Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra. Called "instrumentation", orchestration is the selection of different instruments to play the different parts of a musical work. For example, a work for solo piano could be adapted and orchestrated so that an orchestra could perform the piece, or a concert band piece could be orchestrated for a symphony orchestra. Only over the course of music history did orchestration come to be regarded as a separate compositional art and profession in itself. In classical music, most composers write the melodies, chord progression and musical form for a piece and if they want the piece to be played by an orchestra, they orchestrate the piece themselves. In musical theatre, the composer writes the melodies and hires a professional arranger or orchestrator to devise the parts for the pit orchestra to play; when a film company is making a film score, a composer thinks up the main melodies and themes for the score, one or more orchestrators are hired to "flesh out" these basic melodies by adding accompaniment parts, backing chords, so on.
In jazz big bands, the composer or songwriter writes the lead sheet, which contains the melody and the chords, one or more orchestrators or arrangers "flesh out" these basic musical ideas by creating parts for the saxophones, trumpets and the rhythm section. An orchestrator is a trained musical professional who assigns instruments from an orchestra or other musical ensemble to a piece of music written by a composer, or who adapts music composed for another medium for an orchestra. Orchestrators may work for musical theatre productions, film production companies or recording studios; some orchestrators teach at conservatories or universities. The training done by orchestrators varies. Most have completed formal postsecondary education in music, such as a Bachelor of Music, Master of Music or an artist's diploma. Orchestrators who teach at universities and conservatories may be required to hold a master's degree or a Doctorate. Orchestrators who work for film companies, musical theatre companies and other organizations may be hired based on their orchestration experience if they do not hold academic credentials.
In the 2010s, as the percentage of faculty holding terminal degrees and/or Doctoral degrees is part of how an institution is rated, this is causing an increasing number of postsecondary institutions to require terminal and/or Doctoral degrees. The term orchestration in its specific sense refers to the way instruments are used to portray any musical aspect such as melody, harmony or rhythm. For example, a C major chord is made up of the notes C, E, G. If the notes are held out the entire duration of a measure, the composer or orchestrator will have to decide what instrument play this chord and in what register; some instruments, including woodwinds and brass are monophonic and can only play one note of the chord at a time. However, in a full orchestra there are more than one of these instruments, so the composer may choose to outline the chord in its basic form with a group of clarinets or trumpets. Other instruments, including the strings, piano and pitched percussion are polyphonic and may play more than one note at a time.
As such, if the composer/orchestrator wishes to have the strings play the C major chord, she could assign the low C to the cellos and basses, the G to the violas, a high E to the second violins and an E an octave higher to the first violins. If the composer/orchestrator wishes the chord to be played only by the first and second violins, she could give the second violins a low C and give the first violins a double stop of the notes G and E. Additionally in orchestration, notes may be placed into another register and altered with various levels of dynamics; the choice of instruments and dynamics affect the overall tone color. If the C major chord was orchestrated for the trumpets and trombones playing fortissimo in their upper registers, it would sound bright. Note that although the above example discussed orchestrating a chord, a melody or a single note may be orchestrated in this fashion. Note that in this specific sense of the word, orchestration is not limited to an orchestra, as a composer may orchestrate this same C major chord for, say, a woodwind quintet, a string quartet or a concert band.
Each different ensemble would enable the orchestrator/composer to create different tone "colours" and timbres. A melody is orchestrated; the composer or orchestrator may think of a melody in their head, or while playing the piano or organ. Once they have thought of a melody, they have to decide. One used approach for a melody is to assign it to the first violins; when the first violins play a melody, the composer can have the second violins double the melody an octave below, or have the second violins play a harmony part. Sometimes, for a forceful effect, a composer will indicate in the score that all of the strings will play the melo
Neil Young (album)
Neil Young is the self-titled debut studio album by Canadian musician Neil Young following his departure from Buffalo Springfield in 1968, issued on Reprise Records. Some sources place the album's release date on January 22, 1969, while other sources have the release date as Young's 23rd birthday, November 12, 1968, it was partially remixed and re-released in November 1969, but at no time has the album charted on the Billboard 200. The first release used the Haeco-CSG encoding system; this technology was intended to make stereo records compatible with mono record players, but had the unfortunate side effect of degrading the sound. Young was unhappy with the first release. "The first mix was awful", he was reported as saying in Cash Box of September 6, 1969. "I was trying to bury my voice, because I didn't like the way it sounded."The album was therefore remixed, re-released without Haeco-CSG processing. The words "Neil Young" were added to the album cover after what was left of the original stock had been used up, so copies of both mixes exist in the original sleeve.
Copies of the original mix are now rare and sought-after, because many Neil Young fans believe that the remix diminished the songs "Here We Are in the Years". Neil Young was remastered and released on HDCD-encoded compact discs and digital download on July 14, 2009 as part of the Neil Young Archives Original Release Series, it was released on audiophile vinyl in December 2009, both individually and as part of a box-set of Neil's first four LPs available via his official website. This box set was limited to 1000 copies. A high resolution digital Blu-ray disc is planned. On the 4th of April, 2019 the first release using the Haeco-CSG encoding system was made available to stream for one week for non subscribers and for all time for subscribers on the Neil Young Archives website ~ https://neilyoungarchives.com/#/album?id=A_005&tab=songs. Rolling Stone wrote "in many ways, a delightful reprise of that Springfield sound done a new way." In its retrospective review, AllMusic described it as "an uneven, low-key introduction to Young's solo career".
All tracks written by Neil Young, except where noted. Arrangements on "The Old Laughing Lady", "String Quartet from Whiskey Boot Hill" and "I've Loved Her So Long" by Young, Nitzsche and Ry Cooder. Neil Young – vocals, piano, harpsichord, pipe organ, production Ry Cooder – guitar, production Jack Nitzsche – electric piano, production Jim Messina, Carol Kaye – bass George Grantham, Earl Palmer – drums Merry Clayton, Brenda Holloway, Patrice Holloway, Gloria Richetta Jones, Sherlie Matthews, Gracia Nitzsche – backing vocals unidentified - trumpet, tenor saxophone, French horn, timpani, stringsProduction David Briggs – production Dale Batchelor, Donn Landee, Mark Richardson, Henry Saskowski – engineering Rik Pekkonen – arrangements, engineering Danny Kelly – photography Ed Thrasher – album art direction Roland Diehl – cover painting Lyrics Official documentation for Neil Young
Neil Percival Young, is a Canadian singer-songwriter. After embarking on a music career in the 1960s, he moved to Los Angeles, where he formed Buffalo Springfield with Stephen Stills, Richie Furay and others. Young had released two solo albums and three as a member of Buffalo Springfield by the time he joined Crosby, Stills & Nash in 1969. From his early solo albums and those with his backing band Crazy Horse, Young has recorded a steady stream of studio and live albums, sometimes warring with his recording company along the way. Young's guitar work personal lyrics and signature tenor singing voice transcend his long career. Young plays piano and harmonica on many albums, which combine folk, rock and other musical styles, his distorted electric guitar playing with Crazy Horse, earned him the nickname "Godfather of Grunge" and led to his 1995 album Mirror Ball with Pearl Jam. More Young has been backed by Promise of the Real. Young directed films using the pseudonym Bernard Shakey, including Journey Through the Past, Rust Never Sleeps, Human Highway, CSNY/Déjà Vu.
He contributed to the soundtracks of the films Philadelphia and Dead Man. Young has received several Grammy and Juno awards; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted him twice: as a solo artist in 1995 and in 1997 as a member of Buffalo Springfield. In 2000, Rolling Stone named Young the 34th greatest rock'n roll artist, he retains Canadian citizenship. He was awarded the Order of Manitoba on July 14, 2006, was made an Officer of the Order of Canada on December 30, 2009. Neil Young was born on November 1945, in Toronto, Ontario, his father, Scott Alexander Young, was a journalist and sportswriter who wrote fiction. His mother, Edna Blow Ragland "Rassy" Young was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Although Canadian, his mother had French ancestry. Young's parents married in 1940 in Winnipeg and their first son, Robert "Bob" Young, was born in 1942. Shortly after Young's birth in 1945, his family moved to rural Omemee, which Young described fondly as a "sleepy little place". Young suffered from polio in 1951 during the last major outbreak of the disease in Ontario.
After his recovery, the Young family vacationed in Florida. During that period, Young attended Chisolm Elementary School in New Smyrna Beach, Florida. In 1952, upon returning to Canada, Young moved from Omemee to Winnipeg for a year, before relocating to Toronto and Pickering. Young became interested in popular music; when Young was twelve, his father, who had had several extramarital affairs, left his mother. His mother asked for a divorce, granted in 1960. Young went to live with his mother, who moved back to Winnipeg, while his brother Bob stayed with his father in Toronto. During the mid-1950s, Young listened to rock'n roll, doo-wop, R&B, western pop, he idolized Elvis Presley and referred to him in a number of his songs. Other early musical influences included Link Wray, Jimmy Gilmer and the Fireballs, The Ventures, Cliff Richard and the Shadows, Chuck Berry, Hank Marvin, Little Richard, Fats Domino, The Chantels, The Monotones, Ronnie Self, the Fleetwoods, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison and Gogi Grant.
Young first began to play music himself on a plastic ukulele, before, as he would relate, going on to "a better ukulele to a banjo ukulele to a baritone ukulele – everything but a guitar."Young and his mother settled into the working-class area of Fort Rouge, where the shy, dry-humoured youth enrolled at Earl Grey Junior High School. It was there that he formed his first band, the Jades, met Ken Koblun. While attending Kelvin High School in Winnipeg, he played in several instrumental rock bands dropping out of school in favour of a musical career. Young's first stable band was the Squires, with Ken Koblun, Jeff Wuckert and Bill Edmondson on drums, who had a local hit called "The Sultan"; the band played in Fort William, where they recorded a series of demos produced by a local producer, Ray Dee, who Young called "the original Briggs". While playing at The Flamingo, Young met Stephen Stills, whose band the Company were playing the same venue, they became friends; the Squires played in several dance clubs in Winnipeg and Ontario.
After leaving the Squires, Young worked folk clubs in Winnipeg. Mitchell recalls Young as having been influenced by Bob Dylan at the time. Here he wrote some of his earliest and most enduring folk songs such as "Sugar Mountain", about lost youth. Mitchell wrote "The Circle Game" in response; the Winnipeg band The Guess Who had a Canadian Top 40 hit with Young's "Flying on the Ground is Wrong", Young's first major success as a songwriter. In 1965 Young toured Canada as a solo artist. In 1966, while in Toronto, he joined the Rick James-fronted Mynah Birds; the band managed to secure a record deal with the Motown label, but as their first album was being recorded, James was arrested for being AWOL from the Navy Reserve. After the Mynah Birds disbanded and the bass player Bruce Palmer decided to pawn the group's musical equipment and buy a Pontiac hearse, which they used to relocate to Los Angeles. Young admitted in a 2009 interview that he was in the United States illegally until he received a "green card" in 1970.
Once they reached Lo
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Salvatore Phillip "Sonny" Bono was an American singer-songwriter, producer and politician who came to fame in partnership with his second wife Cher, as the popular singing duo Sonny & Cher. He was mayor of Palm Springs, California from 1988 to 1992, the Republican congressman for California's 44th district from 1995 until his death in 1998; the United States Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, which extended the term of copyright by 20 years, was named in honor of Bono when it was passed by Congress nine months after his death. Mary Bono had been one of the original sponsors of the legislation known as the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. Bono was born in Detroit to Zena "Jean" Bono, his mother called him "Sono" as a term of endearment, which evolved over time into "Sonny". Sonny was the youngest of three siblings; the family moved to Inglewood, California when he was seven, his parents divorced soon afterwards. Bono decided early in life to become part of the music business, began writing songs as a teenager.
"Koko Joe", a song he wrote at age 16, was recorded by Don and Dewey in 1958, covered by several other artists including The Righteous Brothers. Bono attended Inglewood High School, but did not graduate, opting to drop out so he could begin to pursue a career as a songwriter and performer, he worked at a variety of jobs while trying to break into the music business, including waiter, truck driver, construction laborer, butcher's helper. Bono began his music career as a songwriter at Specialty Records, where his song "Things You Do to Me" was recorded by Sam Cooke, went on to work for record producer Phil Spector in the early 1960s as a promotion man, percussionist and "gofer". One of his earliest songwriting efforts, "Needles and Pins" was co-written with Jack Nitzsche, another member of Spector's production team. In the same decade, he achieved commercial success with his then-wife Cher in the singing duo Sonny and Cher. Bono wrote and produced a number of hit records including the singles "I Got You Babe" and "The Beat Goes On", although Cher received more attention as a performer.
He played a major part in Cher's solo recording career and producing singles including "Bang Bang" and "You Better Sit Down Kids". Bono co-wrote "She Said Yeah", covered by The Rolling Stones on their 1965 LP December's Children, his lone hit single as a solo artist, "Laugh at Me," was released in 1965 and peaked at No. 10 on the Billboard Hot 100. In live concerts, Bono would introduce the song by saying "I'd like to sing a medley of my hit." His only other single as a solo artist, "The Revolution Kind," reached No. 70 on the Billboard Hot 100 that year. His solo album, Inner Views, was released in 1967. Sonny continued to work with Cher through the early and mid-1970s, starring in a popular television variety show, The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour, which ran on CBS from 1971 to 1974. From 1976 to 1977, the duo, since divorced, returned to perform together on The Cher Show, their last appearance together was on Late Night with David Letterman on November 13, 1987, on which they sang "I Got You Babe".
In 2011, Sonny Bono was inducted into the Michigan Roll Legends Hall of Fame. Bono's acting career included bit parts as a guest performer in such television series as Fantasy Island, Charlie's Angels, The Love Boat, The Six Million Dollar Man and CHiPs. In the 1975 TV movie Murder on Flight 502, he appeared in the 1980 miniseries Top of the Hill. He played the role of mad bomber Joe Selucci in Airplane II: The Sequel and appeared in the horror film Troll, he portrayed racist entrepreneur Franklin Von Tussle in the John Waters film Hairspray. In Men in Black, Bono is one of several oddball celebrities seen on a wall of video screens that monitor extraterrestrials living among us, he appeared as the Mayor of Palm Springs in several episodes of P. S. I Luv U during the 1991–92 TV season, on Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman, in which he played Mayor Frank Berkowitz, he made a minor appearance as himself in the comedy film First Kid. Bono guest-starred as himself on The Golden Girls episode "Mrs. George Devereaux", in which he vied with Lyle Waggoner for Dorothy's affection in a dream sequence.
In Blanche's dream, her husband is still alive, Bono uses his power as Mayor of Palm Springs to have Waggoner falsely arrested so he can have Dorothy to himself. Bono entered politics after experiencing great frustration with local government bureaucracy in trying to open a restaurant in Palm Springs, California. Bono placed a successful bid to become the new mayor of Palm Springs, he served four years, from 1988 to 1992. He was instrumental in spearheading the creation of the Palm Springs International Film Festival, held each year in Bono's memory. Bono ran for the Republican nomination for United States Senate in 1992, but the nomination went to the more conservative Bruce Herschensohn, the election to the Democrat Barbara Boxer. Bono and Herschensohn became close friends after the campaign. Bono was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1994 to represent California's 44th congressional district, he was one of twelve co-sponsors of a House bill extending copyright. Although that bill was never voted on in the Senate, a similar Senate bill was passed after his death and named the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act in his memory.
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Out of Our Heads
Out of Our Heads is the Rolling Stones' third British studio album and their fourth in the United States. Although they share the same title, the two have significant differences in the track listings. In the US, London Records released it on 30 July 1965 and it became the group's first number one on the Billboard 200 album chart. Decca Records released it in the UK on 24 September 1965; as with the prior two albums, it consists of covers of American blues, soul and R&B songs, though the band wrote some of their own material for this album. The American version contains " Satisfaction", which would be the band's first number one US hit, would go on to top the charts in 10 other countries, including the band's native UK, being ranked as the second greatest song of all time by Rolling Stone. Besides the key band members of singer Mick Jagger, guitarists Brian Jones and Keith Richards, bassist Bill Wyman, drummer Charlie Watts, the album contains musical contributions from former Rolling Stones member Ian Stewart, frequent collaborator Jack Nitzsche.
It was produced by the band's manager Andrew Loog Oldham. The majority of the songs on Out of Our Heads were written and recorded by American rhythm and blues artists. According to music critic Richie Unterberger, the album's US release had soul covers and its "classic rock singles" originals, including "The Last Time", "Play with Fire", "Satisfaction", still drew on the band's R&B and blues roots, but were updated to "a more guitar-based contemporary context." Kent H. Benjamin of The Austin Chronicle wrote that the album was "the culmination of the Stones' early soul/R&B sound". In his review of the album's UK edition, Allmusic's Bruce Eder characterised it as rock and roll and R&B; the British Out of Our Heads – with a different cover – added songs that would surface in the US on December's Children and others that had not been released in the UK thus far instead of the already-released live track and recent hit singles. Issued that September, Out of Our Heads reached number two in the UK charts behind the Beatles' Help!.
It was the Rolling Stones' last UK album to rely upon R&B covers. The US edition of the album was included in Robert Christgau's "Basic Record Library" of 1950s and 1960s recordings, published in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. In 2003, this edition was listed at number 116 on the list of Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. In August 2002 both the US and UK editions of Out of Our Heads were reissued in a new remastered CD and SACD digipak by ABKCO Records. Issued in July 1965 in the US, Out of Our Heads was a mixture of recordings made over a six-month period, including the Top 10 hit "The Last Time" and the worldwide number one " Satisfaction" with B-sides as well as a track from the UK-only live EP Got Live If You Want It!. Six songs would be included in the UK version of the album. "One More Try" is an original, not released in the UK until 1971's Stone Age. Riding the wave of "Satisfaction"'s success, Out of Our Heads became the Rolling Stones' first US number one album going platinum.
The Rolling StonesAs per the American release: Mick Jagger – lead vocals, backing vocals, tambourine Keith Richards – electric guitar, backing vocals, acoustic guitar Brian Jones – electric guitar, acoustic guitar, harmonica Bill Wyman – bass guitar, backing vocals Charlie Watts – drums Additional personnelJack Nitzsche – percussion, organ, harpsichord Phil Spector – tuned-down electric guitar Ian Stewart – piano, marimba Album Out of Our Heads at Discogs
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were