Cardinals in the 2004-05 offseason, but was traded back to the Red Sox for two minor league players before the 2005 season began. During the 2005-06 offseason, Myers signed as a free agent with the New York Yankees, he got off to an amazing start with an ERA under 2 by mid July. But he struggled down the stretch. One big highlight late in the season was the big outs he got in Boston during a 5-game series against the Red Sox; the Yankees released Myers in August 2007, he signed with the Chicago White Sox. On January 25, 2008, Myers signed with the Los Angeles Dodgers to a minor league contract and was invited to spring training. Myers did not make the Dodgers team, but was assigned to play for the Las Vegas 51s in Triple-A, he became a free agent. On March 17, 2009, Myers was hired as a special assistant to the head of the Major League Baseball Players Association, Donald Fehr. Myers is a submarine pitcher, throwing the ball with his arm at or below his shoulder rather than above.
When Myers was with the Tigers, Baseball Hall of Famer Al Kaline a broadcaster with the team, suggested that Myers experiment with the submarine style of pitching. His luck improved in his next two appearances against Baltimore, retiring three batters in a row both times. "Kaline suggested my throwing sidearm to give me a little bit of funk and mystery against left-handed hitters. After what I did against Baltimore, I just kept going from there," Myers said, he throws two different breaking balls with a deceptive movement that disconcerts opposing hitters left-handed hitters. Myers is durable as well. Since his first full major league season in 1996, he has appeared in at least 60 games every year, topping 80 appearances in his first two seasons to lead the league both years, over 70 in his next four seasons. Myers's primary role was as a left-handed relief specialist, against baseball's left-handed hitters, though the statistics say he has difficulty performing his job against the best of the group.
With the Rockies and Diamondbacks, he would come into games to face Giants slugger Barry Bonds, was used by the Red Sox against Hideki Matsui of the Yankees and by the Yankees against David Ortiz of the Red Sox. However, through the end of the 2007 season, Bonds is 8-for-25 with a home run and eight walks against Myers, while Ortiz is 5-for-17 with a home run and two walks, Matsui is 3-for-9 with a home run and a walk. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube
Sacramento River Cats
The Sacramento River Cats are a Minor League Baseball team of the Pacific Coast League and the Triple-A affiliate of the San Francisco Giants. They are located in West Sacramento and play their home games at Raley Field which opened in 2000. Sacramento was represented in the PCL by the Solons, a charter member of the league, founded in 1903. Three different versions of the Solons played in California's capital city in 1903, 1905, from 1909 to 1914, from 1918 to 1960, from 1974 to 1976; as of 2018, Sacramento is the only charter city. The team has won four PCL championships. Most the River Cats won back-to-back in 2007 and 2008, they went on to win the Triple-A National Championship Game in both seasons. Sacramento won the PCL crown in 2003 and 2004. In 2016, Forbes listed the team as the most valuable Minor League Baseball team with a value of $49 million. Following the 1999 season, the Pacific Coast League's Vancouver Canadians were purchased by a group led by Art Savage, moved south to West Sacramento, renamed the River Cats for the 2000 season.
Savage was the majority owner of the team until his death at age 58 in November 2009. His widow, Susan Savage, became majority owner upon her husband's death. In 2016, Mike Piazza became the first and only former River Cats player to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame, after earning an 83% vote by the committee. After arriving at Raley Field, the River Cats led minor leagues in attendance during each of its first eight seasons. In 2015, the team drew 672,354 fans in 72 home games. In 2015, they drew the second highest attendance per game in the minors with an average of 9,338 fans per game. In 2017, the team drew 562,237 fans in 70 home games, placing them third in overall attendance for the Pacific Coast League for the season. In 2018, the River Cats drew their lowest attendance since arriving at Raley Field with 538,785 fans attending 70 home games. While this was the team's lowest attendance since arriving in West Sacramento, it was strong enough to place them fifth in attendance for the Pacific Coast League for the 2018 season.
The River Cats have won eleven division titles, including back-to-back titles in 2000 and 2001, three years in a row from 2003 to 2005, six consecutive titles from 2007 to 2012. They won back-to-back league championships in 2003 and 2004 and again in 2007 and 2008. In 2007, they went on to defeat the Richmond Braves in that year's Bricktown Showdown by a score of 7–1; the River Cats repeated in 2008, defeating the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees, 4–1. See: Category:Sacramento River Cats players This list does not include MLB players who were in Sacramento on a rehabilitation assignment while on the disabled list. Official website Baseball Reference – Sacramento teams