Christie's is a British auction house. It was founded in 1766 by James Christie, its main premises are on King Street, St James's, in London and in the Rockefeller Center in New York City. The company is owned by the holding company of François-Henri Pinault. Sales in 2015 totalled £4.8 billion. In 2017 the Salvator Mundi was sold for $450.3 million at Christie's, which at that time was the highest price paid for a single painting at an auction. The official company literature states that founder James Christie conducted the first sale in London, England, on 5 December 1766, the earliest auction catalogue the company retains is from December 1766. However, other sources note that James Christie rented auction rooms from 1762, newspaper advertisements for Christie's sales dating from 1759 have been traced. Christie's was a public company, listed on the London Stock Exchange, from 1973 to 1999. In 1974, Jo Floyd was appointed chairman of Christie's, he served as chairman of Christie's International plc from 1976 to 1988, until handing over to Lord Carrington, was a non-executive director until 1992.
Christie's International Inc. held its first sale in the United States in 1977. Christie's growth was steady since 1989, when it had 42 % of the auction market. In 1990, the company reversed a long-standing policy and guaranteed a minimum price for a collection of artworks in its May auctions. In 1996, sales exceeded those of Sotheby's for the first time since 1954. However, profits did not grow at the same pace. In 1993, Christie's paid $12.7 million for the London gallery Spink & Son, which specialised in Oriental art and British paintings. The company bought Leger Gallery for $3.3 million in 1996, merged it with Spink to become Spink-Leger. Spink-Leger closed in 2002. To make itself competitive with Sotheby's in the property market, Christie's bought Great Estates in 1995 the largest network of independent estate agents in North America, changing its name to Christie's Great Estates Inc. In December 1997, under the chairmanship of Lord Hindlip, Christie's put itself on the auction block, but after two months of negotiations with the consortium-led investment firm SBC Warburg Dillon Read it did not attract a bid high enough to accept.
In May 1998, François Pinault's holding company, Groupe Artémis S. A. first bought 29.1 percent of the company for $243.2 million, subsequently purchased the rest of it in a deal that valued the entire company at $1.2 billion. The company has since not been reporting profits, its policy, in line with UK accounting standards, is to convert non-UK results using an average exchange rate weighted daily by sales throughout the year. In 2002, Christie's France held its first auction in Paris. Like Sotheby's, Christie's became involved in high-profile private transactions. In 2006, Christie's offered a reported $21 million guarantee to the Donald Judd Foundation and displayed the artist's works for five weeks in an exhibition that won an AICA award for "Best Installation in an Alternative Space". In 2007 it brokered a $68 million deal that transferred Thomas Eakins's The Gross Clinic from the Jefferson Medical College at the Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia to joint ownership by the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
In the same year, the Haunch of Venison gallery became a subsidiary of the company. On 28 December 2008, The Sunday Times reported that Pinault's debts left him "considering" the sale of Christie's and that a number of "private equity groups" were thought to be interested in its acquisition. In January 2009, the company employed 2,100 people worldwide, though an unspecified number of staff and consultants were soon to be cut due to a worldwide downturn in the art market. With sales for premier Impressionist and contemporary artworks tallying only US$248.8 million in comparison to US$739 million just a year before, a second round of job cuts began after May 2009. Guy Bennett resigned just before to the beginning of the summer 2009 sales season. Although the economic downturn has encouraged some collectors to sell art, others are unwilling to sell in a market which may yield only bargain prices. On 1 January 2017, Guillaume Cerutti was appointed chief executive officer. Patricia Barbizet was appointed chief executive officer of Christie's in 2014, the first female CEO of the company.
She replaced Steven Murphy, hired in 2010 to develop their online presence and launch in new markets, such as China. In 2012, Impressionist works, which dominated the market during the 1980s boom, were replaced by contemporary art as Christie's top category. Asian art was the third most-lucrative area. With income from classic auctioneering falling, treaty sales made £413.4 million in the first half of 2012, an increase of 53% on the same period last year. The company has promoted curated events, centred on a theme rather than an art classification or time period; as part of a companywide review in 2017, Christie's announced the layoffs of 250 employees, or 12 percent of the total work force, based in Britain and Europe. From 2008 until 2013, Christie's charged 25 percent for the first $50,000. From 2013, it charged 25 percent for the first $75,000. Christie's main London salesroom is on
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization, activities of daily life, sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic and political environment of an emerging industrialized world; the poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was the touchstone of the movement's approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century.
A notable characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness and irony concerning literary and social traditions, which led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a painting, building, etc. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and made use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, rewriting, recapitulation and parody; some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines. More common in the West, are those who see it as a progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was'holding back' progress, replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end.
Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche to Samuel Beckett. While some scholars see modernism continuing into the twenty first century, others see it evolving into late modernism or high modernism. Postmodernism refutes its basic assumptions. According to one critic, modernism developed out of Romanticism's revolt against the effects of the Industrial Revolution and bourgeois values: "The ground motive of modernism, Graff asserts, was criticism of the nineteenth-century bourgeois social order and its world view the modernists, carrying the torch of romanticism." While J. M. W. Turner, one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century, was a member of the Romantic movement, as "a pioneer in the study of light and atmosphere", he "anticipated the French Impressionists" and therefore modernism "in breaking down conventional formulas of representation.
The dominant trends of industrial Victorian England were opposed, from about 1850, by the English poets and painters that constituted the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, because of their "opposition to technical skill without inspiration." They were influenced by the writings of the art critic John Ruskin, who had strong feelings about the role of art in helping to improve the lives of the urban working classes, in the expanding industrial cities of Britain. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists: "There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the pre-Raphaelites; the Pre-Raphaelites foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, holding that its realism wasn't truthful enough." Rationalism has had opponents in the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism. However, the Industrial Revolution continued.
Influential innovations included steam-powered industrialization, the development of railways, starting in Britain in the 1830s, the subsequent advancements in physics and architecture associated with this. A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron and plate glass exhibition hall built for The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. Glass and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in London, such as Paddington Station and King's Cross station; these technological advances led to the building of structures like the Brooklyn Bridge and the Eiffel Tower. The latter broke all previous limitations on; these engineering marvels radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the daily lives of people. The human experience of time itself was altered, with the development of the electric telegraph from 1837, the adoption
Irish republicanism is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic. The development of nationalist and democratic sentiment throughout Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was reflected in Ireland in the emergence of republicanism, in opposition to British rule; this followed hundreds of years of Irish resistance through rebellion. Discrimination against Catholics and nonconformists, attempts by the British administration to suppress Irish culture, the belief that Ireland was economically disadvantaged as a result of the Act of Union were among the specific factors leading to such opposition; the Society of United Irishmen, formed in the 1780s and led by liberal Protestants, evolved into a revolutionary republican organisation, inspired by the American Revolution and allied with Revolutionary France. It launched the 1798 Rebellion with the help of French troops; the rebellion had some success in County Wexford, before it was suppressed. A second rising in 1803, led by Robert Emmet, was put down, Emmet was hanged.
The Young Ireland movement, formed in the 1830s, was a part of the Repeal Association of Daniel O'Connell, but broke with O'Connell on the issue of the legitimacy of the use of violence. A political and cultural organisation, some members of Young Ireland staged an abortive rising, the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848, its leaders were transported to Van Diemen's Land. Some of these escaped to the United States, where they linked up with other Irish exiles to form the Fenian Brotherhood. Together with the Irish Republican Brotherhood, founded in Ireland by James Stephens and others in 1858, they made up a movement known as "Fenians", dedicated to the overthrow of British imperial rule in Ireland, they staged another rising, the Fenian Rising, in 1867, a dynamite campaign in England in the 1880s. In the early 20th century IRB members, in particular Tom Clarke and Seán MacDermott, began planning another rising; the Easter Rising took place from 24 to 30 April 1916, when members of the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army seized the centre of Dublin, proclaimed a republic and held off British forces for a week.
The execution of the Rising's leaders, including Clarke, MacDermott, Patrick Pearse and James Connolly, led to a surge of support for republicanism in Ireland. In 1917 the Sinn Féin party stated as its aim the "securing the international recognition of Ireland as an independent Irish Republic", in the general election of 1918 Sinn Féin took 73 of the 105 Irish seats in the British House of Commons; the elected members did not take their seats but instead set up the First Dáil. Between 1919 and 1921 the Irish Republican Army, who were loyal to the Dáil, fought the British Army and Royal Irish Constabulary, a predominantly Roman Catholic force, in the Irish War of Independence. Talks between the British and Irish in late 1921 led to a treaty by which the British conceded, not a 32-county Irish Republic, but a 26-county Irish Free State with Dominion status; this led to the Irish Civil War. The Free State became an independent constitutional monarchy following the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931 and formally became a republic with the passage of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948.
That same year, the republican movement took the decision to focus on Northern Ireland thereafter. The Border Campaign, which lasted from 1956 to 1962, involved bombings and attacks on Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks; the failure of this campaign led the republican leadership to concentrate on political action, to move to the left. Following the outbreak of The Troubles in 1968-9, the movement split between Officials and Provisionals at the beginning of 1970. Both sides were involved in an armed campaign against the British state, but the Officials moved into mainstream politics after the Official IRA ceasefire of 1972; the Provisional IRA, except during brief ceasefires in 1972 and 1975, kept up a campaign of violence for nearly thirty years, directed against security forces and civilian targets. While the Social Democratic and Labour Party represented the nationalists of Northern Ireland in initiatives such as the 1973 Sunningdale Agreement, republicans took no part in these, believing that a withdrawal of British troops and a commitment to a united Ireland was a necessary precondition of any settlement.
This began to change with a landmark speech by Danny Morrison in 1981, advocating what became known as the Armalite and ballot box strategy. Under the leadership of Gerry Adams, Sinn Féin began to focus on the search for a political settlement; when the party voted in 1986 to take seats in legislative bodies within Ireland, there was a walk-out of die-hard republicans, who set up Republican Sinn Féin and the Continuity IRA. Following the Hume–Adams dialogue, Sinn Féin took part in the Northern Ireland peace process which led to the IRA ceasefires of 1994 and 1997 and the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. After elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly, republicans sat in government in Northern Ireland for the first time when Martin McGuinness and Bairbre de Brún were elected to the Northern Ireland Executive. However, another split occurred, with anti-Agreement republicans setting up the 32 County Sovereignty Movement and the Real IRA. Today, Irish republicanism is divided between those who support the institutions set up under the Good Friday Agreement and the St Andrews Agreement, those who oppose them.
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Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
John Butler Yeats
John Butler Yeats was an Irish artist and the father of William Butler Yeats, Lily Yeats, Elizabeth Corbett "Lolly" Yeats and Jack B. Yeats; the National Gallery of Ireland holds a number of his portraits in oil and works on paper, including one of his portraits of his son William, painted in 1900. His portrait of John O'Leary is considered his masterpiece. Yeats was born in Lawrencetown, townland of County Down, his parents were Jane Grace Corbert. Educated in Trinity College Dublin and a member of the University Philosophical Society, John Butler Yeats began his career as a lawyer and devilled with Isaac Butt before he took up painting in 1867 and studied at the Heatherley School of Fine Art. There are few records of his sales, so there is no catalogue of his work in private collections, it is possible that some of his early work may have been destroyed by fire in World War II. It is clear that he had no trouble getting commissions as his sketches and oils are found in private homes in Ireland and America.
His portraits show great sensitivity to the sitter. However, he was never financially secure, he moved house and shifted several times between England and Ireland. In 1907, at the age of 68, he travelled to New York aboard the Campania, with his daughter Lily, never returned to Ireland. In October 1909 he moved into this final home, a boarding house run by the Petitpas sisters, located at 317 West Twenty-Ninth Street. In New York, he was friendly with members of the Ashcan School of painters, he died in the boarding house on 3 February 1922. Edmund Quinn made a death mask, now in the collection of the Yeats Society in Sligo. John Butler Yeats is buried in Chestertown Rural Cemetery in Chestertown, New York, next to his friend, Jeanne Robert Foster. Yeats married Susan Pollexfen on 10 September 1863 at Sligo. Susan Yeats was dismayed. Susan is described as a "shadowy figure" who went "quietly, mad". John and Susan had six children: William Butler Yeats. List of Irish artists Douglas N. Archibald, John Butler Yeats Bucknell University Press-Irish Writers Series.
Martyn Anglesea, John Butler in Brian Lalor The Encyclopedia of Ireland. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 0-7171-3000-2. Bruce Arnold, Irish Art, a concise history. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20148-X Robert Gordon, John Butler Yeats and John Sloan the records of a friendship; the Dolmen Press New Yeats Papers XIV Dublin. Declan J Foley, Letters of John Butler Yeats to his son Jack B. Yeats. Lilliput Press Dublin ISBN 978-1-84351-155-7. Joseph Hone, editor, J. B. Yeats Letters to his son W. B. Yeats and Others 1969-1922, Faber and Faber, 1 & 2 eds. republished Martin Secker and Waburg Ltd. Abridged and with an Introduction by John McGahern.: Faber. Raymond Keaveney, National Gallery of Ireland, Essential Guide. London: Scala. ISBN 1-85759-267-0. Janis Londraville, Prodigal Father Revisited: Artists and writers in the World of John Butler Yeats, Locust Hill Press, includes papers from first John Butler Yeats Seminar, Chestertown 2001. William M. Murphy, Prodigal Father: The Life of John Butler Yeats, 1839–1922, published by Cornell University Press.
Paperback 1979, reprinted in paperback with some new material in 2001 by Syracuse University Press. William M. Murphy, Family Secrets: William Butler Yeats and His Relatives Syracuse University Press, 1995. William M. Murphy, The Yeats Family and the Pollexfens of Sligo. William M. Murphy,; the Drawings of John Butler Yeats.. William M Murphy, Family Secrets William Butler Yeats and His Relatives. Syracuse UP. Robert Gordon, John Butler Yeats and John Sloan: The Record of a Friendship; the Dolmen Press New Yeats Papers XIV Dublin. Lennox Robinson, Further Letters of John Butler Yeats: Selected by Lennox Robinson, The Cuala Press, Dundrum, County Dublin. Yeats John Butler,Essays Irish and American, Talbot Press Dublin/T Fisher Unwin London. Early Memories: Some Chapters of Autobiography The Cuala Press, Dundrum County Dublin. Passages From The Letters of John Butler Yeats: Selected by Ezra Pound; the Cuala Press Churchtown, County Dublin James White, John Butler Yeats and The Irish Renaissance with pictures from the collection of Michael Butler Yeats and from The National Gallery of Ireland.
The Dolmen Press Dublin. Tóibín, Colm. "The Playboy of West 29th Street". London Review of Books. Pp. 7–12. ISSN 0260-9592. "Archival material relating to John Butler Yeats". UK National Archives. Portraits of John Butler Yeats at the National Portrait Gallery, London Yeats Society Sligo Boston College collection of Yeats family papers at John J. Burns Library, Boston College
The Ulster Museum, located in the Botanic Gardens in Belfast, has around 8,000 square metres of public display space, featuring material from the collections of fine art and applied art, ethnography, treasures from the Spanish Armada, local history, industrial archaeology, botany and geology. It is the largest museum in Northern Ireland, one of the components of National Museums Northern Ireland; the Ulster Museum was founded as the Belfast Natural History Society in 1821 and began exhibiting in 1833. It has included an art gallery since 1890. Called the Belfast Municipal Museum and Art Gallery, in 1929, it moved to its present location in Stranmillis; the new building was designed by James Cumming Wynne. In 1962, courtesy of the Museum Act 1961, it was renamed as the Ulster Museum and was formally recognised as a national museum. A major extension constructed by McLaughlin & Harvey Ltd to designs by Francis Pym who won the 1964 competition was opened in 1972 and Pym's only completed work, it was published in several magazines and was until alteration the most important example of Brutalism in Northern Ireland.
It was praised by David Evans for the "almost barbaric power of its great cubic projections and cantilevers brooding over the conifers of the botanic gardens like a mastodon". Since the 1940s the Ulster Museum has built up good collection of art by modern Irish, Ulster-based artists. In 1998, the Ulster Museum merged with the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum and the Ulster-American Folk Park to form the National Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland. In July 2005, a £17m refurbishment of the museum was announced, with grants from the Heritage Lottery Fund and the Department of Culture and Leisure. In October 2006 the museum closed its doors until 2009. Illustrations of historic interest of interiors before alterations will be found as nos 183 and 237 in Larmour, P. 1987. The redevelopment drew criticism from many significant figures in the architectural community and the Twentieth Century Society for changes to the Brutalist character and dismantling of the spiral sequence of rooms in the Pym extension.
The museum reopened in eighty years to the day since its original opening. Within a month over 100,000 people had visited the museum; the reopening saw the introduction of Monday closure, which has received criticism from the public and in the press. All NMNI sites are to close on Mondays; this decision is being reviewed by DCAL. The museum has galleries covering the history of Northern Ireland from the earliest times to the recent past, collections of art modern or ethnographic and contemporary fashion and textiles, holds exhibitions; the scientific collections of the Ulster Museum contain important collections of Irish birds, insects, marine invertebrates, flowering plants and lichens, as well as an archive of books and manuscripts relating to Irish natural history. The museum maintains a natural history website named Habitas. In the late 1980s and the early 1990s it had a permanent exhibition on dinosaurs which has since been scaled back considerably. There is a collection of rocks and fossils.
The museum contains significant finds from Northern Ireland, although in earlier periods these were sent to the British Museum or Dublin, as with the Broighter Hoard, now in the National Museum of Ireland. Objects in the museum include the Malone Hoard of 19 polished Neolithic axe heads, the Moss-side Hoard of Mesolithic stone tools, the important Downpatrick Hoard of Bronze Age gold jewellery, part of the Late Roman Coleraine Hoard, the Viking Shanmullagh Hoard, the medieval coins in the Armagh City Hoard and Armagh Castle Street Hoard. There are other significant objects of the Bronze Age gold jewellery for which Ireland is notable, including four of the 100-odd surviving gold lunulae, some important early Celtic art, including a decorated bronze shield found in the River Shannon, the Bann Disk, bronze with triskele decoration. Joseph Whitaker early 20th century, mounted birds from Sicily. William Thompson mid-19th-century author of Natural History of Ireland, birds, algae. Robert Templeton mid-19th-century insects from Ceylon.
George Crawford Hyndman mollusca and Indian birds. William Monad Crawford early 20th-century butterflies from Burma. Canon William Frederick Johnson early 20th-century, Coleoptera. Charles Langham early 20th century, Irish insects European butterflies. H. M Peebles Himalayan snow butterflies Robert Welch early 20th-century Mollusca. Herbert T Malcolmson early 20th-century James Sheals bird mounts. Thomas Workman late 19th-century Lepidoptera Paul Wilcox butterflies of Malaya. Paul Smart tropical butterflies Raymond Haynes Irish butterflies and moths James P. Brock Ichneumonidae Shell collections and sea sponges J. R. Stoffel types of Agrias butterflies Holotype of the emperor penguin collected by Captain Crozier of Banbridge Champion Patrick of Ifold - Irish Wolfhound Dwarf elephant skeletons from Sicily; the Egyptian mummified body of Takabuti. Mummy case of Tjesmutperet. Slender-billed curlew Queen Alexandra's and other birdwing butterflies. Giant clam - given to the Belfast Natural History Society by Francis Walker Lammergeier mount by James Sheals Gervais' beaked whale Japanese spider crab Bonaparte's gull collected by William Thompson - the first European specimen.
Giant squid model Thylacine Coelacanth Bald eagle juvenile from near Garrison, County Fermanagh on 11 January 1973. First European record. Passenger pigeon Irish elk Yellow-billed cuckoo (Irish
Mount Jerome Cemetery and Crematorium
Mount Jerome Cemetery & Crematorium is situated in Harold's Cross on the south side of Dublin, Ireland. Since its foundation in 1836, it has witnessed over 300,000 burials. An Protestant cemetery, Roman Catholics have been buried there since the 1920s; the name of the cemetery comes from an estate established there by the Reverend Stephen Jerome, who in 1639 was vicar of St. Kevin's Parish. At that time, Harold's Cross was part of St. Kevin's Parish. In the latter half of the 17th century, the land passed into the ownership of the Earl of Meath, who in turn leased plots to prominent Dublin families. A house, Mount Jerome House, was constructed in one of these plots, leased to John Keogh. In 1834, after an aborted attempt to set up a cemetery in the Phoenix Park, the General Cemetery Company of Dublin bought the Mount Jerome property, "for establishing a general cemetery in the neighbourhood of the city of Dublin"; the Funerary Chapel in the cemetery was the first Puginian Gothic church in Dublin.
It was designed by William Atkins. In 2000, Mount Jerome Cemetery established its own crematorium on the site. Notable people buried here include: Robert Adams and professor of surgery Maeve Binchy, author Edward Bunting, music-collector Frederick William Burton and director of the National Gallery Peter Caffrey, actor Sir Charles Cameron, for 50 years head of the Public Health Department of Dublin Corporation, along with two of his sons, Charles J. and Ewen Henry James Campbell, 1st Baron Glenavy, lawyer and Lord Chancellor of Ireland William Carleton, writer Thomas Caulfield Irwin, writer, scholar Abraham Colles, professor of medicine John Augustus Conolly VC, soldier Michael Colivet, Irish politician, Commandant of the Irish Volunteers for Limerick City, a founding member of the Irish Republic and, in years, Chairman of the National Housing Board. Paddy Daly, member of the IRA during the War of Independence and Major-General in the Irish Army Achilles Daunt and homilist Derek Davis, broadcaster Thomas Davis, politician, founder of The Nation newspaper Thomas Drummond, Under-Secretary for Ireland Prof George Francis Fitzgerald, physicist James Fitzgerald, American painter Ethel Kathleen French and illustrator, first wife of Percy French.
She died in childbirth with their first child. Edward Gibson, 1st Baron Ashbourne and Lord Chancellor of Ireland Robert Graves, professor of medicine and writer Sir Richard John Griffith, mining engineer, chairman of the Board of Works, author of Griffith's Valuation Thomas Grubb, telescope-maker Benjamin Guinness, brewer and other members of the Guinness family George Halpin, civil engineer and lighthouse builder William Rowan Hamilton and astronomer James Haughton, social reformer John Kells Ingram, scholar, poet John Hewitt Jellett, Provost of Trinity College John Edward Jones, civil engineer and sculptor David Kelly, actor Joseph Robinson Kirk, who executed the figure over the memorial of his father, Thomas Thomas Kirk, who designed the Butler mausoleum in this cemetery John Mitchell Kemble, scholar Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu and editor, along with his wife, Susanna Bennett, her father and two brothers, in the same vault. Thomas Hawkesworth Ledwich and anatomist Thomas Langlois Lefroy and judge Jan Lukasiewicz, Polish philosopher and logician David Marcus, Irish Jewish writer, editor Sir Henry Marsh, physician William Ramsay McNab, Scottish physician and botanist William Fetherstone Montgomery, obstetrican Hans Garrett Moore VC, soldier Arthur Thomas Moore VC, soldier Sir Richard Morrison, architect William Vitruvius Morrison, architect.
John Skipton Mulvany, architect who designed a number of monuments in this cemetery, including the Mahony monument and Perry and West vaults Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Irish-language writer Máirtín Ó Direáin, Irish-language poet. Walter Osborne, artist Peter Marshall, prominent member of the Masonic and Orange Orders William McFadden Orr, mathematician George Papworth, architect Jacob Owen and engineer to the Board of Works Edward Arthur Henry Pakenham, 6th Earl of Longford was an Irish peer and littérateur George Petrie, archaeologist, musician William Plunket, 4th Baron Plunket, Archbishop of Dublin Sarah Purser, artist George Russell, artist Cecil Sheridan and actor John Skelton and illustrator. Ellen Smyly founder of the Smyly Homes. Robert William Smith, pathologist Bindon Blood Stoney, engineer. John Millington Synge, playwright Isaac Weld, topographical writer and artist. William Wilde, father of Oscar Wilde, his wife, Jane Francesca Elgee, is commemorated on Sir William's monument, but she was buried in Kensal