A poker tournament is a tournament where players compete by playing poker. It can feature as few as two players playing on a single table, as many as tens of thousands of players playing on thousands of tables; the winner of the tournament is the person who wins every poker chip in the game and the others are awarded places based on the time of their elimination. To facilitate this, in most tournaments, blinds rise over the duration of the tournament. Unlike in a ring game, a player's chips in a tournament cannot be cashed out for money and serve only to determine the player's placing. To enter a typical tournament, a player pays a fixed buy-in and at the start of play is given a certain quantity of tournament poker chips. Commercial venues may charge a separate fee, or withhold a small portion of the buy-in, as the cost of running the event. Tournament chips have only notional value; the amount of each entrant's starting tournament chips is an integer multiple of the buy-in. Some tournaments offer the option of a buy-back.
In some cases, re-buys are conditional but in others they are available to all players. When a player has no chips remaining he or she is eliminated from the tournament. In most tournaments, the number of players at each table is kept by moving players, either by switching one player or taking an entire table out of play and distributing its players amongst the remaining tables. A few tournaments, called shoot-outs, do not do this; the prizes for winning are derived from the buy-ins, though outside funds may be entered as well. For example, some invitational tournaments do not have buy-ins and fund their prize pools with sponsorship revenue and/or gate receipts from spectators. Tournaments without a buy-in are referred to as freerolls. A freeroll tournament is free to enter and the player is given one chance in the tournament. A variation on a freeroll tournament is called a "freebuy". In a freebuy event, a player can enter with a free entry, but if the player loses their chips during the registration period they are able to buy themselves back into the event.
Play continues, in most tournaments, until all but one player is eliminated, though in some tournament situations informal ones, players have the option of ending by consensus. Players are ranked in reverse chronological order — the last person in the game earns 1st place, the second-to-last earns 2nd, so on; this ranking of players by elimination is unique amongst games, precludes the possibility of a tie for first place, since one player alone must have all the chips to end the tournament. Sometimes tournaments end by mutual consensus of the remaining players. For example, in a ten-person, $5 game, there may be two players remaining with $29 and $21 worth of chips. Rather than risk losing their winnings, as one of them would if the game were continued, these two players may be allowed to split the prize proportional to their in-game currency. Certain tournaments, known as bounty tournaments, place a bounty on all of the players. If a player knocks an opponent out, the player earns the opponent's bounty.
Individual bounties or total bounties collected by the end of a tournament may be used to award prizes. Bounties work in combination with a regular prize pool, where a small portion of each player's buy-in goes towards his or her bounty. Other tournaments allow players to exchange some or all of their chips in the middle of a tournament for prize money, giving the chips cash value. Separate portions of each player's buy-in go towards a "cash out" pool; the cash out rate is fixed, a time when players may not cash out is established. The remaining cash out pool is either paid out to the remaining field or added to the regular prize pool. Prizes are awarded to the winning players in one of two ways: Fixed: Each placing corresponds to a certain payoff. For example, a ten-person, $20 buy-in tournament might award $100 to the first-place player, $60 for second-place, $40 for third, nothing for lower places. Proportional: Payouts are determined according to a percentage-based scale; the percentages are determined based upon the number of participants and will increase payout positions as participation increases.
As a rule one player in ten will'cash', or make a high enough place to earn money. These scales are top-heavy, with the top three players winning more than the rest of the paid players combined. Tournaments can be invitational; the World Series of Poker, whose Main Event is considered the most prestigious of all poker tournaments, is open. Multi-table tournaments involve many players playing at dozens or hundreds of tables. Satellite tournaments to high-profile, expensive poker tournaments are the means of entering a major event without posti
Wild Bill Hickok
James Butler Hickok, better known as "Wild Bill" Hickok, was a folk hero of the American Old West known for his work across the frontier as a drover, wagon master, spy, lawman, gambler and actor. He earned a great deal of notoriety in his own time, much of it bolstered by the many outlandish and fabricated tales that he told about his life; some contemporaneous reports of his exploits are known to be fictitious, but they remain the basis of much of his fame and reputation, along with his own stories. Hickok was born and raised on a farm in northern Illinois at a time when lawlessness and vigilante activity were rampant because of the influence of the "Banditti of the Prairie". Hickok was drawn to this ruffian lifestyle and headed west at age 18 as a fugitive from justice, working as a stagecoach driver and as a lawman in the frontier territories of Kansas and Nebraska, he fought and spied for the Union Army during the American Civil War and gained publicity after the war as a scout, marksman and professional gambler.
Over the course of his life, he was involved in several notable shoot-outs. In 1876, Hickok was shot from behind and killed while playing poker in a saloon in Deadwood, Dakota Territory by Jack McCall, an unsuccessful gambler; the hand of cards which he held at the time of his death has become known as the dead man's hand: two pairs and eights. Hickok remains a popular figure in frontier history. Many historic sites and monuments commemorate his life, he has been depicted numerous times in literature and television, he is chiefly portrayed as a protagonist, though historical accounts of his actions are controversial and most of his career was exaggerated by both himself and various mythmakers. While Hickok claimed to have killed numerous named and unnamed gunmen in his lifetime, according to Joseph G. Rosa, Hickok's biographer and the foremost authority on Wild Bill, Hickok killed only six or seven men in gunfights. James Butler Hickok was born May 27, 1837, in Homer, Illinois, to William Alonzo Hickok, a farmer and abolitionist, his wife Polly Butler.
His father was said to have used the family house, now demolished, as a station on the Underground Railroad. Hickok was the fourth of six children. William Hickok died in 1852, when James was 15. Hickok was a good shot from a young age and was recognized locally as an outstanding marksman with a pistol. Photographs of Hickok appear to depict dark hair, but all contemporaneous descriptions affirm that it was red. In 1855, at age 18, James Hickok fled Illinois following a fight with Charles Hudson, during which both fell into a canal. Hickok moved to Leavenworth in the Kansas Territory, where he joined "General" Jim Lane's Free State Army, a vigilante group active in the new territory. While a Jayhawker, he met 12-year-old William Cody, who despite his youth served as a scout just two years for the U. S. Army during the Utah War. While in Nebraska, James Hickok was derisively referred to as "Duck Bill" for his long nose and protruding lips, he grew a moustache following the McCanles incident and in 1861 began calling himself Wild Bill.
He was known before 1861 by Jayhawkers as "Shanghai Bill" because of his height and slim build. Hickok used his late brother's name, William Hickok, from 1858 and the name William Haycock during the Civil War. Most newspapers referred to him as William Haycock until 1869, he was arrested while using the name Haycock in 1865. He afterward resumed using James Hickok. Military records after 1865 list him as Hickok but note that he was known as Haycock. In an 1867 article about his shoot-out with Davis Tutt, his surname was misspelled as Hitchcock. In 1857, Hickok claimed a 160-acre tract in Kansas. On March 22, 1858, he was elected one of the first four constables of Monticello Township. In 1859, he joined the Russell and Waddell freight company, the parent company of the Pony Express. In 1860, he was badly injured by a bear while driving a freight team from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. According to Hickok's account, he found the road blocked by its two cubs. Dismounting, he approached the bear and fired a shot into its head, but the bullet ricocheted off its skull, infuriating it.
The bear attacked. Hickok managed wounding the bear's paw; the bear grabbed his arm in its mouth, but Hickok was able to grab his knife and slash its throat, killing it. Hickok was injured, with a crushed chest and arm, he was bedridden for four months before being sent to Rock Creek Station in the Nebraska Territory to work as a stable hand while he recovered. The freight company had built the stagecoach stop along the Oregon Trail near Fairbury, Nebraska, on land purchased from David McCanles. On July 12, 1861, David McCanles went to the Rock Creek Station office to demand an overdue property payment from Horace Wellman, the station manager. McCanles threatened Wellman, either Hickok or Wellman killed him. Hickok and another employee, J. W. Brink, were found to have acted in self-defense. McCanles may have been the first man Hickok killed. Hickok subsequently visited McCanles' widow, apologized for the killing, offered her $35 in restitution, all the money he had with him at the time. After the Civil War
Caesars Entertainment Corporation
Caesars Entertainment Corporation is an American gaming corporation based in Paradise, Nevada that owns and operates over 50 casinos and hotels, seven golf courses under several brands. In 2013, it was the fourth-largest gaming company in the world, with annual revenues of $8.6 billion. Caesars is a public company, majority-owned by a group of private equity firms led by Apollo Global Management and TPG Capital. Caesars's largest operating unit filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on January 15, 2015; the company's background can be traced to October 29, 1937, when Bill Harrah opened a small bingo parlor in Reno, Nevada, a predecessor to Harrah's Reno. In 1955, he expanded to Stateline, Nevada, on the south shore of Lake Tahoe, where he would open Harrah's Lake Tahoe. Harrah's Inc. made its initial public offering in 1971. In 1972, it was listed on the American Stock Exchange and in 1973, Harrah's became the first casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Bill Harrah died on June 30, 1978 of complications from aortic aneurysm and cardiac surgery at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.
In February 1980, Holiday Inn acquired. Liquidation of Harrah's collection of 7,000 antique automobiles returned the full purchase price of the company to Holiday Inn. Holiday Inn at the time had interests in two casinos: the under-construction Holiday Inn Marina Casino in Atlantic City, a 40 percent stake in the Holiday Casino, adjacent to the Holiday Inn hotel on the Las Vegas Strip. In July 1987, Bill's Casino Lake Tahoe opened. Harrah's Laughlin opened in August 1988; the company now known as Caesars Entertainment was formed in 1990 as The Promus Companies. To effect the sale of the Holiday Inn hotel business to Bass PLC, Promus was created as a corporate spin-off, holding Harrah's, Embassy Suites, Homewood Suites, Hampton Inn; the next year, the company's headquarters moved from Reno to Memphis, TennesseeIn April 1992, the Holiday Casino was rebranded as Harrah's Las Vegas. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw a rapid increase in gambling markets with the growth of Indian gaming and legalization of riverboat casinos.
In 1993 and 1994, the company opened Harrah's Joliet, Harrah's Vicksburg, Harrah's Tunica, Harrah's Black Hawk, Harrah's Central City, Harrah's Shreveport, Harrah's North Kansas City, Harrah's Ak-Chin. In 1995, Promus decided to spin off its non-gaming hotel businesses, in part because they had been undervalued by investors due to perception of the company as a risky gaming stock. Promus Hotel Corp. was established, holding Embassy Suites, Hampton Inn, Homewood Suites, while the parent company, holding 16 casinos, was renamed as Harrah's Entertainment. Harrah's continued its expansion over the next ten years, opening Harrah's Skagit Valley, Harrah's Sky City, Harrah's St. Louis-Riverport, Harrah's Cherokee, Harrah's Prairie Band, Harrah's New Orleans, Harrah's Rincon, acquiring the Southern Belle Casino, Inc. the Rio All Suite Hotel and Casino, Players International, Harveys Casino Resorts, Louisiana Downs, Horseshoe Gaming, the World Series of Poker. In 1997, Harrah's launched its Total Gold loyalty program, developed at a cost of $20 million.
It was the first gaming company to offer a systemwide comps program, allowing points earned at one casino to be redeemed for goods and services at any of the company's other casinos. The system would be credited as a major driver of Harrah's growth over the coming years. Harvard Business School professor Gary Loveman joined Harrah's as chief operating officer in 1998, would go on to serve as chief executive officer from 2003 to 2015. In 1999, the company moved its headquarters from Memphis to Las Vegas. Harrah's made its largest single expansion in 2005, when it acquired Caesars Entertainment, Inc. for $10.4 billion. Negotiations were spurred on by news of a merger agreement between MGM Mirage and Mandalay Resort Group; the two companies sold several properties ahead of the merger to assuage antitrust concerns, including Harrah's East Chicago and Harrah's Mardi Gras. The acquisition increased Harrah's portfolio to 40 casinos, plus four cruise ship casinos; the deal furthered Harrah's goal of gaining a larger presence on the Las Vegas Strip, where Caesars owned four casinos, improved its ability to market to high rollers.
Harrah's began to push for a larger international presence in 2005, announcing joint venture agreements to build casinos in Spain and the Bahamas, applying for a license to build a major resort in Singapore, though none of these projects would come to fruition. Harrah's acquired London Clubs International in 2006, the Macau Orient Golf club in 2007. From 2005 to 2010, the company consolidated control of a long stretch of the east side of the Las Vegas Strip, acquiring the Bourbon Street, Imperial Palace, Barbary Coast, Planet Hollywood casinos, along with large tracts of land behind the Strip properties. In 2005 and 2006, Harrah's closed its Lake Charles casino due to damage from Hurricane Rita, sold the Flamingo Laughlin, sold Grand Casino Gulfport. Loveman at some point sought advice from private equity tycoon David Bonderman about the possibility of spinning off ownership of Harrah's real estate as a separate real estate investment trust, hoping to attain the higher price-to-earnings ratios at which hotel companies traded, compared to gaming companies.
In 2006, the discussions evolved toward the idea of a leveraged buyout of Harrah's by Bonderman's company, TPG Capital. Another private equity firm, Apollo Global Management, approached Loveman about a buyout, he encouraged them to collaborate with TPG. By the end of the year, an agreement was announced fo
Thomas Austin Preston Jr. known as Amarillo Slim, was an American professional gambler known for his poker skills and proposition bets. Preston won the 1972 World Series of Poker Main Event and was inducted into the Poker Hall of Fame in 1992. Before becoming a well-known tournament player, Preston was a rounder, touring the United States looking for gambling action along with Doyle Brunson and Sailor Roberts. Preston participated in the first World Series of Poker in 1970 along with Sailor Roberts, Doyle Brunson, Puggy Pearson, Crandell Addington, Carl Cannon. Following his victory in the 1972 WSOP Main Event, he appeared on several talk shows, including The Tonight Show, had a small part in the 1974 Robert Altman movie California Split, he appeared on. Preston won four WSOP bracelets including two in Omaha. Preston's final WSOP win was in 1990. In the $2,500 Pot Limit Omaha event at the 2000 WSOP, he came in second to Phil Ivey. In January/February 1980, Amarillo Slim hosted the Second Annual Poker Classic, the second-most prestigious poker tournament of its time.
This series came to be called the Super Bowl of Poker and continued until 1991. Gabe Kaplan became the first winner of this tournament series and Stu Ungar won the title three times. Preston's lifetime tournament earnings totaled more than $587,000. In 1973, Preston and Bill G. Cox wrote Play Poker to Win, published by Grosset and Dunlap. A revised edition of the book was published by HarperCollins in 2005 entitled Amarillo Slim's Play Poker to Win. In May 2003, Preston published his autobiography Amarillo Slim in a World Full of Fat People, where he wrote of playing poker with Larry Flynt, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon among others. In addition to his poker exploits, Preston wrote about his exploits in proposition betting. In April 2007, Preston created a website and released an E-Book called All In: An E-guide To No Limit Texas Hold'em; the book was written by Preston along with Joe Brent Riley. Thomas Austin Preston Jr. was born on December 31, 1928, in Johnson, but when he was an infant his parents moved to Turkey, Texas.
After they divorced, his mother returned to Johnson. Slim is quoted as saying: "It's a good thing he did, because Amarillo Slim sounds a heck of a lot better than Turkey Tom or Arkansas Austin." Preston was divorced, had three children, lived in Amarillo, Texas. In August 2003, Preston was indicted in Randall County, Texas, on charges of indecency with a 12-year-old grandchild; the charges were reduced to misdemeanor assault in a plea bargain, on February 10, 2004, Preston pleaded "no contest" to the reduced charges "to protect his family". Preston received a $4,000 fine, two years probation, was "ordered to undergo counseling". In a 2009 interview, he stated that he was innocent of any wrongdoing, but chose to take the plea bargain in order to spare his family from a court trial. Early on the morning of October 4, 2006, Preston was the victim of an attempted armed robbery; the armed robber fired three bullets into Preston's car. Preston was not injured. On January 28, 2007, Preston was robbed at gunpoint while in his home.
On January 22, 2009, Preston was beaten and robbed near the intersection of Interstate 40 and Soncy Road while attempting to collect a gambling debt. Preston's autobiography was the topic of a biopic movie reported to be under development. Nicolas Cage was to play Preston's character in the movie. According to a 2009 article at Poker Listings, the "planned Hollywood movie about Slim's life" has been "dropped". Preston died on April 29, 2012, of colon cancer at the age of 83. Obituary in The Independent by Marcus Williamson
Lyle Arnold Berman is a professional poker player and business executive. Berman grew up in Minnesota and attended the University of Minnesota where he was graduated in 1964 with a degree in business administration, he went to work for his father's leather business, Berman Buckskin. When the business was sold to W. R. Grace in 1979, he stayed on as president and CEO; the company was later sold to the Melville Corporation where it became Wilsons Leather. From 1994 to 2000 he was the chairman and CEO of the Rainforest Cafe chain of restaurants and retail stores. Berman played an important role in gaming companies. In 1990 he was a co-founder of Grand Casinos, a company that sought to create gambling establishments outside of Las Vegas and Atlantic City. Grand Casinos' Native American casino holdings were spun off into a new company, Lakes Entertainment, Berman was named CEO. Additionally, Berman is the chairman of the board of the World Poker Pokertek, he won the B'nai B'rith Great American Traditions award in 1995 and the Gaming Executive of the Year award in 1996.
Berman was one of the many investors victimized by the massive Ponzi scheme of Bernie Madoff, though his actual losses are unknown. Berman is a member of the Poker Hall of Fame. In 2005, Lyle Berman competed in the National Heads Up Championship, he finished in fifth place losing to eventual champion Phil Hellmuth Jr. in the quarterfinals. Although he prefers high-stakes cash games, he has as of 2009 won over $2,500,000 in live poker tournaments, his 16 cashes at the WSOP account for $1,446,317 of those winnings. He was inducted into the Poker Hall of Fame in 2002. According to the James McManus book Positively Fifth Street, Berman has bankrolled T. J. Cloutier in numerous poker tournaments, including the 2000 WSOP main event, where he finished 2nd; the book All-In is about Berman's life. Berman resides in Plymouth and has 4 children. Berman co-authored I'm All In: Lyle Berman and the Birth of the World Poker Tour with Marvin Karlins; the autobiography details Berman's life from his childhood to his life as an adult, covering his business ventures, his opinions on poker and Las Vegas, his experiences with designing and developing the World Poker Tour into what it is today.
World Poker Tour profile Casino City Times book review Hendon Mob tournament results
Wynn Macau is a luxury hotel and casino resort in the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China with two towers containing a total of 1,008 rooms and suites 273,000 square feet square feet of casino space, over 59,000 square feet square feet of retail space, eight casual and fine dining restaurants, two spas, a salon and a pool. The resort boasts three entertainment experiences, including Macau's only choreographed Performance Lake. Wynn Macau is operated by international resort developer Wynn Resorts. Wynn Macau opened on September 6, 2006 and its second tower - Encore opened on April 21, 2010. Wynn Macau opened to the public on 6 September 2006. In December 2007, Wynn Macau completed an expansion, adding more gaming space and additional food and beverage and retail shops. In 2009, Wynn Macau became one of only five hotels in Asia to receive the Forbes Five-Star award. On 21 April 2010, the company opened Encore at Wynn Macau, an all-suite boutique hotel, integrated into the existing operations at Wynn Macau similar to Encore Las Vegas.
Encore Macau has 410 suites, including 41 Grand Salon Suites, bringing the total number of rooms at Wynn Macau to 1,008. On 1 May 2012, Wynn Macau received approval from the Macau government for its Cotai land concession, paving the way for Wynn Macau to break ground on the 51-acre site. Wynn Macau Limited acquired a group of Jiaqing period porcelain vases at a Christie's London auction on July 7, 2011; the vases were purchased for £8 million. "We are delighted to return works of this extraordinary quality to the city of Macau and the People’s Republic of China," Roger Thomas, executive vice president of Design for Wynn Design and Development, said after the sale. The Qing dynasty vases were on display at Wynn Palace and a sixteenth-century Louis XIV Beauvais Chinoiserie tapestry of'The Emperor on a Journey,' is on display at Wynn Macau. Other art at Wynn Macau includes a Louis Rigal drawing, Macanese silk embroidery, a Louis XIV silk tapestry, two cloisonné camels, Ming Dynasty statuary. List of Macau casinos Macau gaming law Gambling in Macau Wynn Palace Wynn Macau Resort Wynn Macau opens – MSNBC – AP
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television, en-suite bathrooms. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, restaurants, day spa, social function services. Hotel rooms are numbered to allow guests to identify their room; some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms. Some hotels offer meals as part of a board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities.
The precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travelers. Inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a modern sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, luxury hotels began to spring up in the part of the 19th century. Hotel operations vary in size, function and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set industry standards to classify hotel types. An upscale full-service hotel facility offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, an on-site restaurant, the highest level of personalized service, such as a concierge, room service, clothes pressing staff. Full service hotels contain upscale full-service facilities with a large number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant, a variety of on-site amenities.
Boutique hotels are smaller independent, non-branded hotels that contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities. Economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer longer-term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are hotels with a unique environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, such as the Ritz Hotel in London; some hotels are built as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. Most hotel establishments are run by a General Manager who serves as the head executive, department heads who oversee various departments within a hotel, middle managers, administrative staff, line-level supervisors.
The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by hotel size and class, is determined by hotel ownership and managing companies. The word hotel is derived from the French hôtel, which referred to a French version of a building seeing frequent visitors, providing care, rather than a place offering accommodation. In contemporary French usage, hôtel now has the same meaning as the English term, hôtel particulier is used for the old meaning, as well as "hôtel" in some place names such as Hôtel-Dieu, a hospital since the Middle Ages; the French spelling, with the circumflex, was used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the's' found in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time took on a new, but related meaning. Grammatically, hotels take the definite article – hence "The Astoria Hotel" or "The Astoria." Facilities offering hospitality to travellers have been a feature of the earliest civilizations. In Greco-Roman culture and ancient Persia, hospitals for recuperation and rest were built at thermal baths.
Japan's Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, founded in 705, was recognised by the Guinness World Records as the oldest hotel in the world. During the Middle Ages, various religious orders at monasteries and abbeys would offer accommodation for travellers on the road; the precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe dating back to the rule of Ancient Rome. These would provide for the needs of travellers, including food and lodging and fodder for the traveller's horse and fresh horses for the mail coach. Famous London examples of inns include the Tabard. A typical layout of an inn had an inner court with bedrooms on the two sides, with the kitchen and parlour at the front and the stables at the back. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travellers. Coaching inns stabled teams of horses for stagecoaches and mail coaches and replaced tired teams with fresh teams. Traditionally they were seven miles apart, but this depended much on the terrain.
Some English towns had as many as ten such inns and rivalry between them was intense, not only for the income from the stagecoach operators but for the revenu