Claude Allègre is a French politician and scientist. The main scientific area of Claude Allègre was geochemistry. Allègre co-authored an Introduction to geochemistry in 1974. Since the 1980s, he publishes popular science and political books. In 1976, Allègre and volcanologist Haroun Tazieff had an intense public quarrel about whether inhabitants should evacuate the surroundings of the erupting la Soufrière volcano in Guadeloupe. Allègre, speaking outside his area of immediate expertise, held that inhabitants should be evacuated, while Tazieff held that the Soufrière was harmless because all analyses pointed to a purely phreatic eruption with no sign of fresh magma. In part out of caution, the authorities decided to follow Allègre's evacuate; the eruption did not result in any damage, except for the significant disruption caused by the evacuation itself. Allègre, as the director of Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, subsequently expelled Tazieff from that institute; the controversy dragged on for many years after the end of the eruption, ended up in court.
Claude Allègre is an ISI cited researcher. He is retired and diminished by a 2013 heart attack, but retains an emeritus status at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris. A former member of the French Socialist Party, Allègre is better known to the general public for his past political responsibilities, which include serving as Minister of Education of France in the Jospin cabinet from 4 June 1997 to March 2000, when he was replaced by Jack Lang, his outpourings of unjustified critiques against teaching personnel, as well as his reforms, made him unpopular in the teaching world. In 1996, Allegre published La Défaite de Platon, described by mathematician Pierre Schapira in the Spring 1997 edition of Mathematical Intelligencer as "one of the most savage broadsides against conceptual thought" In the run-up to the 2007 French presidential election, he endorsed Lionel Jospin Dominique Strauss-Kahn, for the Socialist nomination, sided with the ex-Socialist Jean-Pierre Chevènement, against Ségolène Royal.
When Chevènement decided not to run, he publicly, controversially, declined to support Royal's bid for the presidency, citing differences over nuclear energy, GMOs and stem-cell research. He became close to conservative president Nicolas Sarkozy. Allègre states; this represents a change of mind, since he wrote in 1987 that "By burning fossil fuels, man increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which, for example, has raised the global mean temperature by half a degree in the last century". In an article entitled "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" in l'Express, a French weekly, Allègre cited evidence that Antarctica's gaining ice and that Kilimanjaro's retreating snow caps, among other global-warming concerns, can come from natural causes, he said that "he cause of this climate change is unknown". Allègre has accused those agreeing with the mainstream scientific view of global warming of being motivated by money, saying that “the ecology of helpless protesting has become a lucrative business for some people!”
On the flip side, his Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris receives significant funding from the oil industry. In 2009, when it was suggested that Claude Allègre might be offered a position as minister in President Nicolas Sarkozy's government, TV presenter and environmental activist Nicolas Hulot stated: "He doesn't think the same as the 2,500 scientists of the IPCC, who are warning the world about a disaster, but if he were to be recruited in government, it would become policy, it would be a bras d'honneur to those scientists. Would be a tragic signal, six months before the Copenhagen Conference, something incomprehensible coming from France, a leading country for years in the fight against climate change!"In a 2010 petition, more than 500 French researchers asked Science Minister Valérie Pécresse to dismiss Allègre's book L’imposture climatique, claiming the book was "full of factual mistakes, distortions of data, plain lies". Allègre described the petition as "useless and stupid". Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences V. M. Goldschmidt Award, Crafoord Prize for geology along with Gerald J. Wasserburg, Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Wollaston Medal of the Geological Society of London, Gold Medal of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, French Academy of Sciences, William Bowie Medal, Politics of France Scientists opposing the mainstream scientific assessment of global warming Cl.
J. Allègre, G. Michard, R. N. Varney, Introduction to Geochemistry. ISBN 90-277-0497-X Senate Article — Global Warming Skepticism Canada National Post Article — Allegre's second thoughts
Socialist Party (France)
The Socialist Party is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left. The PS used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic, along with the Republicans; the Socialist Party replaced the earlier French Section of the Workers' International in 1969, is led by First Secretary Olivier Faure. The PS is a member of the Party of European Socialists, the Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance; the PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election. Under Mitterrand, the party achieved a governing majority in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1986 and again from 1988 to 1993. PS leader Lionel Jospin lost his bid to succeed Mitterrand as president in the 1995 presidential election against Rally for the Republic leader Jacques Chirac, but became prime minister in a cohabitation government after the 1997 parliamentary elections, a position Jospin held until 2002, when he was again defeated in the presidential election.
In 2007, the party's candidate for the presidential election, Ségolène Royal, was defeated by conservative UMP candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. The Socialist party won most of regional and local elections and it won control of the Senate in 2011 for the first time in more than fifty years. On 6 May 2012, François Hollande, the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, was elected President of France, the next month, the party won the majority in the National Assembly; the PS formed several figures who acted at the international level: Jacques Delors, the eighth President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1994 and the first person to serve three terms in that office, was from the Socialist Party, as well as Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2007 to 2011, Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013. The party had 42,300 members in 2016, down from 60,000 in 2014 and 173,486 members in 2012.
The defeat of the Paris commune reduced the power and influence of the socialist movements in France. Its leaders were exiled. France's first socialist party, the Federation of the Socialist Workers of France, was founded in 1879, it was characterised as "possibilist". Two parties split off from it: in 1882, the French Workers' Party of Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue in 1890 the Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party of Jean Allemane. At the same time, the heirs of Louis Auguste Blanqui, a symbol of the French revolutionary tradition, created the Central Revolutionary Committee led by Édouard Vaillant. There were some declared socialist deputies such as Alexandre Millerand and Jean Jaurès who did not belong to any party. In 1899, the participation of Millerand in Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet caused a debate about socialist participation in a "bourgeois government". Three years Jaurès, Allemane and the possibilists founded the possibilist French Socialist Party, which supported participation in government, while Guesde and Vaillant formed the Socialist Party of France, which opposed such co-operation.
In 1905, during the Globe Congress, the two groups merged in the French Section of the Workers International. Leader of the parliamentary group and director of the party paper L'Humanité, Jaurès was its most influential figure; the party was hemmed in between the middle-class liberals of the Radical Party and the revolutionary syndicalists who dominated the trade unions. Furthermore, the goal to rally all the Socialists in one single party was reached: some elects refused to join the SFIO and created the Republican-Socialist Party, which supported socialist participation in liberal governments. Together with the Radicals, who wished to install laicism, the SFIO was a component of the Left Block without to sit in the government. In 1906, the General Confederation of Labour trade union claimed its independence from all political parties; the French socialists were anti-war, but following the assassination of Jaurès in 1914 they were unable to resist the wave of militarism which followed the outbreak of World War I.
They suffered a severe split over participation in the wartime government of national unity. In 1919 the anti-war socialists were defeated in elections. In 1920, during the Tours Congress, the majority and left wing of the party broke away and formed the French Section of the Communist International to join the Third International founded by Vladimir Lenin; the right wing, led by Léon Blum, kept the "old house" and remained in the SFIO. In 1924 and in 1932, the Socialists joined with the Radicals in the Coalition of the Left, but refused to join the non-Socialist governments led by the Radicals Édouard Herriot and Édouard Daladier; these governments failed because the Socialists and the Radicals could not agree on economic policy, because the Communists, following the policy laid down by the Soviet Union, refused to support governments presiding over capitalist economies. The question of the possibility of a government participation with Radicals caused the split of "neosocialists" at the beginning of the 1930s.
They merged with the Republican-Socialist Party in the Socialist Republican Union. In 1934, the Communists changed their line, the four left-wing parties came together in the Popular Front, which won the 1936 elections and brought Blum to power as France's first SFIO Prime Minister. Indeed, for the first time in its history, the SFIO obtained more votes and seats than the Ra
47th Berlin International Film Festival
The 47th annual Berlin International Film Festival was held from February 13 to 24, 1997. The Golden Bear was awarded to Canadian-American film The People vs. Larry Flynt directed by Miloš Forman; the retrospective dedicated to Austrian film director G. W. Pabst was shown at the festival; the following people were announced as being on the jury for the festival: Jack Lang Hark Bohm Férid Boughedir Maggie Cheung Fred Gronich David Hare Per Holst Boleslaw Michalek Humberto Solás Marianne Sägebrecht Ning Ying The following films were in competition for the Golden Bear and Silver Bear awards: The following prizes were awarded by the Jury: Golden Bear: The People vs. Larry Flynt by Miloš Forman Silver Bear - Special Jury Prize: He liu by Tsai Ming-liang Silver Bear for Best Director: Eric Heumann for Port Djema Silver Bear for Best Actress: Juliette Binoche for The English Patient Silver Bear for Best Actor: Leonardo DiCaprio for Romeo + Juliet Silver Bear for an outstanding single achievement: Zbigniew Preisner for The Island on Bird Street Silver Bear for an outstanding artistic contribution: Raúl Ruiz for Généalogies d'un crime Alfred Bauer Prize: Romeo + Juliet Honourable Mention: Jordan Kiziuk for The Island on Bird Street Das Leben ist eine Baustelle by Wolfgang Becker Anna Wielgucka for Panna Nikt Get on the Bus by Spike Lee Blue Angel Award: Secretos del corazón by Montxo Armendáriz Honorary Golden Bear: Kim Novak Berlinale Camera: Lauren Bacall Ann Hui Armin Mueller-Stahl Franz Seitz 47th Berlin International Film Festival 1997 1997 Berlin International Film Festival Berlin International Film Festival:1997 at Internet Movie Database
International law is the set of rules regarded and accepted in relations between nations. It serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations. International law differs from state-based legal systems in that it is applicable to countries rather than to individual citizens. National law may become international law when treaties permit national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the European Court of Human Rights or the International Criminal Court. Treaties such as the Geneva Conventions may require national law to conform to respective parts. National laws or constitutions may provide for the implementation or integration of international legal obligations. International law is consent-based governance, as there is no means of enforcement in a world dominated by sovereign states; this means that a state may choose to not abide by international law, to break its treaty. However, violations of customary international law and peremptory norms can lead to military action or other forms of coercion, such as diplomatic pressure or economic sanctions.
The current order of international law, the equality of sovereignty between nations, was formed through the conclusion of the "Peace of Westphalia" in 1648. Prior to 1648, on the basis of the purpose of war or the legitimacy of war, it sought to distinguish whether the war was a "just war" or not; this theory of power interruptions can be found in the writings of the Roman Cicero and the writings of St. Augustine. According to the theory of armistice, the nation that caused unwarranted war could not enjoy the right to obtain or conquer trophies that were legitimate at the time The 17th, 18th and 19th centuries saw the growth of the concept of the sovereign "nation-state", which consisted of a nation controlled by a centralised system of government; the concept of nationalism became important as people began to see themselves as citizens of a particular nation with a distinct national identity. Until the mid-19th century, relations between nation-states were dictated by treaty, agreements to behave in a certain way towards another state, unenforceable except by force, not binding except as matters of honor and faithfulness.
But treaties alone became toothless and wars became destructive, most markedly towards civilians, who decried their horrors, leading to calls for regulation of the acts of states in times of war. The modern study of international law starts in the early 19th century, but its origins go back at least to the 16th century, Alberico Gentili, Francisco de Vitoria and Hugo Grotius, the "fathers of international law." Several legal systems developed in Europe, including the codified systems of continental European states and English common law, based on decisions by judges and not by written codes. Other areas developed differing legal systems, with the Chinese legal tradition dating back more than four thousand years, although at the end of the 19th century, there was still no written code for civil proceedings. One of the first instruments of modern international law was the Lieber Code, passed in 1863 by the Congress of the United States, to govern the conduct of US forces during the United States Civil War and considered to be the first written recitation of the rules and articles of war, adhered to by all civilised nations, the precursor of international law.
This led to the first prosecution for war crimes—in the case of United States prisoners of war held in cruel and depraved conditions at Andersonville, Georgia, in which the Confederate commandant of that camp was tried and hanged, the only Confederate soldier to be punished by death in the aftermath of the entire Civil War. In the years that followed, other states subscribed to limitations of their conduct, numerous other treaties and bodies were created to regulate the conduct of states towards one another in terms of these treaties, but not limited to, the Permanent Court of Arbitration in 1899; because international law is a new area of law its development and propriety in applicable areas are subject to dispute. Under article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice, international law has three principal sources: international treaties and general principles of law. In addition, judicial decisions and teachings may be applied as "subsidiary means for the determination of rules of law", International treaty law comprises obligations states expressly and voluntarily accept between themselves in treaties.
Customary international law is derived from the consistent practice of States accompanied by opinio juris, i.e. the conviction of States that the consistent practice is required by a legal obligation. Judgments of international tribunals as well as scholarly works have traditionally been looked to as persuasive sources for custom in addition to direct evidence of state behavior. Attempts to codify customary international law picked up momentum after the Second World War with the formation of the International Law Commission, under the aegis of the United Nations. Codified customary law is made the binding interpretation of the underlying custom by agreement through treaty. For states not party to such treaties, the work of the ILC may still be accepted as custom applying to those states. General principles of law are those recognized by the major legal systems of the world. Certain norms of international law achieve the binding force of peremptory norms as to include all states with no permissible derogations.
Colombia v Perú I
Ravensbrück concentration camp
Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, 90 km north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück. The largest single national group consisted of 40,000 Polish women. Others included 26,000 Jewish women from various countries: 18,800 Russian, 8,000 French, 1,000 Dutch. More than 80 percent were political prisoners. Many slave labor prisoners were employed by Halske. From 1942 to 1945, medical experiments to test the effectiveness of sulfonamides were undertaken. In the spring of 1941, the SS established a small adjacent camp for male inmates, who built and managed the camp's gas chambers in 1944. Of some 130,000 female prisoners who passed through the Ravensbrück camp, about 50,000 of them perished, some 2,200 were killed in the gas chambers and 15,000 survived until liberation. Construction of the camp began in November 1938 by the order of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler and was unusual in that it was intended to hold female inmates.
Ravensbrück first housed prisoners in May 1939, when the SS moved 900 women from the Lichtenburg concentration camp in Saxony. Eight months after the start of World War II the camp's maximum capacity was exceeded, it underwent major expansion following the invasion of Poland. By the summer of 1941 with the launch of Operation Barbarossa an estimated total of 5,000 women were imprisoned, who were fed decreasing hunger rations. By the end of 1942, the inmate population of Ravensbrück had grown to about 10,000. Between 1939 and 1945, some 130,000 to 132,000 female prisoners passed through the Ravensbrück camp system. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, about 50,000 of them perished from disease, starvation and despair. Only 15,000 of the total survived until liberation, on 29–30 April 1945 some 3,500 prisoners were still alive in the main camp. During the first year of their stay in the camp, from August 1940 to August 1941 47 women died. During the last year of the camp's existence, about 80 inmates died each day from disease or famine-related causes.
Although the inmates came from every country in German-occupied Europe, the largest single national group in the camp were Polish. In the spring of 1941, the SS authorities established a small men's camp adjacent to the main camp; the male inmates built and managed the gas chambers for the camp in 1944. There were children in the camp as well. At first, they arrived with mothers who were Romani or Jews incarcerated in the camp or were born to imprisoned women. There were few children early on, including a few Czech children from Lidice in July 1942; the children in the camp represented all nations of Europe occupied by Germany. Between April and October 1944 their number increased consisting of two groups. One group was composed of Romani children with their mothers or sisters brought into the camp after the Romani camp in Auschwitz-Birkenau was closed; the other group included children who were brought with Polish mothers sent to Ravensbrück after the collapse of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Most of these children died of starvation.
Ravensbrück had 70 sub-camps used for slave labour that were spread across an area from the Baltic Sea to Bavaria. Among the thousands executed at Ravensbrück were four members of the British World War II organization Special Operations Executive: Denise Bloch, Cecily Lefort, Lilian Rolfe and Violette Szabo. Other victims included the Roman Catholic nun Élise Rivet, Elisabeth de Rothschild, Russian Orthodox nun St. Maria Skobtsova, the 25-year-old French Princess Anne de Bauffremont-Courtenay, Milena Jesenská, lover of Franz Kafka, Olga Benário, wife of the Brazilian Communist leader Luís Carlos Prestes; the largest single group of women executed at the camp were 200 young Polish members of the Home Army. Among the survivors of Ravensbrück was author Corrie ten Boom, arrested with her family for harbouring Jews in their home in Haarlem, the Netherlands, she documented her ordeal alongside her sister Betsie ten Boom in her book The Hiding Place, produced as a motion picture. Polish Countess Karolina Lanckoronska, an art historian and author of Michelangelo in Ravensbrück, was imprisoned there from 1943 until 1945.
Eileen Nearne, a member of the Special Operations Executive, was a prisoner in 1944 before being transferred to another work camp and escaping. Ravensbrück survivors who wrote memoirs about their experiences include Gemma LaGuardia Gluck, sister of New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, as well as Germaine Tillion, a Ravensbrück survivor from France who published her own eyewitness account of the camp in 1975. 500 women from Ravensbrück were transferred to Dachau, where they were assigned as labourers to the Agfa-Commando. A male political prisoner, Gustav Noske, stayed in Ravensbrück concentration camp after his arrest by the Gestapo in 1944. Noske was freed by advancing Allied troops from a Gestapo prison in Berlin. Camp commandants included SS-Standartenführer Günther Tamaschke from May 1939 to August 1939, SS-Hauptsturmführer Max Koegel from January 1940 till August 1942, SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritz Suhren from August 1942 until the camp's liberation at the end of April 1945. Besides the male Nazi administrators, the camp staff included over 150 female SS guards assigned to oversee the prisoners at some point during the camp's operational peri
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
François Bayrou is a French centrist politician and the president of the Democratic Movement, a candidate in the 2002, 2007 and 2012 French presidential elections. From 1993 to 1997, he was Minister of National Education for three governments, he was a member of the National Assembly for a seat in Pyrénées-Atlantiques from 1986 to 2012, MEP from 1999 to 2002 and is the mayor of Pau since 2014. It was speculated that Bayrou would be a candidate in the 2017 presidential election, but he decided not to run and instead supported Emmanuel Macron, who – after winning the election – named him Minister of State and Minister of Justice in the Philippe Government. On 21 June 2017, he resigned from the government amid an investigation into MoDem's fraudulent employment of parliamentary assistants, initiated earlier that month. François René Jean Lucien Bayrou was born on 25 May, 1951 in Bordères, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a village located between Pau and Lourdes; the son of farmer Calixte Bayrou and Emma Sarthou.
Bayrou descends from an ancestry of Occitans except from his maternal grandmother's side, Irish. When Bayrou was in his youth, he suffered from a stutter which led to him attending speech therapy for seven years, he first went to secondary school before transferring to Bordeaux. He studied literature at university, at the age of 23, sat the "agrégation", the highest qualifying level for teachers in senior high schools and universities in France. Around the same time, his father was killed in a tractor accident. Bayrou was married in 1971 to Élisabeth Perlant known as "Babette", he and Perlant have five children, Hélène, Dominique and Agnes. The children were raised on the farm where Bayrou was born and Bayrou lives there with Perlant. Prior to embarking on his political career, Bayrou taught history in Béarn in the French Pyrenees, he is the author including one on King Henry IV of France. Bayrou's hobby is raising horses. Although a practising Roman Catholic, he supports France's system of laïcité.
In Bayrou's youth, he was active in nonviolent movements and followed Gandhi disciple, Lanza del Vasto. Bayrou, a member of the Centre of Social Democrats, the Christian-democratic wing of the Union for French Democracy confederation, was elected to the General Council of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in 1982 in the canton of Pau-Sud the French National Assembly four years later. After the victory of the RPR/UDF coalition in the 1993 legislative election, he became Education Minister in the cabinet led by Edouard Balladur. In this post, he proposed a reform allowing local authorities to subsidise private schools, which caused massive protests and was quashed by the Constitutional Council. In 1989, after poor results in both the municipal elections and the European Parliament elections and twelve other centre-right parliamentarians including Philippe Séguin, Michel Noir, Alain Carignon, Étienne Pinte, Michel Barnier, François Fillon, Charles Millon, Dominique Baudis, François d'Aubert, Philippe de Villiers and Bernard Bosson demanded reform of the system at the RPR and the UDF, criticising the most prominent politicians of these parties including former president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and Prime Minister Jacques Chirac.
They called for the formation of a new right-wing party to unite the UDF and the RPR into a single entity. Ideological differences between members of this group led to members leaving, though d'Estaing endorsed Bayrou to become UDF general secretary in 1991. Despite supporting Édouard Balladur's candidacy in the 1995 presidential election, Bayrou remained Education Minister following Jacques Chirac's election and the formation of a new government headed by Alain Juppé. Following the majority for the Plural Left in the 1997 legislative election, Bayrou returned to opposition and became president of the UDF in 1998, transforming it into a unified party rather than a union of smaller parties. In 2002 François Bayrou rejected proposals to merge the UDF with the Rally for the Republic, into a new entity that became the Union for a Popular Movement; as a result, many UDF members left to join the UMP. Bayrou was critical of the direction taken by the UMP-led government, which he described as out of touch with the average Frenchman.
He denounced the de facto two-party system, in which the RPR alternate. Instead, Bayrou called for a pluralist system in which other parties would contribute. On 16 May 2006, Bayrou supported a motion of no confidence sponsored by Socialist deputies calling for the resignation of Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin's government following the Clearstream affair; as de Villepin's UMP had an absolute majority in the National Assembly, the motion failed. Following Bayrou's support for this measure, France's television authority classified him as a member of the parliamentary opposition for timing purposes. However, after Bayrou protested, he was classified as a member of neither the majority nor the opposition. Bayrou contested the presidency again in 2007. Most commentators had expected the election to be fought between Sarkozy and Ségolène Royal of the Parti Socialiste. However, Bayrou's increasing support in polls in February complicated the "Sarko-Ségo" scenario, led to speculation that the Parti Socialiste candidate would fail to progress to the second round for a second consecutive election, following the defeat of former Prime Minister Lionel Jospin in 2002 by National Front leader Jean Marie Le Pen.
Bayrou finished in third place in the election with 18.57% of the vote, behind Sark