SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jack London

John Griffith London was an American novelist and social activist. A pioneer in the world of commercial magazine fiction, he was one of the first writers to become a worldwide celebrity and earn a large fortune from writing, he was an innovator in the genre that would become known as science fiction. His most famous works include The Call of the Wild and White Fang, both set in the Klondike Gold Rush, as well as the short stories "To Build a Fire", "An Odyssey of the North", "Love of Life", he wrote about the South Pacific in stories such as "The Pearls of Parlay", "The Heathen". London was part of the radical literary group "The Crowd" in San Francisco and a passionate advocate of unionization, workers' rights and eugenics, he wrote several works dealing with these topics, such as his dystopian novel The Iron Heel, his non-fiction exposé The People of the Abyss, The War of the Classes, Before Adam. Jack London's mother, Flora Wellman, was the fifth and youngest child of Pennsylvania Canal builder Marshall Wellman and his first wife, Eleanor Garrett Jones.

Marshall Wellman was descended from Thomas Wellman, an early Puritan settler in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Flora moved to the Pacific coast when her father remarried after her mother died. In San Francisco, Flora worked as a music teacher and spiritualist, claiming to channel the spirit of a Sauk chief, Black Hawk. Biographer Clarice Stasz and others believe. Flora Wellman was living with Chaney in San Francisco. Whether Wellman and Chaney were married is unknown. Stasz notes that in his memoirs, Chaney refers to London's mother Flora Wellman as having been his "wife". According to Flora Wellman's account, as recorded in the San Francisco Chronicle of June 4, 1875, Chaney demanded that she have an abortion; when she refused, he disclaimed responsibility for the child. In desperation, she shot herself, she was not wounded, but she was temporarily deranged. After giving birth, Flora turned the baby over for care to Virginia Prentiss, an African-American woman and former slave, she was a major maternal figure throughout London's life.

Late in 1876, Flora Wellman married John London, a disabled Civil War veteran, brought her baby John known as Jack, to live with the newly married couple. The family moved around the San Francisco Bay Area before settling in Oakland, where London completed public grade school. In 1897, when he was 21 and a student at the University of California, London searched for and read the newspaper accounts of his mother's suicide attempt and the name of his biological father, he wrote to William Chaney living in Chicago. Chaney responded. Chaney concluded by saying. London was devastated by his father's letter. London was born near Brannan Streets in San Francisco; the house burned down in the fire after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Although the family was working class, it was not as impoverished as London's accounts claimed. London was self-educated. In 1885, London read Ouida's long Victorian novel Signa, he credited this as the seed of his literary success. In 1886, he went to the Oakland Public Library and found a sympathetic librarian, Ina Coolbrith, who encouraged his learning..

In 1889, London began working 12 to 18 hours a day at Hickmott's Cannery. Seeking a way out, he borrowed money from his foster mother Virginia Prentiss, bought the sloop Razzle-Dazzle from an oyster pirate named French Frank, became an oyster pirate himself. In his memoir, John Barleycorn, he claims to have stolen French Frank's mistress Mamie. After a few months, his sloop became damaged beyond repair. London hired on as a member of the California Fish Patrol. In 1893, he signed on to the sealing schooner Sophie Sutherland, bound for the coast of Japan; when he returned, the country was in the grip of the panic of'93 and Oakland was swept by labor unrest. After grueling jobs in a jute mill and a street-railway power plant, London joined Coxey's Army and began his career as a tramp. In 1894, he spent 30 days for vagrancy in the Erie County Penitentiary at New York. In The Road, he wrote: Man-handling was one of the minor unprintable horrors of the Erie County Pen. I say'unprintable', they were unthinkable to me until I saw them, I was no spring chicken in the ways of the world and the awful abysses of human degradation.

It would take a deep plummet to reach bottom in the Erie County Pen, I do but skim and facetiously the surface of things as I there saw them. After many experiences as a hobo and a sailor, he returned to Oakland and attended Oakland High School, he contributed a number of articles to The Aegis. His first published work was "Typhoon off the Coast of Japan", an account of his sailing experiences; as a schoolboy, London studied at Heinold's First and Last Chance Saloon, a port-side bar in Oakland. At 17, he confessed to the bar's owner, John Heinold, his desire to attend university

Admiralty Mining Establishment

The Admiralty Mining Establishment known as the Mine Design Department was a technical department of the British Royal Navy responsible for both the design of naval mines and the development of suitable countermeasures from 1915 to 1951 A mining department was established at the Admiralty in 1915, in 1919 the name was changed to the Mine Design Department based at HMS Vernon in Portsmouth. In 1946, after being dispersed to various places during the war, in keeping with many technical departments it employed both military and skilled, civilian personnel, it was located near HMNB Portsmouth at West Leigh House, Havant as the Admiralty Mining Establishment. In 1951, its role changed as it was merged into a new larger department called the Underwater Counter measures and Weapon Establishment; the UCWE was itself merged into the Admiralty Underwater Weapons Establishment, Portland in 1959. During the Second World War it recruited a number of scientists to its ranks many of them went on to become regarded in their respective fields including.

Board of Admiralty, Mining Department, 1915-1919. Board of Admiralty, Admiralty Mine Design Department, 1919-1951. Board of Admiralty, Underwater Counter measures and Weapon Establishment, 1951-1959. Board of Admiralty, Admiralty Underwater Weapons Establishment, 1959-1964. Ministry of Defence, Navy Department, Underwater Weapons Establishment, Portland, 1964-1984. HMS Vernon John Frayn Turner'Service Most Silent' UK National Archives leaflet on Royal Navy research and development Wartime use of Leigh Park House History of HMS Vernon

Uthrapathiswaraswamy Temple

Uthrapathiswaraswamy Temple is a Hindu temple in Tiruchenkattankudi in Nagapattinam district in the Tamil Nadu state of India. Though it is dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva, it is more famous for its Ganesha icons; the main Ganesha shrine depicts him with a human head, instead of the elephant head he is depicted with. Vatapi Ganapati, the other Ganesha icon, was installed in a smaller shrine at a date; the Shiva temple was known as Siruthonda Ganapatishvara, named over Siruthondar. The name "Ganapatishvara", which gives the town his alternate name "Ganapatishvaram", denotes Shiva as "Lord of Ganesha" and alludes to the legend that Ganesha killed a demon called Gajamukhasura and worshipped his father Shiva here. According to another legend, A king ruling Rameswaram region prayed to Lord Shiva for child boon and performed a yajna. Through His voice, Lord assured the king; when the king set out on hunting, he found four female children, brought up them as his own daughters. When they attained age, king got married them to Lord Shiva.

These are the Ambicas in four places – Sarivar Kuzhali in Rameswaram temple, Vaaitha Tirukuzshal Nayaki in Tiruchengattangudi, Karundhar Kuzhali in Tirupugalur and Vandar Kuzhali in Tirumarugal. They bear the common name Shoolikambal, the ones who help women through pregnancy and delivery. In all these four places Shrines of Ambika are hosted in separate shrines; the icon of Vatapi Ganapati is enshrined in a secondary shrine in the temple complex of Uthrapathiswaraswamy Temple. As per oral tradition, the icon of Vatapi Ganapati was brought booty from the Chalukyan capital of Vatapi by Paranjothi, the commander-in-chief of the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I, following the conquest of Pallavas over the Chalukyas; the icon was placed in Paranjothi's birthplace Tiruchenkattankudi. Paranjothi renounced his violent ways and became a Shaiva monk known as Siruthondar, is venerated as a Nayanar saint today. However, no written records substantiate the oral tradition; the famous Vatapi Ganapatim hymn is dedicated to this icon.

Brown, Robert L.. Ganesh: studies of an Asian god. New York: State University of New York Press. Pp. 143–162. ISBN 978-0-7914-0656-4. Retrieved 2 August 2009. Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa. South Indian Shrines. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. Pp. 402–404. ISBN 978-81-206-0151-2. Retrieved 2 August 2009. Tourist Guide to South India. Chennai: Sura Books. 2006. Pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-81-7478-175-8. Retrieved 2 August 2009