Jack Layton

John Gilbert "Jack" Layton was a Canadian politician and Leader of the Official Opposition. He was leader of the New Democratic Party from 2003 to 2011 and sat on Toronto City Council holding the title of acting mayor or deputy mayor of Toronto during his tenure as city councillor, he was the Member of Parliament for Toronto—Danforth from 2004 until his death. Son of a Progressive Conservative cabinet minister, Layton was raised in Quebec, he rose to prominence in Toronto municipal politics, where he was one of the most prominent left-wing voices on city and Metropolitan Toronto councils, championing many progressive causes. In 1991, he ran for mayor. Returning to council, he rose to become head of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. In 2003, he was elected leader of the NDP on the first ballot of the convention. Under his leadership, support for the NDP increased in each election; the party's popular vote doubled in the 2004 election, which gave the NDP the balance of power in Paul Martin's minority government.

In May 2005 the NDP supported the Liberal budget in exchange for major amendments, in what was promoted as Canada's "First NDP budget". In November of that year, Layton voted with other opposition parties to defeat the Liberal government over the findings of the Gomery Commission; the NDP saw further gains in the 2006 and 2008 elections, in which the party elected 29 and 37 MPs, respectively. In the 2011 election Layton led the NDP to the most successful result in the party's history, winning 103 seats—enough to form Canada's Official Opposition. Federal support for Layton and the NDP in the election was unprecedented in the province of Quebec, where the party won 59 out of 75 seats. Layton died after being diagnosed with cancer, he was survived by his wife of fellow Toronto MP Olivia Chow. Details of the type and spread of the cancer, the exact cause of death, were not released to the public. Shortly before he died, Layton had nominated Nycole Turmel as interim leader of the New Democratic Party and of the Official Opposition.

Layton was born in Montreal and raised in nearby Hudson, Quebec, a Anglophone community. His parents were Doris Elizabeth, a grand-niece of William Steeves, a Father of Confederation, Progressive Conservative MP Robert Layton, he was the grandson of Gilbert Layton, who served as a Minister without portfolio the government of Quebec's Union Nationale Premier Maurice Duplessis. He was elected student council president of his high school, Hudson High School, his yearbook predicted that he would become a politician, he graduated from McGill University in 1970 with an Honours Bachelor of Arts in political science and became a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. In 1969–70, he was the Prime Minister of the Quebec Youth Parliament. Layton credited a professor at McGill, the political philosopher Charles Taylor, with being the primary influence in his decision to switch from a science degree to an arts degree. Moreover, it was on Taylor's advice that he pursued his doctorate at University of Toronto to study under political philosopher C. B.

Macpherson. In what is Layton's most complete articulation of his political philosophy, a foreword he wrote for Canadian Idealism and the Philosophy of Freedom, he explains that, "The idealist current holds that human society has the potential to achieve liberty when people work together to form a society in which equality means more than negative liberty, the absolute and protected right to run races against each other to determine winners. Idealists imagine a positive liberty that enables us to build together toward common objectives that fulfill and surpass our individual goals." Upon reading Canadian Idealism and the Philosophy of Freedom, Layton came to understand himself as part of the intellectual tradition of Canadian Idealists. In 1970, the family moved to Toronto, where Layton graduated the following year from York University with a Master of Arts in political science. In 1974, Layton became a professor at Ryerson Polytechincal Institute. Over the next decade, he taught at Ryerson and University of Toronto.

He became a prominent activist for a variety of causes. He wrote several books, including Homelessness: The Making and Unmaking of a Crisis and a book on general public policy, Speaking Out. Layton's great-granduncle, William Steeves, was a Father of Confederation, his great-grandfather Philip E. Layton was a blind activist who founded the Montreal Association for the Blind in 1908 and led a campaign for disability pensions in the 1930s. Philip was the senior partner in Layton Bros.. Pianos. Layton Pianos had been made in London, England since 1837, Philip had emigrated to Montreal at the age of 19. Philip was a blind organist, piano tuner, piano retailer; the family business survives as Layton Audio in Montreal. Jack Layton's grandfather, Gilbert Layton, was a cabinet minister in the Union Nationale government of Maurice Duplessis in Quebec, resigned due to the provincial government's lack of support for Canadian participation in World War II, his father, Robert Layton, was a Liberal Party activist in the 1960s and 1970s, served as a Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament and Cabinet minister in the 1980s under Prime Minister Bri

Henri Valois

Henri Valois or in classical circles, Henricus Valesius, was a philologist and a student of classical and ecclesiastical historians. He is the elder brother to Adrien Valois. Belonging to a family of Norman gentry settled near Bayeux and Liseux, Valois studied under the Jesuits, first at Verdun and at the Collège de Clermont at Paris, where he studied rhetoric under Denis Pétau, he studied law at Bourges and returned to Paris, where, to please his father, he practised law against his inclination for seven years. When he regained his liberty he plunged into classical studies, which he had never abandoned. Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc had purchased a manuscript in Cyprus containing the work of Constantine Porphyrogenitus on virtue and vice. Valois took from it numerous unedited fragments of earlier historians, which he published in 1634: Polybii, Diodori Siculi, Nicolai Damasceni, Dionysii Halicarnassii, Alexandri, Dionis et Ioannis antiocheni excerpta. In 1636 he edited Ammiani Marcellini rerum gestarum libri XVIII, with abundant notes which illumined all the history of that period and its institutions, together with two fragments, one from an Origo Constantini and one dating from ca. 527.

He succeeded in recognizing the rhythm of the phrases in the establishment of the text, at the same time making no display of his discovery. This edition was revised and enlarged by his brother Adrien in 1681. In 1650, the assembly of the French clergy commissioned him to publish the ecclesiastical historians, after Mons. Charles de Montchal, archbishop of Toulouse, was compelled to resign the task. In 1659 he issued Eusebius of Caesarea's Ecclesiastical History, biography and panegyric of Constantine, as well as Constantine's discourse in the assembly: Eusebii Pamphili ecclesiasticae historiae libri decem... De vita Imp. Constantini... Oratio Constantini ad sanctos, & panegyricus Eusebii; the text was accompanied by scholarly notes and four dissertations. In 1668 he published Socrates of Constantinople and Sozomen with three books of observations on the history of Saint Athanasius, on that of Paul, Bishop of Constantinople, the sixth canon of Nicaea. In 1673, he completed his book with Theodoret and the excerpts from Philostorgius and Theodorus Lector: Socratis, Theodoreti et Evagrii Historia ecclesiastica.

At first he had only the slender means left him by his father, but pensions from President Jean-Antoine de Mesmes of the parlement of Paris, the clergy of France, Cardinal Mazarin, Louis XIV provided him with the necessary leisure and the assistance of a secretary, for his sight was never good, as early as 1637 he ceased to have the use of his right eye. In 1664, when he was nearly blind, he married the young Marguerite Chesneau and had by her four sons and three daughters, he did important work, though the manuscripts at his disposal were not always the best, his tact and the certainty of his criticism was admirable. His temperate and sanely learned notes are excellent documents of the French learning of the seventeenth century. Valois was associated with the greatest scholars of his time, with whom however he always maintained his liberty of judgment, he wrote the funeral eulogies of Jacques Sirmond, Pierre Depuy, Denis Pétau. He wrote several occasional Latin poems, but to posterity he is the learned and exact editor of the Greek ecclesiastical historians.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Paul. "Henri Valois". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Adrien Valois. De vita Henrici Valesii in the second edition of Eusebius in the Cambridge edition Eduard Schwartz. Eusebius Werke, Die Kirchengesch. III. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Valois, Henri de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press

Rogiet Hoard

The Rogiet Hoard is a hoard of 3,778 Roman coins found at Rogiet, Wales in September 1998. The coins dated from 253 up until 295–296; the hoard notably contained several faulty issues, some rare denominations, including those depicting the usurper emperors Carausius and Allectus. The hoard was discovered by metal detectorist Colin Roberts on 10 September, 1998 and, after a coroner's inquest in December, 1998 was declared a treasure, it is now owned by the National Museum and Galleries of Wales. The hoard contained 3,778 silver radiates, including seven denarii, of which just over a third came from the reign of Probus; the latest coin was struck around 295–296. 766 of the coins were struck during the reigns of the usurper emperors and his eventual murderer and successor, Allectus. Coins from these reigns are infrequently found in hoards, several of them depicted Roman warships. Carausius struck coins bearing the images of Diocletian and Maximian in order to ingratiate himself with them, one example had all three men on it with the words "Carausius et fratres sui".

This example was described as "one of the finest specimens of this issue yet recorded". The hoard containing "significant numbers" of Allectus quinarii or Q-radiates, coupled with the total number of "improved issue" coins from the Aurelian to Diocletian reigns—after Aurelian's monetary reformation—made it an "unprecedented" single deposit from these categories. Another rare coin, a Divus Nigrinian, was remarked to be only the second recorded British example found. List of hoards in Britain Besley, Edward. "The Rogiet Hoard and the coinage of Allectus". British Numismatic Journal. 76: 45–146