Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
The Tigris is the eastern of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq and empties into the Persian Gulf; the Tigris is 1,750 km long, rising in the Taurus Mountains of eastern Turkey about 25 km southeast of the city of Elazig and about 30 km from the headwaters of the Euphrates. The river flows for 400 km through Turkish territory before becoming the border between Syria and Turkey; this stretch of 44 km is the only part of the river, located in Syria. Close to its confluence with the Euphrates, the Tigris splits into several channels. First, the artificial Shatt al-Hayy branches off. Second, the Shatt al-Muminah and Majar al-Kabir branch off to feed the Central Marshes. Further downstream, two other distributary channels branch off, which feed the Hawizeh Marshes; the main channel continues southwards and is joined by the Al-Kassarah, which drains the Hawizeh Marshes. The Tigris joins the Euphrates near al-Qurnah to form the Shatt-al-Arab.
According to Pliny and other ancient historians, the Euphrates had its outlet into the sea separate from that of the Tigris. Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, stands on the banks of the Tigris; the port city of Basra straddles the Shatt al-Arab. In ancient times, many of the great cities of Mesopotamia stood on or near the Tigris, drawing water from it to irrigate the civilization of the Sumerians. Notable Tigris-side cities included Nineveh and Seleucia, while the city of Lagash was irrigated by the Tigris via a canal dug around 2900 B. C; the Tigris has long been an important transport route in a desert country. Shallow-draft vessels can go as far as Baghdad, but rafts are needed for transport upstream to Mosul. General Francis Rawdon Chesney hauled two steamers overland through Syria in 1836 to explore the possibility of an overland and river route to India. One steamer, the Tigris, was wrecked in a storm which killed twenty. Chesney proved the river navigable to powered craft; the Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company was established in 1861 by the Lynch Brothers trading company.
They had 2 steamers in service. By 1908 ten steamers were on the river. Tourists boarded steam yachts to venture inland as this was the first age of archaeological tourism, the sites of Ur and Ctesiphon became popular with European travelers. In the First World War, during the British conquest of Ottoman Mesopotamia and Thames River paddlers were used to supply General Townsend's Army. See Siege of Kut and the Fall of Baghdad; the Tigris Flotilla included vessels Clio, Lawrence, armed tug Comet, armed launches Lewis Pelly, Shaitan and sternwheelers Muzaffari/Muzaffar. These were joined by Royal Navy Fly-class gunboats Butterfly, Dragonfly, Sawfly and Mantis, Tarantula. After the war, river trade declined in importance during the 20th century as the Basra-Baghdad-Mosul railway, an unfinished portion of the Baghdad Railway, was completed and roads took over much of the freight traffic; the Ancient Greek form Tigris meaning "tiger" was adapted from Old Persian Tigrā, itself from Elamite Tigra, itself from Sumerian Idigna.
The original Sumerian Idigna or Idigina was from *id gina "running water", which can be interpreted as "the swift river", contrasted to its neighbour, the Euphrates, whose leisurely pace caused it to deposit more silt and build up a higher bed than the Tigris. The Sumerian form was borrowed into Akkadian as Idiqlat, from there into the other Semitic languages. Another name for the Tigris used in Middle Persian was Arvand Rud "swift river". Today, Arvand Rud refers to the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. In Kurdish, it is known as Ava Mezin, "the Great Water"; the name of the Tigris in languages that have been important in the region: The Tigris is dammed in Iraq and Turkey to provide water for irrigating the arid and semi-desert regions bordering the river valley. Damming has been important for averting floods in Iraq, to which the Tigris has been notoriously prone following April melting of snow in the Turkish mountains. Recent Turkish damming of the river has been the subject of some controversy, for both its environmental effects within Turkey and its potential to reduce the flow of water downstream.
Mosul Dam is the largest dam in Iraq. Water from both rivers is used as a means of pressure during conflicts. In 2014 a major breakthrough in developing consensus between multiple stakeholder representatives of Iraq and Turkey on a Plan of Action for promoting exchange and calibration of data and standards pertaining to Tigris river flows was achieved; the consensus, referred to as the "Geneva Consensus On Tigris River" was reached at a meeting organized in Geneva by the think tank Strategic Foresight Group. In February 2016, the United States Embassy in Iraq as well as the Prime Minister of Iraq Haider al-Abadi issued warnings that Mosul Dam could collapse; the United States warned people to evacuate the floodplain of the Tigris because between 500,000 and 1.5 million people were at risk of drowning due to flash flood if the dam collapses, that the major Iraqi cities of Mosul, Tikrit and Baghdad were at risk. In Sumerian mythology, the Ti
Ja'far ibn Abi Talib
Jaʿfar ibn Abī Ṭālib known as Jaʿfar aṭ-Ṭayyār, was a companion of the Islamic Nabi Muhammad, an older brother of Ali. Ja'far was the third son of Abu Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib and Fatima bint Asad, hence a cousin of Muhammad, his older brothers were Talib and Aqil, his younger brothers were Ali and Tulayq, his sisters were Fakhita and Raytah. When there was a drought in his birthplace of Mecca, Abu Talib could not afford to support his family, his brother Abbas therefore took charge of the young Ja'far. Ja'far was an early convert to Islam, he married Asma bint Umays, who converted to Islam in 614-615. When the Muslims were harassed in Mecca, several of them migrated to Abyssinia. Ja'far joined the second flight in 616. There they obtained the protection of the Negus, Ashama ibn Abjar, could worship God unhindered. Ja'far and Asma lived in Abyssinia for about twelve years. Three sons were born to them there: Abdullah and Awn; the Quraysh, suspicious of their motives for leaving Arabia, sent Abdullah ibn Abi Rabiah and'Amr ibn al-'As to negotiate with the Negus to bring the emigrants back to Mecca.
They gave presents of leather-goods to the Negus and his officials and gave him a bad report of the Muslims. The Negus replied that he had promised protection to the Muslims and therefore could not hand them over without hearing their side of the story; when the Muslims were called to answer to the Negus, Ja’far was their spokesman. The Negus asked them what was the religion for which they had forsaken their people, without entering into his religion or any other. Ja'far replied: "We were an uncivilised people. God sent us an apostle who commanded us to speak the truth, be faithful to our engagements, mindful of the ties of kinship and kindly hospitality, to refrain from crimes and bloodshed, he forbade us to commit abominations and to speak lies, to devour the property of orphans, to vilify chaste women. He commanded us to worship God alone and not to associate anything with Him, he gave us orders about prayer and fasting. So we believed in him and what he brought to us from Allah, we follow what he asked us to do and we avoid what he forbade us to do."The Negus asked if Ja'far had with him anything that Muhammad had received from God.
Ja'far recited for him the first portion of Surah Maryam in the Quran, which narrates the story of Isa and his mother Maryam. On hearing these words, "the Negus wept until his beard was wet and the bishops wept until their scrolls were wet." The Negus said. The two Quraysh delegates alleged that the Muslims called Jesus a created being, so the Negus asked Ja'far what he thought of Jesus. Ja'far answered: "Our prophet says he is God's slave, apostle and word, which he cast into Mary the blessed virgin."At this the Negus returned the gifts of the Quraysh, calling them "bribes," and "they left his presence crestfallen." The Muslims continued to live with the Negus “comfortably in the best security.” It is said. He accompanied Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas and others in their mission to the Chittagong-Manipur-Tibet-Khotan-China region; the Muslims of the oasis-city of Khotan trace their origin to Ja'far. Thereafter Ja'far returned to Abyssinia. Arnold however claims "there is not the slightest historical base for this legend."
In summer 628, the last of the Muslim immigrants departed from Abyssinia to join the Muslim community in Medina. Ja'far and his family were among them. On arriving at Medina, Ja ` far heard. Ja'far set out to join the army, arrived just as Muhammad had won the battle. Muhammad greeted him with the words: "I do not know which event makes me happier – the arrival of Ja'far or the conquest of Khaybar!"Ja'far was famous for his acts of charity in Medina. Abu Hurairah recalled: "The most generous of all the people to the poor was Ja'far ibn Abi Talib, he used to offer us what was available therein. He would offer us an empty folded leather container which we would split and lick whatever was in it." In September 629, Muhammad mobilized an army to confront Byzantine forces in Syria, because a Byzantine governor had killed one of his emissaries. He appointed Zayd ibn Harithah as commander of the army and instructed: "If Zayd is wounded or killed, Ja’far ibn Abu Talib will take over the command. If Ja'far is killed or wounded, Abdullah ibn Rawahah will take his place.
If Abdullah is killed let the Muslims appoint themselves a commander."The Muslims met the Byzantines at Mu'tah, where they were outnumbered. Zayd was among the first Muslims to be killed in the battle, Ja'far took over his standard and assumed command. Mounted on his horse, he penetrated deep into the Byzantine ranks; as he spurred his horse on, he called out: "How wonderful is Paradise as it draws near! How pleasant and cool is its drink! Punishment for the Byzantines is not far away!" Ja'far fought until both his arms were cut off, but he was killed. "A Roman cut him in two halves. One half fell on the grape vine, thirty wounds were found on it; the body of Ja'far held seventy-two scars between his shoulders, where he had been either struck by a sword or pierced by a spear." When the news reached Muhammad, he prayed for Ja ` far's soul. He reported that the angel Jibril came down to console him, saying: "Jafar was a brave and loyal soldier. God has given him everlasting life, in place of his arms whic
Arabs are a population inhabiting the Arab world. They live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands, they form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world. The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula; the Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the succeeding Neo-Babylonian, Achaemenid and Parthian empires. Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate, "Arab" referred to any of the nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert, North and Lower Mesopotamia. Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations.
The Arabs forged the Rashidun, Umayyad and the Fatimid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history. In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire; this resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories, forming the modern Arab states. Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945; the Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states. Today, Arabs inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Comoros, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen; the Arab world stretches around 13 million km2, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast.
Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can be found in the global diaspora. The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, cultural, identical, nationalist and political; the Arabs have their own customs, architecture, literature, dance, cuisine, society and mythology. The total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million. Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions; some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, a few individuals, the hanifs observed monotheism. Today, about 93% of Arabs are adherents of Islam, there are sizable Christian minorities. Arab Muslims belong to the Sunni, Shiite and Alawite denominations. Arab Christians follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic churches. Other smaller minority religions are followed, such as the Bahá'í Faith and Druze. Arabs have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, philosophy, ethics, politics, music, cinema, medicine and technology in the ancient and modern history.
The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths, an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram, which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or " Gindibu belonging to the Arab; the related word ʾaʿrāb is used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general. The term Arab and ʾaʿrāb are mentioned around 40 times in pre-Islamic Sabaean inscriptions; the term Arab occurs in the titles of the Himyarite kings from the time of'Abu Karab Asad until MadiKarib Ya'fur. The term ʾaʿrāb is driven from the term Arab according to Sabaean grammar; the term is mentioned in Quranic verses referring to people who were living in Madina and it might be a south Arabian loan-word into Quranic language.
The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn'Amr as "King of all the Arabs". Herodotus refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, the frankincense region. Other ancient Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia, in Egypt, southern Jordan, the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia. Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term "Arab"; the most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub, the first to speak Arabic. A
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf
Abū Muhammad al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn al-Ḥakam ibn ʿAqīl al-Thaqafī, known as al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf (Arabic: الحجاج بن يوسف / ALA: al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf, was the most notable governor who served the Umayyad Caliphate. An capable though ruthless statesman, a strict in character, but a harsh and demanding master, he was feared by his contemporaries and became a controversial figure and an object of deep-seated enmity among pro-Abbasid writers, who ascribed to him persecutions and mass executions. Al-Hajjaj was born in ca. 661 in the city of Ta'if in modern-day Saudi Arabia. His ancestry was not distinguished: he came of a poor family, whose members had worked as stone carriers and builders, his mother, al-Fari'a, had married, been divorced by, al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba, appointed governor of Kufa by the first Umayyad caliph, Mu'awiya. As a boy, al-Hajjaj acquired the nickname Kulayb, with which he was derisively referred to, his early life is obscure, except for his having been a schoolmaster in his home town—another source of derision to his enemies.
He participated in the Second Fitna, fighting in the battles of Harra near Medina and of al-Rabadha, but without particular distinction. His first public post, as governor of Tabala in the Tihama region, was unremarkable. Soon after Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan assumed the throne, al-Hajjaj left his home town and went to the capital, where he entered the security force of the Caliph. There he attracted Abd al-Malik's attention by the rapidity and efficiency with which he restored discipline during a mutiny of the troops destined to accompany the Caliph in his campaign against Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr in Iraq. According to historian Patricia Crone, al-Hajjaj started his career in the shurta of Aban ibn Marwan, Abd al-Malik’s half-brother and one-time governor of Palestine; as a result, the Caliph entrusted him with command of the army's rear-guard. He achieved further feats of valour, so that after the defeat of Mus'ab, Abd al-Malik decided to entrust him with the expedition to subdue Mus'ab's brother, the anti-caliph Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr, in Mecca.
In late 691 he set out from Kufa at the head of 2,000 Syrian troops. After taking over Ta'if unopposed, he halted there as Abd al-Malik had charged him to try to secure Ibn al-Zubayr's capitulation by diplomatic means if possible, to avoid shedding of blood in Mecca. Ibn al-Zubayr however rejected the Umayyad offers, al-Hajjaj, after receiving reinforcements and the Caliph's permission, moved to attack Mecca; the Umayyad troops bombarded the city with catapults from Mount Abu Qubays, not letting up during the hajj. When a sudden thunderstorm broke out, which his soldiers interpreted as divine wrath, he was able to rally them and convince them that it was a sign of victory. In October 692, after seven months of siege and the defection of several thousand of his supporters, including two of his sons, Ibn al-Zubayr was killed alongside his last remaining loyal followers, fighting around the Ka'aba; as a reward, Abd al-Malik gave al-Hajjaj the governorship of the Hijaz, al-Yamama. As governor, al-Hajjaj led the hajj in person in the years 73 and 74 AH, restored the Ka'aba to the shape and dimensions it had rejecting the alterations made by Ibn al-Zubayr following the first Umayyad siege in 683.
Al-Hajjaj was able to restore peace in the Hijaz, but his severity occasioned the frequent personal intervention of the Caliph. In early 694, Caliph Abd al-Malik sent al-Hajjaj to govern Iraq; this involved combining the governorships of Kufa and Basra, which had not been done since the days of Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan twenty years earlier. The caliph had appointed his brother Bishr ibn Marwan governor of Kufa, but when he died in early 694, this "experiment in family rule" had not been a success, al-Hajjaj, whose ability and loyalty had been amply demonstrated, was appointed to this crucial post; the governorship of Iraq was indeed "the most important and responsible administrative post of the Islamic state", as it comprised not only Iraq proper, but included the lands conquered by troops from the two colony towns of Kufa and Basra, i.e. Persia and the other eastern provinces of the Caliphate; the governor of Iraq was therefore in charge of a huge super-province or vice-royalty stretching from Mesopotamia to the still expanding borders in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, comprising half of the Caliphate's territory and producing more than half its income.
In addition, the post was of particular political sensitivity due to the long history of Kharijism and political dissent in Iraq in Kufa. This discontent was driven by various tribal and political factors; the population of Kufa contained people from all Arab tribes, but many of those undesired elsewhere, such as the vanquished of the Ridda wars. Although it dominated the fertile lands of the Sawad, many of these were assigned by the Umayyads to princes of the dynasty, while the average Kufan was given land as a stipend for military service; the Kufans were left out of the spoils of conquest in the East.