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Jack Johnson (boxer)

John Arthur "Jack" Johnson, nicknamed the Galveston Giant, was an American boxer who, at the height of the Jim Crow era, became the first African American world heavyweight boxing champion. Among the period's most dominant champions, Johnson remains a boxing legend, with his 1910 fight against James J. Jeffries dubbed the "fight of the century". According to filmmaker Ken Burns, "for more than thirteen years, Jack Johnson was the most famous and the most notorious African-American on Earth". Transcending boxing, he became the history of racism in America. In 1912, Johnson opened a successful and luxurious "black and tan" restaurant and nightclub, which in part was run by his wife, a white woman. Major newspapers of the time soon claimed that Johnson was attacked by the government only after he became famous as a black man married to a white woman, was linked to other white women. Johnson was arrested on charges of violating the Mann Act—forbidding one to transport a woman across state lines for "immoral purposes"—a racially motivated charge that embroiled him in controversy for his relationships, including marriages, with white women.

There were allegations of domestic violence. Sentenced to a year in prison, Johnson fled the country and fought boxing matches abroad for seven years until 1920 when he served his sentence at the federal penitentiary at Leavenworth. Johnson continued taking paying fights for many years, operated several other businesses, including lucrative endorsement deals. Johnson died in a car crash on June 10, 1946, at the age of 68, he is buried at Graceland Cemetery in Chicago. Johnson was born the third child of nine, the first son, of Henry and Tina Johnson, two enslaved individuals who worked blue collar jobs as a janitor and a dishwasher, his father Henry served as a civilian teamster of the Union's 38th Colored Infantry. Jack once said his father was the "most perfect physical specimen that he had seen", although his father was only 5 ft 5 in and left with an atrophied right leg from his service in the war. Growing up in Galveston, Johnson attended five years of school. Like all of his siblings, Jack was expected to work.

As a young man, Johnson was frail. Although Johnson grew up in the South, he said that segregation was not an issue in the somewhat secluded city of Galveston, as everyone living in the 12th Ward was poor and went through the same struggles. Johnson remembers growing up with a "gang" of white boys, in which he never felt victimized or excluded. Remembering his childhood, Johnson said: "As I grew up, the white boys were my pals. I played with them and slept at their homes, their mothers gave me cookies, I ate at their tables. No one taught me that white men were superior to me."After Johnson quit school, he began a job working at the local docks. He made several other attempts at working other jobs around town until one day he made his way to Dallas, finding work at the race track exercising horses. Jack stuck with this job until he found a new apprenticeship for a carriage painter by the name of Walter Lewis. Lewis enjoyed watching friends spar, Johnson began to learn how to box. Johnson claimed that it was thanks to Lewis that he became a boxer.

At 16, Johnson moved to New York City and found living arrangements with Barbados Joe Walcott, a welterweight fighter from the West Indies. Johnson again found work exercising horses for the local stable, until he was fired for exhausting a horse. On his return to Galveston, he soon found employment as a janitor at a gym owned by German-born heavyweight fighter Herman Bernau. Johnson put away enough money to buy two pairs of boxing gloves, sparring every chance he got. After returning home, Johnson had a fight with one Davie Pearson. Johnson remembers Pearson as a "grown and toughened" man who accused Johnson of turning him in to the police over a game of craps; when both of them were released from jail, they met at the docks and Johnson beat Pearson before a large crowd. Johnson fought in a summer league against a man named John "Must Have It" Lee; because prize fighting was illegal in Texas, the fight was broken up and moved to the beach where Johnson won his first fight and a prize of one dollar and fifty cents.

Johnson made his debut as a professional boxer on November 1, 1898, in Galveston, when he knocked out Charley Brooks in the second round of a 15-round bout for what was billed as "The Texas State Middleweight Title". In his third pro fight on May 8, 1899, he battled "Klondike", an African American heavyweight known as "The Black Hercules", in Chicago. Klondike, who had declared himself the "Black Heavyweight Champ", won on a technical knockout in the fifth round of a scheduled six-rounder; the two fighters met again in 1900, with the first contest resulting in a draw as both fighters were on their feet at the end of 20 rounds. Johnson won the second fight by a TKO. Johnson did not claim Klondike's unrecognized title. On February 25, 1901, Johnson fought Joe Choynski in Galveston. Choynski, a popular and experienced heavyweight, knocked out Johnson in the third round. Prizefighting was illegal in Texas at the time and they were both arrested. Bail was set at $5,000; the sheriff permitted both fighters to go home at night so long as they agreed to spar in the jail cell.

Large crowds gathered to watch the sessions. After 23 days in jail, their bail was reduced to an affordable level and a grand jury refused to indict either man. However, Johnson stated that he learned his boxing skills during that jail time; the t

Albright-Goldman oxidation

The Albright-Goldman oxidation is a name reaction of organic chemistry, first described by the American chemists J. Donald Albright and Leon Goldman in 1965; the reaction is suitable for the synthesis of aldehydes from primary alcohols. Analogously, secondary alcohols can be oxidized to form ketones. Dimethyl sulfoxide/acetic anhydride serves as oxidizing agent; the reaction does not proceed further to the carboxylic acid. The following figure shows the reaction mechanism: First, dimethyl sulfoxide reacts with acetic anhydride to form a sulfonium ion, it reacts with the primary alcohol in an addition reaction. Furthermore, acetic acid is cleaved, so that intermediate 2 is formed; the latter reacts upon elimination of acetic dimethyl sulphide to the aldehyde. The Albright-Goldman oxidation is a mild oxidation process. Thus, it is suitable for the oxidation of compounds which are sensitive to nonselective oxidizing agents, such as indole alkaloids; this reaction can be used for sterically hindered hydroxyl groups.

An example for its application is the synthesis of the indole alkaloid yohimbine: An alternative method for the oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes is the Swern oxidation


Flipsyde is an American alternative hip hop group from Oakland, California. Flipsyde consists of lead vocalist and guitarist Steve Knight, lead guitarist Dave Lopez, rapper The Piper, their 2005 debut album, We the People, was released by Interscope Records and featured the singles "Happy Birthday" and "Someday", with the latter chosen as a theme song by NBC for the 2006 Winter Olympic Games, appeared on the soundtrack for the 2008 film Never Back Down. Flipsyde's 2008 follow-up album, State of Survival, featured production by Akon and a minor hit in "When It Was Good", but the record did not chart; the group was subsequently dropped by Interscope Records. Flipsyde released two EP's independently in 2011 and 2012; the group is working on a new project together. Ferreira is a graduate of San Francisco State University and has written two unproduced screenplays, one of which won a screenwriting prize at the Tribeca Film Festival in April 2009. DJ D-Sharp, a founding member of Flipsyde, departed after the release of We the People.

Chantelle Paige joined the group for the album State of Survival. After the album she moved on to pursue a solo career; the Pen and The Sword Focus Ignite Gift Transform List of former Interscope Records artists Official website Flipsyde on MySpace

Navigable servitude

Navigable servitude is a doctrine in United States constitutional law that gives the federal government the right to regulate navigable waterways as an extension of the Commerce Clause in Article I, Section 8 of the constitution. It is sometimes called federal navigational servitude; the Commerce Clause gives Congress the power to regulate "commerce... among the several states." In Gibbons v. Ogden, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that this power extended to regulation over navigable waterways, which were an important hub of transportation in the early years of the Republic. Although the Supreme Court recognizes Federal control over navigable waterways is absolute, see Phillips Petrol v. Mississippi, 484 US 469,480, the public interest is not absolute, Dardar v. Lafourche Realty Co. Inc. 55 F.3d 1082. The government has the power to reroute a waterway. One court has held that a federal agency can restrict individuals paddling on a stream, finding boating is not a'federally protected right'.

8:09-2665-MGL 4th circuit. This servitude does not extend beyond the navigable waterway, it does not extend to the banks of a navigable stream. An explanation of the rights of the United States in navigable waters may be found in United States v. Rands, The Commerce Clause confers a unique position upon the Government in connection with navigable waters. "The power to regulate commerce comprehends the control for that purpose, to the extent necessary, of all the navigable waters of the United States.... For this purpose they are the public property of the nation, subject to all the requisite legislation by Congress." This power to regulate navigation confers upon the United States a "dominant servitude," which extends to the entire stream and the stream bed below ordinary high-water mark. The case continues: The proper exercise of this power is not an invasion of any private property rights in the stream or the lands underlying it, for the damage sustained does not result from taking property from riparian owners within the meaning of the Fifth Amendment but from the lawful exercise of a power to which the interests of riparian owners have always been subject.

United States v. Chicago, M. St. P. & P. R. Co. 312 U. S. 592, 596 -597. S. 269, 275-276. Thus, without being constitutionally obligated to pay compensation, the United States may change the course of a navigable stream, South Carolina v. Georgia, 93 U. S. 4, or otherwise impair or destroy a riparian owner's access to navigable waters, Gibson v. United States, 166 U. S. 269. S. 141. S. 386 though the market value of the riparian owner's land is diminished. The navigational servitude of the United States does not extend into fast lands, which are lands above the high-water mark; when fast lands are taken by the Government, just compensation must be paid. But "just as the navigational privilege permits the Government to reduce the value of riparian lands by denying the riparian owner access to the stream without compensation for his loss... it permits the Government to disregard the value arising from this same fact of riparian location in compensating the owner when fast lands are appropriated."It was held early "that the power to regulate commerce included power over navigation.

To make its control effective the Congress may keep the'navigable waters of the United States' open and free and provide by sanctions against any interference with the country's water assets. It may legislate to license dams in the waters. In fact, the power is far more expansive than this; the Court stated in United States v. Appalachian Electric Power Co.: In our view, it cannot properly be said that the constitutional power of the United States over its waters is limited to control for navigation. By navigation respondent means no more than operation of boats and improvement of the waterway itself. In truth the authority of the United States is the regulation of commerce on its waters. Navigability, in the sense just stated, is but a part of this whole. Flood protection, watershed development, recovery of the cost of improvements through utilization of power are parts of commerce control..... That authority is as broad as the needs of commerce. Water power development from dams in navigable streams is from the public's standpoint a by-product of the general use of the rivers for commerce....

The Congressional authority under the commerce clause is complete unless limited by the Fifth Amendment. Under the Rands rule, when the federal government condemns land on or near a navigable waterway, it has no obligation to pay the full measure of just compensation to the landowner. Instead, it is permitted to exclude from the measure of just compensation any element of value attributable to the land's access or proximity to a navigable waterway. Congress responded to the Court's decision in Rands by enacting a statute, Section 111 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, which provides, as a matter of legislative grace, a right to compensation which the Supreme Court has declared that Congress is not constitutionally obligated to provide. Section 111 pro

Fascination (1922 film)

Fascination is a 1922 American silent drama film directed by Robert Z. Leonard and starring his wife Mae Murray; the film is based on an original story by Edmund Goulding, soon to be a prolific film director. The story capitalizes on Murray's continuing forays into outlandish costume dramas, it is not known whether the film survives, suggesting that it is a lost film. As described in a film magazine, Dolores de Lisa, born of a Spanish father and American mother, combines the warm blood of the South with Yankee pep. To hold her in restraint, her aunt Marquesa takes her to Madrid. Dolores slips away from home on Easter day when the streets are filled with crowds going to the bullfight where, after obtaining a wig and costume, she occupies a box, she becomes fascinated with the toreador Carrita, the Count de Morera offers to introduce her if she will agree to attend his ball. At the ball Dolores dances for the guests, joins a party at a cabaret where she meets the great Carrita, her family meanwhile is searching the city for her, her father Eduardo de Lisa, her brother Carlos, her sweetheart Ralph Kellogg, having just arrived from the United States.

Her father enters the cabaret and Parola, a faded cabaret singer, recognizes him and invites him to her room. Dolores hears Parola accuse Carlos of being the father of her son; as Carlos turns and starts down the stairs, Parola attempts to kill him with a heavy lamp but Dolores grabs it. Parola turns on the daughter, but she is saved by the toreador. Parola urges him to avenge her. Carrita leaves and before he can carry out his purpose, Parola admits that she lied and was only attempting to blackmail Carlos, which saves him from death at the hands of the toreador. Dolores arrives home bedraggled and cured of her desire for excitement and underworld cabarets, she sinks into her American sweetheart's arms. Mae Murray as Dolores de Lisa Creighton Hale as Carlos de Lisa Charles Lane as Eduardo de Lisa Emily Fitzroy as Marquesa de Lisa Robert Frazer as Carrita Vincent Coleman as Ralph Kellogg Courtenay Foote as Count de Morera Helen Ware as Parola Frank Puglia as Nema Fascination on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie Stills at

Heroes (David Benoit album)

Heroes is an album by American pianist David Benoit released in 2008, recorded for the Peak label. The album is Benoit's tribute to his musical'heroes' who influenced his career, including Bill Evans, Dave Brubeck, Dave Grusin. Heroes reached #9 on Billboard's contemporary Jazz chart. Mountain Dance - 4:04 Human Nature - 4:12 Your Song - 3:49 Light My Fire - 4:00 Never Can Say Goodbye - 4:19 She's Leaving Home - 3:35 Song for My Father - 3:20 Waltz for Debby - 5:03* A Twisted Little Etude - 2:29 Blue Rondo à la Turk - 5:00"Waltz for Debby" is incorrectly listed in the liner notes as "Waltz for Debbie" David Benoit - piano, synthesizer David Hughes - bass Jamey Tate - drums Brad Dutz - percussion Andy Suzuki - saxophone David Benoit/Heroes at Discogs David Benoit/Heroes at AllMusic David Benoit's Official Site