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Jabir ibn Hayyan

Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān, is the supposed author of an enormous number and variety of works in Arabic called the Jabirian corpus. The scope of the corpus is vast and diverse covering a wide range of topics, including alchemy, numerology, medicine, magic and philosophy. Popularly known as the father of chemistry, Jabir’s works contain the oldest known systematic classification of chemical substances, the oldest known instructions for deriving an inorganic compound from organic substances by chemical means; as early as the 10th century, the identity and exact corpus of works of Jabir was in dispute in Islamic circles. The authorship of all these works by a single figure, the existence of a historical Jabir, are doubted by modern scholars. Instead, Jabir ibn Hayyan is seen more like a pseudonym to whom "underground writings" by various authors became ascribed; some Arabic Jabirian works were translated into Latin under the Latinized name "Geber", in 13th-century Europe an anonymous writer referred to as pseudo-Geber, started to produce alchemical and metallurgical writings under this name.

In 988 Ibn al-Nadim compiled the Kitab al-Fihrist which mentions Jabir as a spiritual follower, companion and as a student to Jafar as-Sadiq, the sixth Shia Imam. In another reference al-Nadim reports that a group of philosophers claimed Jabir was one of their own members. Another group, reported by al-Nadim, says only The Large Book of Mercy is genuine and that the rest are pseudographical, their assertions are rejected by al-Nadim. Joining al-Nadim in asserting a real Jabir; the 14th century critic of Arabic literature, Jamal al-Din ibn Nubata al-Misri declares all the writings attributed to Jabir doubtful. According to the philologist-historian Paul Kraus, Jabir cleverly mixed in his alchemical writings unambiguous references to the Ismaili or Qarmati movement. Kraus wrote: "Let us first notice that most of the names we find in this list have undeniable affinities with the doctrine of Shi'i Gnosis with the Ismaili system." Henry Corbin believes. Jabir was a natural philosopher who lived in the 8th century.

Jabir in the classical sources has been variously attributed as al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi, al-Sufi, al-Tartusi or al-Tarsusi, al-Harrani. There is a difference of opinion as to whether he was an Arab from Kufa who lived in Khurasan, or a Persian from Khorasan who went to Kufa or whether he was, as some have suggested, of Syrian Sabian origin and lived in Persia and Iraq. In some sources, he is reported to have been the son of Hayyan al-Azdi, a pharmacist of the Arabian Azd tribe who emigrated from Yemen to Kufa. while Henry Corbin believes Geber seems to have been a non-Arab client of the'Azd tribe. Hayyan had supported the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads, was sent by them to the province of Khorasan to gather support for their cause, he was caught by the Umayyads and executed. His family fled to Yemen to some of their relatives in the Azd tribe, where Jabir grew up and studied the Quran and other subjects. Jabir's father's profession may have contributed to his interest in alchemy. After the Abbasids took power, Jabir went back to Kufa.

He began his career practicing medicine, under the patronage of a Vizir of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. His connections to the Barmakid cost him dearly in the end; when that family fell from grace in 803, Jabir was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death. It has been asserted that Jabir was a student of the sixth Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq and Harbi al-Himyari. In total, nearly 3,000 treatises and articles are credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan. Following the pioneering work of Paul Kraus, who demonstrated that a corpus of some several hundred works ascribed to Jābir were a medley from different hands dating to the late 9th and early 10th centuries, many scholars believe that many of these works consist of commentaries and additions by his followers of an Ismaili persuasion. On the other hand, contemporary scholar Syed Nomanul Haq refuses the multiplicity of authors hypothesis, says that Kraus has misrepresented the Jabirian corpus for three main reasons: a) he hasn't inspected the bibliographies considering that there have been many leaps, so, all in all, the numbers are more over 500 than close to 3000.

Syed Nomanul Haq concludes that "this rough investigation makes it abundantly clear that we should view with a great deal of suspicion any arguments for a plurality of authors, based on Kraus’ inflated estimate of the volume of the Jabirian corpus."The scope of the corpus is vast: cosmology, medicine, biology, chemical technology, gramma

Palmer Ranch, Florida

Palmer Ranch is a master planned community in Sarasota County, Florida between the cities of Sarasota and Osprey. Palmer Ranch encompasses 6,733 acres, bounded by Clark Road to the north, U. S. Route 41 to the west, Interstate 75 to the east, State Road 681 to the south; the area was part of the original 80,000 acres of Florida land purchased by Bertha Honoré Palmer, wife of Chicago businessman Potter Palmer. Bertha Palmer, known as Mrs. Potter Palmer, came to Sarasota in 1910, resided on Little Sarasota Bay for her winter home, she improved agricultural methods to the land, added lavish gardens, buildings which the land is now the Historic Spanish Point garden and historic site. While the house The Oaks is gone and landscape remain, including remnants of designs by Achilles Duchene, after whom the Duchene Garden is named. Other former Palmer family holdings now open to the public include the Myakka River State Park and an expansion of Oscar Scherer State Park. After her death, Bertha Palmer gave the land to her sons Potter Jr. and Honore, who continued developing the property as a ranch.

Hugh Culverhouse, founder of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, bought 12,000 acres of the remaining land in 1972. Palmer Ranch was established in December 1984 as a Development of Regional Impact under Section 380.06 of the Florida Statutes. Bertha Palmer in Sarasota History NYTimes Myakka Park travel story Timeline of Myakka River from Sarasota Herald-Tribune


The Basel oppidum, known as Basel-Münsterhügel, is an Iron Age fort constructed by the Celtic Rauraci in the second half of the 1st century BC, after the battle of Bibracte. The fort was situated on; the site was excavated by Furger-Gunti in the 1970s. There is an older undefended La Tène site at Basel Gasfabrik, not far from the oppidum, abandoned after the fort was completed. Murus Gallicus Augusta Raurica René Teuteberg, Basler Geschichte Christoph Merian Verlag, 2nd ed. Basel 1988. ISBN 3-85616-034-5, p. 52. Andres Furger-Gunti, Oppidum Basel-Münsterhügel. Grabungen 1971-72 an der Rittergasse 5, Jahrbuch SGU, 1974/75, pp. 77–111. Andres Furger-Gunti, Das spätkeltische Oppidum von Basel-Münsterhügel: Der Murus Gallicus, Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 2, 1972, pp. 165–168. Andres Furger-Gunti, Das keltische Basel. Http://

Robert Hutton (actor)

Robert Hutton was an American actor. Robert Hutton, born in Kingston, New York, grew up in Ulster County, New York, he was a cousin of the Woolworth heiress Barbara Hutton. He attended a small boarding school in Blairstown, New Jersey. Before he ventured into films, Hutton acted at the Woodstock Playhouse in Woodstock, New York, for two seasons, his film debut came in Destination Tokyo. He worked as an actor and director of plays at the Woodstock Playhouse. Hutton resembled actor Jimmy Stewart: during World War II, when Stewart enlisted in the Army in March 1941, Hutton benefited from "victory casting" in roles that would ordinarily have gone to Stewart. Hutton's final film was The New Roof. After leaving Warner Brothers’ studios Hutton continued working in movies, TV shows and as a writer and director in England for several years, he returned years to the United States and lived in New York where he was born and raised. Hutton had a son, he spent his last days in a nursing care facility after breaking his back in a home accident.

Robert Hutton on IMDb Summary Robert Hutton at Find a Grave

Jeff Tallon (physicist)

Jeffery Lewis Tallon is a New Zealand physicist specialising in high-temperature superconductors. Tallon was born in Hamilton on 17 December 1948, the son of Phyllis Blanche Tallon and George Frederick Tallon, he was educated at Mount Albert Grammar School in Auckland from 1962 to 1966. After a BSc at the University of Auckland, he undertook doctoral studies at Victoria University of Wellington under Stuart Smedley and Bill Robinson, completing his PhD in chemistry in 1976. In 1971, Tallon married Mary Elaine Turner, the couple went on to have three children, he was awarded a Doctor of Science by Victoria University of Wellington in 1996, on the basis of a selection of published papers. In 1990, Tallon was awarded the Michaelis Medal for physics research, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1993, in 1998 he won the society's Hector Medal jointly with Paul Callaghan. In 2002, Tallon was awarded the highest award in New Zealand science. In 1990, Tallon received the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal.

In the 2009 Queen's Birthday Honours, he was appointed a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit, for services to science. Google Scholar MacDiarmid Institute page Callaghan Innovation page

Ford Ranger

Ford Ranger is a nameplate, used on three distinct model lines of vehicles sold by Ford. The name originated in 1958 when the Edsel Ranger was introduced as the base trim level of the Edsel model range. From 1965 to 1981, Ranger denoted various trim packages of the Ford F-Series, serving as a mid- to top-level trim. For the 1983 model year, the Ford Ranger nameplate was applied to a new compact pickup truck, replacing the 1972-1982 Ford Courier in North America. In global markets, Ford began use of the Ranger nameplate in 1998 in place of Courier, with all compact trucks named Ranger by 2006. For 2011, the Ranger was discontinued in the United States and Canada; the same year, Ford commenced production of a mid-size Ford Ranger. For the 1983 model year, Ford introduced the Ranger for the United States and Canada. Replacing the Courier, the Ranger was the first compact pickup truck designed by Ford. Using the same chassis architecture, three generations of the Ranger were produced across its 29-year production run.

The model line underwent major redesigns for 1993 and 1998, a mid-cycle update in 1989, with smaller updates for 2001, 2004, 2006. The Ford Ranger chassis architecture served as the basis for several model ranges over its production; the Ford Bronco II and the 1991-2001 Ford Explorer were derived from the Ranger alongside the 2001-2005 Ford Explorer Sport Trac. Through the use of rebadging, in North America, Mazda sold the Ranger as the Mazda B-Series from 1994-2009. On December 22, 2011, the final Ford Ranger produced for North America rolled off the Twin Cities Assembly line, as the final vehicle assembled at the facility. In 1995, exports of the Ford Ranger began to select South American countries. To accommodate the demand for the vehicle, in 1998, Ford Argentina commenced local production of the Ranger, introducing a four-door cab not sold in North America. During the 2000s, Rangers produced by Ford Argentina shared a common chassis with North American-produced vehicles. For 2010, the Ranger underwent a major revision of the exterior.

Ford Argentina ended production of the compact Ranger following the 2011 model year to expand production of the Ranger T6 mid-size pickup, which remains in production. After an eight-year hiatus, the Ford Ranger returns to the Ford model range in North America for the 2019 model year, with the first example rolling off the assembly line at Michigan Assembly Plant on October 22, 2018; the revived Ranger is the global Ranger T6, adapted to accommodate American government regulations. Similar in size to the Ford Explorer Sport Trac, the 2019 Ranger is the first generation produced as a mid-size pickup for the North American market; the Ranger is sold in SuperCab and SuperCrew. As the 1983–2012 Ranger served as a basis for several Ford/Mercury/Mazda vehicles during its production, the current mid-size Ranger will serve as the basis for the revived Ford Bronco. To enter the lucrative compact truck segment, Ford sold the Mazda B-Series under the Ford Courier nameplate. Replaced by the Ranger in North America for 1983, the nameplate continued in global markets through the 1990s.

From 1971 to 2006, the Ford Courier and the first-generation 1998-2006 Ranger would follow the development of the Mazda B-Series. In 2006, the B-Series was replaced by the Mazda BT-50, forming the basis of the second-generation Ranger, produced from 2006 to 2011; the third-generation Ranger is the Ranger T6, produced since 2011. In contrast to previous production, the Ranger T6 was designed by Ford Australia, with the second-generation Mazda BT-50 serving as the derivative vehicle. All three generations of the Ranger serve as the basis of the Ford Everest mid-size SUV, introduced in 2003; the third-generation Ranger T6 is the basis for the fourth-generation Ranger in North America, with several design adaptations to accommodate market demands and government regulations