Craigieburn railway line
The Craigieburn railway line is a commuter rail passenger train service operating between Craigieburn in the northern suburbs and Flinders Street in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. The service is part of the Public Transport Victoria metropolitan rail network; the line rises after leaving North Melbourne until after Essendon drops a little to cross Moonee Ponds Creek, soon after encounters the Glenroy Bank, a continuous rising gradient of 1 in 50 for nearly 3 kilometres that taxed locomotive-hauled trains in the days of steam. After Glenroy, it continues to rise to the end of the suburban line and beyond. Earthworks are, however moderate; the almost-continuous gradients were a factor when, in 2003, an unmanned suburban train rolled the length of the line from Broadmeadows to the city, crashed into a stationary but loaded passenger train waiting to depart Southern Cross Station. No one was killed or injured; the line is double track throughout, controlled by automatic block signalling.
It has many grade-separated road and rail bridges. Terminating facilities are at Kensington, Essendon and Craigieburn. Only Essendon and Craigieburn are used, the latter two daily and Essendon in special circumstances. Train stabling is at Craigieburn; the line from North Melbourne to Essendon was opened by the Melbourne and Essendon Railway Company in November 1860. Soon after, the company opened a branch from Newmarket to Flemington Racecourse. Both lines closed after only a short time, in July 1864; the Victorian Railways reopened the Flemington Racecourse line in November 1867, in January 1871 to Essendon. In April 1872, the line was extended to a temporary terminus outside Seymour, awaiting completion of a bridge over the Goulburn River. In December 1894, through services were provided from Essendon to Brighton Beach on the Sandringham line. Automatic Block Signalling started to appear on the line in 1918, with Kensington to Essendon being converted in June of that year, North Melbourne to Kensington in October.
In May 1919, Flinders Street to Essendon and the Sandringham line were the first lines to be electrified in Melbourne, apart from a test installation on the Flemington Racecourse line. In January 1924, an extra pair of tracks, including a flying junction, opened between North Melbourne and Kensington, enabling the separation of passenger and goods traffic in the busy section. Further works were carried out in 1929, when the double track Albion - Jacana freight line was opened, permitting freight trains to avoid the line via Essendon. Automatic Block Signalling was extended to Broadmeadows in November 1965. On 30 September 2007 electrification was extended from Broadmeadows to Craigieburn. Passengers for Craigieburn travelled on V/Line diesel services, but Metcards were accepted. A branch line was provided during the Second World War to Broadstore, commencing at the north-east of Broadmeadows station, opening on 12 October 1942, remaining in place until 1982; the Broadstore Line was unelectrified, extended in a directly easterly direction for 1.6 km towards the Upfield Line terminating at the Maygar Barracks in Campbellfield.
At one time, according to Forsberg, it had a branch. The Broadstore Line is marked on the 1980 map of Victorian Railways; as mentioned in the Network Development Plan, the Craigieburn line will link up with the Frankston line to form one long through-routed line. This line would avoid Southern Cross and Flinders Street, instead travelling via North Melbourne, Melbourne Central and Richmond through a modified tunnel. In the shorter term, a level crossing removal is slated for the Glenroy Road level crossing, to be completed by 2022. Timetables Statistics and detailed schematic map at the vicsig enthusiast website
Roxburgh Park, Victoria
Roxburgh Park is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 20 kilometres north of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Hume. At the 2016 Census, Roxburgh Park had a population of 21,817. Roxburgh Park was Described in the 1990s as the "Toorak of Craigieburn". It's bound by Craigieburn to the north, to the west by the road skirting the Greenvale Reservoir, to the east by the Craigieburn railway line and to the south by Somerton Road. Much of what is now the suburb of Roxburgh Park was agricultural land. In January 1951 the Moonee Valley Racing Club bought the 832 acres "Roxburgh Park" property for £35,000, as a speculative investment, although the purchase did give the club an option if it had to leave its somewhat cramped location in Moonee Ponds. Roxburgh Park was developed in the 1990s as a suburban area by the Victorian Government's Urban and Regional Land Corporation. Recognition of Roxburgh Park was promoted in screened TV commercials throughout the mid-1990s, presenting Roxburgh Park's avowed virtues as a planned community with a balance of residential and industrial land, along with public reserves, community services and access to transport.
The slogan for the campaign was "Roxburgh Park – where dreams come true..." Developments over recent years include child care centres, a retirement village and an Islamic centre. The Roxburgh Park railway station opened on 30 September 2007; the commercial hub of the suburb is on Somerton Road. The Broadmeadows Valley Trail makes its way in a north -- south direction; the most common ancestries of residents in Roxburgh Park is Turkish 13.4%, Australian 10.7%, English 8.6%, Iraqi 6.3% and Italian 6.1%. Roxburgh Park Primary School Roxburgh Rise Primary School Roxburgh Homestead Primary School Good Samaritan Catholic Primary School Roxburgh College Two large shopping centres are located within the suburb. On Somerton Road is the Roxburgh Park Shopping Centre which features 70 specialist stores and on Pascoe Vale Road near the Roxburgh Park Hotel is the Roxburgh Plaza and Homemaker Centre; the smaller Roxburgh Homestead Shopping Centre lies close to the Roxburgh Homestead Primary School. Roxburgh Park Football Club, an Australian Rules football team, competes in the Essendon District Football League.
Shire of Bulla - the former local government area of which Roxburgh Park was a part. City of Hume Website Roxburgh Park Website
Electoral district of Broadmeadows
The electoral district of Broadmeadows is an electorate of the Victorian Legislative Assembly. It covers an area of 49 square kilometres in outer northern Melbourne, includes the suburbs of Broadmeadows, Coolaroo, Fawkner and Meadow Heights, it includes parts of Glenroy, Roxburgh Park and Westmeadows. It lies within the Northern Metropolitan Region of the Legislative Council; the seat was created in 1955, though it was won by Liberal and Country member Harry Kane, has been a safe Labor seat for most of its history. Kane held the seat until his death in 1962, was succeeded by Labor backbenchers John Wilton and Jack Culpin. In 1988 Culpin, a former member for abolished Glenroy, lost Labor preselection for Broadmeadows for that year's election to Jim Kennan, member of the Legislative Council and Minister for Transport, attempting to switch to the Legislative Assembly. Culpin resigned from the Labor Party and contested Broadmeadows as an independent, but was defeated by Kennan at the election. Kennan served as Deputy Premier under Joan Kirner from 1990 to 1992, succeeded Kirner as Leader of the Opposition from March to June 1993.
Kennan resigned as Opposition Leader and from parliament in June 1993, was succeeded in Broadmeadows at the resulting by-election by John Brumby, a member of the Legislative Council and former federal MP, who like Kennan sought to switch to the Legislative Assembly. Brumby served as Opposition Leader from 1993 to 1999, Premier of Victoria from 2007 to 2010, he resigned from parliament in 2011, was succeeded as member for Broadmeadows at the resulting by-election by Frank McGuire, business consultant and brother of broadcaster Eddie McGuire. Electorate profile: Broadmeadows District, Victorian Electoral Commission
Melbourne City Centre
Melbourne City Centre is an area of Melbourne, Australia. It is the area in which Melbourne was established in 1835, by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, its boundaries are defined by the Government of Victoria's Melbourne Planning Scheme. Today it comprises the two oldest areas of Melbourne, it is not to be confused with the larger local government area of the City of Melbourne. It is the core central activities district of Melbourne's inner suburbs and the major central business district of Greater Melbourne's metropolitan area, is a major financial centre in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region; the Hoddle Grid in the City Centre is home to Melbourne's famed alleyways and arcades and is renowned for its distinct blend of contemporary and Victorian architecture as well as expansive parks and gardens which surround its edges. The City Centre is home to five of the six tallest buildings in Australia. In recent times, it has been placed alongside New York City and Berlin as one of the world's great street art meccas, designated a "City of Literature" by UNESCO in its Creative Cities Network.
In April 1835, John Batman, a prominent grazier and a member of the Geelong and Dutigalla Association, sailed from Launceston on the island of Van Diemen's Land, aboard the schooner Rebecca, in search of fresh grazing land in the south-east of the Colony of New South Wales. He sailed across Bass Strait, into the bay of Port Phillip, arrived at the mouth of the Yarra River in May. After exploring the surrounding area, he met with the elders of the indigenous Aboriginal group, the Wurundjeri of the Kulin nation alliance, negotiated a transaction for 600,000 acres which became known as Batman's Treaty; the transaction, believed to have taken place on the bank of Merri Creek, consisted of an offering of: blankets, mirrors and other such items. The last sentence of Batman's journal entry on this day became famous as the founding charter of the settlement. So the boat went up the large river. And, I am glad to state about six miles up found the river all good water and deep; this will be the place for a village.
— Journal of John Batman. Upon returning to Van Diemen's Land, Batman's treaty was deemed invalid by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, under the Proclamation of Governor Bourke in August 1835, it was the belief of Governor Bourke, as well as the Governor of Van Diemen's Land, Sir George Arthur, that the Aboriginal people did not have any official claims to the lands of the Australian continent. The proclamation formally declared, under the doctrine of terra nullius, that The Crown owned the whole of the Australian continent and that only it alone could sell and distribute land, it therefore voided any contracts or treaties made without the consent of the government, declared any person attempting to rely on such a treaty to be trespassing. However, at the time the proclamation was being drawn up, a prominent businessman from Van Diemen's Land, John Pascoe Fawkner, had funded an expedition to the area. At the same time, the Port Phillip Association had funded a second expedition.
The settlement party aboard the Enterprize entered the Yarra River, anchored close to the site chosen by Batman, on 29 August. The party went ashore the following day and landed their stores and began to construct the settlement; the Association party aboard the Rebecca arrived in September after spending time at a temporary camp at Indented Head, where they encountered William Buckley – an escaped convict, believed dead, living for 32 years with the indigenous Aboriginal group, the Wathaurong of the Kulin nation alliance. Batman was dismayed to discover the settlers of the Enterprize had established a settlement in the area and informed the settlers that they were trespassing on the Association's land. However, according to the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, both the parties were in fact trespassing on Crown land; when Fawkner arrived in October, following tense arguments between the two parties, negotiation were made for land to be shared equally. As Fawkner had arrived after the two parties, he was aware of the Proclamation of Governor Bourke, which had gained approval from the Colonial Office in October.
He knew. Land was divided, the settlement existed peacefully, but without a formal system of governance, it was referred to by a number of names, including: "Batmania" and "Bearbrass" of which the latter was agreed upon by Batman and Fawkner. Fawkner assumed a leading role in the establishment of Bearbrass; the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Charles Grant, recognised the settlement's fait accompli that same year, authorised Governor Bourke to transfer Bearbrass to a Crown settlement. Batman and the Port Phillip Association were compensated £7,000 for the land. And, in March 1837, it was renamed "Melbourne" by Governor Bourke in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb; the City Centre is bordered by
The Whitlam Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. It was made up of members of the Australian Labor Party; the government commenced when it defeated the McMahon Government in the 1972 federal election after a record 23 years of Coalition government. It concluded in historic circumstances, when it was dismissed by Governor-General Sir John Kerr as a result of the 1975 constitutional crisis and was succeeded by the Fraser Government; the Whitlam Government remains the only federal government in Australian history to be dismissed by either a monarch or viceregal representative. The Whitlam Government, while controversial during its short tenure, is credited with the implementation of major reforms. Formal relations with China were established, the conscription laws were repealed, all remaining Australian forces were withdrawn from the Vietnam War, universal health insurance was introduced, remaining discriminatory provisions of the'white Australia policy' ended, tertiary education fees were abolished.
The Whitlam Government was re-elected at the 1974 double dissolution election. However, following the dismissal, the Labor Party was defeated by the new Fraser Government in the 1975 election; the Australian Labor Party had entered opposition in 1949, following loss of the Chifley Government to Robert Menzies led Liberal-Country Party Coalition. The Coalition governed continuously for a further 23 years. Gough Whitlam had become deputy leader of the Labor Party in 1960 and replaced the retiring Arthur Calwell as leader in 1967 following Labor's poor result in the 1966 election. In April 1967, Whitlam was elected party leader, with Lance Barnard as Deputy Leader. Labor reduced the Gorton Government's majority and came within 4 seats of government in the 1969 election. Whitlam led the Labor Party to victory against the McMahon Government at the 1972 election. Whitlam took office with a majority in the House of Representatives, but without control of the Senate; the Senate at that time consisted of ten members from each of the six states, elected by proportional representation.
The ALP parliamentary caucus chose the ministers. A caucus meeting could not be held. In the meantime, it was expected. Whitlam, was unwilling to wait that long. On 5 December, once Labor's win was secure, Whitlam had the Governor-General, Sir Paul Hasluck swear him in as Prime Minister and Labor's deputy leader, Lance Barnard, as deputy prime minister; the two men held 27 portfolios between them during the two weeks before a full cabinet could be determined. During the two weeks the so-called "duumvirate" held office, Whitlam sought to fulfill those campaign promises that did not require legislation. Whitlam ordered negotiations to establish full relations with the People's Republic of China, broke those with Taiwan. Legislation allowed the Minister for Defence to grant exemptions from conscription. Barnard held this office, exempted everyone. Seven men were at that time incarcerated for refusing conscription; the Whitlam government in its first days re-opened the equal pay case pending before the Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission led by Sydney barrister, Mary Gaudron, appointed a woman, Elizabeth Evatt as.
Presidential member of the commission. Whitlam and Barnard eliminated sales tax on contraceptive pills, announced major grants for the arts, appointed an interim schools commission; the duumvirate barred racially discriminatory sport teams from Australia, instructed the Australian delegation at the United Nations to vote in favour of sanctions on apartheid South Africa and Rhodesia. It ordered home all remaining Australian troops in Vietnam, though most had been withdrawn by McMahon. According to Whitlam speechwriter Graham Freudenberg, the duumvirate was a success, as it showed that the Labor government could manipulate the machinery of government, despite its long absence from office. However, Freudenberg noted that the rapid pace and public excitement caused by the duumvirate's actions caused the Opposition to be wary of giving Labor too easy a time, led to one post mortem of the Whitlam government, "We did too much too soon." The McMahon government had consisted of 27 ministers. In the run-up to the election, the Labor caucus had decided that should the party take power, all 27 ministers were to be Cabinet members.
Intense canvassing took place amongst ALP parliamentarians as the duumvirate did its work, on 18 December the caucus elected the Cabinet. The results were acceptable to Whitlam, within three hours, he had announced the portfolios of the cabinet members. To give himself greater control over the Cabinet, in January 1973 Whitlam established five cabinet committees and took full control of the cabinet agenda; the Whitlam government abolished the death penalty for Federal crimes. Legal Aid was established, with offices in each state capital, it abolished tertiary school fees, established the Schools Commission to allocate funds to schools. Whitlam founded the Department of Urban Development and, having lived in developing Cabramatta when it was unsewered, set a goal to leave no urban home unsewered; the Whitlam government gave grants directly to local government units for urban renewal, flood prevention, the promotion of tourism. Other federal grants financed highways linking the state capitals, paid for standard-gauge rail lines between the states.
The government created a new city at Albury-W
Division of Calwell
The Division of Calwell is an Australian Electoral Division in the state of Victoria. The division is located in the north-western suburbs of Melbourne, it covers an area of 175 square kilometres from Craigieburn in the north to Keilor Park in the south and from Calder Park in the west to Somerton in the east. Localities include Attwood, Calder Park, Coolaroo, Gladstone Park, Jacana, Keilor Downs, Keilor North, Meadow Heights, Melbourne Airport, Roxburgh Park, Sydenham, Taylors Lakes and Westmeadows and part of Craigieburn; the division was created in 1984 and is named for Arthur Calwell, Minister for Immigration 1945–1949 and Leader of the Australian Labor Party 1960–1967. Calwell has been a safe Labor seat; the seat's first MP elected in 1984 was Andrew Theophanous. After failing to retain Labor preselection due to issues of criminality, Theophanous unsuccessfully contested the 2001 election as an Independent, polling 9.6% of the vote. The current Member for Calwell, since the 2001 federal election, is Maria Vamvakinou, a member of the Australian Labor Party.
At the 2011 Census, Calwell had the nation's most stable population, with only 25.6% of residents having moved in the last five years. The electorate had the nation's third highest proportion of Catholics and the third highest proportion of residents of Islamic faith, the highest in Victoria. Notes 1 The Liberal candidate John Hsu resigned from the party's ticket in June 2016. However, due to the AEC's nomination deadlines, Mr Hsu's name still appeared under the Liberal Party ticket on the ballot paper. Division of Calwell - Australian Electoral Commission
Housing Commission of Victoria
The Housing Commission of Victoria was a Victorian State Government body responsible for public housing in Victoria, Australia. It was established in 1938, was abolished in 1984; the main activity of the Commission was the construction tens of thousands of houses and flats in Melbourne and many country towns between the late 1940s and the early 70s, providing low rent housing for low income families. The most visible legacy of the Commission is the 47 or so high-rise apartment towers in inner Melbourne, all built using the same pre-cast concrete panel technology. The'commission towers' are contentiously considered blights on the Melbourne cityscape, but successive governments have not been able to justify the expense of demolition, or have faced community opposition to demolition. Establishment Through the 1920s and early 1930s, a campaign highlighting the dreadful conditions and moral dangers of the'slums' of inner city Melbourne was led by social reformer Oswald Barnett. Conditions in the run-down rented housing in the inner city areas deteriorated during the Great Depression, creating a'housing crisis'.
Barnett's campaigning against slums led to the establishment the Housing Investigation and Slum Abolition Board in July 1936. The HISAB's 1937 report found 3,000 houses'unfit for habitation' and recommended the establishment of a Housing Commission. John O’Connor was the Commission's first chairman, while Oswald Barnett, Oswald Burt and Frances Pennington were appointed as part-time commissioners; the Housing Commission of Victoria was established under the Housing Act 1937 to improve existing housing conditions and to provide adequate housing for persons of limited means. On the passing of the legislation, the Victorian Premier, Albert Dunstan, declared the beginning of the Commission's activities as a'war on slums', but recognised the magnitude of the task before it; the legislation not only gave the Commission powers for housing construction and improvement, but made it'a planning authority in its own right'. The Commission's chief concerns however, were the'slum pockets' which required'excision' for the'common good'.
The Commission developed a plan of action in March 1938, concentrating its attention on 1,240 houses in lanes, rights-of-way and slum pockets, referred to in HISAB's earlier report. Slums were to be reclaimed and people rehoused. To house the people moved from the slum areas, the Commission needed to provide new homes; the Commission's first estate was an extension to the Garden City Estate in Port Melbourne, where pre-cast concrete technologies were employed for the first time. Next was the development of flats at Pigdon Street, though the original proposal for three storey flats was reduced to two storeys after local opposition; the Commission began to acquire cheap land in the northern suburbs of Coburg, Brunswick and Northcote as well as in inner suburban areas such as North Melbourne and Richmond. The few estates built by the Commission before World War Two involved comprised modestly scaled suburban style housing, in simple brick construction as duplexes, such as the Racecourse Estate in Richmond, the Railton Grove Precinct in Preston.
The Commission's acquisition plans were ambitious and it was bound to come across difficulties. The synchronisation of the'demolition program' was proving difficult and by June 1940, only 53 families had moved into new houses while only 99 houses had been ordered for demolition; the Commission had difficulties dealing with local municipalities, in acquiring properties in the North Melbourne reclamation area as well as with the labour movement, who believed that the government should subsidise loans to enable workers to buy homes rather than rent them. The rehousing of those from the slums was a difficult task; as a landlord, the Commission experienced problems. Tenants were reluctant to move, while rents on the estates were more expensive than in their former accommodation. At Fisherman's Bend, there was tension between tenants of the Commission's estate and those who had bought homes under an earlier housing program. Frances Penington, a social worker, advocated for community facilities to be built at the estates to alleviate some of these problems, these were built after protracted debate by others on the Commission.
Transportation costs from the new estates to places of employment were an issue. Despite these issues, residents'adjusted to their new homes and locations' and appreciated the'better home environment'. By 1942, building had halted, it continued to acquire land though, taking advantage of low prices by purchasing land in industrial areas in the western suburbs as well as in the middle class eastern and southern suburbs. The Commission, in its planning authority capacity had drawn up plans for the future development of Melbourne but by 1944, it was lacking resources to deal with backlogs of council plans; the Commission recruited Frank Heath from its advisory Architects Panel to deal with these problems but it was stripped of its town planning powers in the same year. The Commission's 1944 report found that housing was required in'large numbers as as possible to house those returned to civilian life and catch up on the lag of construction over the war years'; the era of slum reclamation was over.
While the Commission was planning for the future, so were its commissioners. Barnett and Burt published Housing the Australian Nation, reviewing the slum reclamation