Middlesex is an ancient county in southeast England. It is now within the wider urbanised area of London, its area is now mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, existed as an official unit until 1965; the historic county includes land stretching north of the River Thames from 17 miles west to 3 miles east of the City of London with the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831; the City of London was a county in its own right from the 12th century and was able to exert political control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the early financial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county; as London grew into Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, which posed problems for the administration of local government and justice.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, as part of the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works; when county councils were introduced in England in 1889 about 20% of the area of Middlesex, along with a third of its population, was transferred to the new County of London and the remainder became an administrative county governed by the Middlesex County Council that met at the Middlesex Guildhall in Westminster, in the County of London. The City of London, Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199. In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, the setting up of new industries. After the Second World War, the population of the County of London and inner Middlesex was in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts.
After a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London all of the original area was incorporated into an enlarged Greater London in 1965, with the rest transferred to neighbouring counties. Since 1965 various areas called. Middlesex was the former postal county of 25 post towns; the name refers to the tribal origin of its inhabitants. The word is formed from the Old English,'middel' and'Seaxe'. In 704, it is recorded as Middleseaxon in an Anglo-Saxon chronicle, written in Latin, about land at Twickenham; the Latin text reads: "in prouincia quæ nuncupatur Middelseaxan Haec". The Saxons derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known; the seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem. Their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". There were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.
Middlesex was part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Gore, Hounslow and Spelthorne. The City of London has been self-governing since the thirteenth century and became a county in its own right, a county corporate. Middlesex included Westminster, which had a high degree of autonomy. Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London. During the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, along with the Liberty of Westminster took over the administrative functions of the hundred; the divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn and Tower. The county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century; the title Earl of Middlesex was created twice, in 1622 and 1677, but became extinct in 1843. The economy of the county was dependent on the City of London from early times and was agricultural. A variety of goods were provided for the City, including crops such as grain and hay and building materials.
Recreation at day trip destinations such as Hackney, Islington and Twickenham, as well as coaching, inn-keeping and sale of goods and services at daily shops and stalls to the considerable passing trade provided much local employment and formed part of the early economy. However, during the 18th century the inner parishes of Middlesex became suburbs of the City and were urbanised; the Middlesex volume of John Norden's Speculum Britanniae of 1593 summarises: This is plentifully stored, as it seemeth beautiful, with many fair and comely buildings of the merchants of London, who have planted their houses of recreation not in the meanest places, which they have cunningly contrived, curiously beautified with divers devices, neatly decked with rare inventions, environed with orchards of sundry, delicate fruits, gardens with delectable walks, alleys and a great variety of pleasing dainties: all of which seem to be beautiful ornaments unto this country. Thomas Cox wrote in 1794: We may call it all London, being chiefly inhabited by the citizens, who fill the towns in it with their country houses, to which they resort that they may breathe a little sweet air, free from the fogs and smoke of the City.
In 1803 Sir John Sinclair, president of the Board of Agr
Perry Mason (TV series)
Perry Mason is an American legal drama series broadcast on CBS television from September 21, 1957, to May 22, 1966. The title character, portrayed by Raymond Burr, is a fictional Los Angeles criminal-defense lawyer who appeared in detective fiction by Erle Stanley Gardner. Many episodes are based on stories written by Gardner. Perry Mason was Hollywood's first weekly one-hour series filmed for television, remains one of the longest-running and most successful legal-themed television series. During its first season, it received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination as Best Dramatic Series, it became one of the five most popular shows on television. Raymond Burr received two Emmy Awards for Outstanding Lead Actor, Barbara Hale received an Emmy Award for her portrayal of Mason's confidential secretary Della Street. Perry Mason and Burr were honored as Favorite Series and Favorite Male Performer in the first two TV Guide Award readers' polls. In 1960, the series received the first Silver Gavel Award presented for television drama by the American Bar Association.
Perry Mason has aired in syndication in the United States and internationally since its cancellation, the complete series has been released on Region 1 DVD. A 2014 study found that Netflix users rate Raymond Burr as their favorite actor, with Barbara Hale number seven on the list; the New Perry Mason, a 1973 revival of the series with a different cast, was poorly received and ran for 15 episodes. In 1985, the first in a successful series of 30 Perry Mason television films aired on NBC, with Burr reprising the role of Mason in 26 of them before his death in 1993. In August 2016, HBO announced plans to make a new series. Perry Mason is a distinguished criminal defense lawyer practicing in Los Angeles, most of whose clients have been charged with murder; each episode follows a formula. The first half of the show introduces a prospective murder victim and a series of persons involved with the victim who, through word or deed, reveal themselves as the perpetrator of the crime. Once the crime has been committed, his private investigator Paul Drake, his secretary Della Street have some adversarial dealings with the homicide detective, who arrests the wrong suspect, Mason's legal nemesis, Los Angeles district attorney Hamilton Burger, who prosecutes an innocent suspect, until Mason's client is charged with murder based on the circumstantial evidence.
In the second half, Mason spars with Burger in the courtroom, either during the trial or the preliminary hearing, in which the district attorney is required to produce just enough evidence to convince the judge that the defendant should be bound over for trial. As the courtroom proceedings advance, Mason finds the case going against him, so that outside the courtroom either Mason himself or Paul and Della pursue further leads; as the investigation or examination progresses and sometimes Burger will uncover the morally ugly or illegal conduct of some of the witnesses or participants, thus complicating the moral and legal intrigue of the case. Some detail uncovered or remark made inside or outside the courtroom gives Mason the clue he needs to enter into the line of questioning that causes the surprise perpetrator, whether on the stand or not, to break down and confess to the crime and admit to the appalling truth of their motive. In the closing scene or epilogue and Della, sometimes Burger and Tragg, will ask Mason what gave him the clue he needed.
The show never discloses the amount of money spent by the innocent suspect to Mason after being falsely accused by the police and being falsely prosecuted by the District Attorney. Perry Mason – defense attorney Della Street – Mason's confidential secretary Paul Drake – private investigator Hamilton Burger – District Attorney Lieutenant Arthur Tragg – a police homicide detective and lead police official on the series, who appeared from the beginning of the series until midway through the 1963-64 season after appearing less from early in the 1961-62 season.. Lieutenant Anderson – another police homicide detective and lead police official on the series. Known as Andy to his friends, he started appearing in the fall of 1961 when Ray Collins began to reduce his participation in the show due to illness, became more prominent.. Lieutenant Steve Drumm – another police homicide detective and lead police official on the series, who appeared in the final season. Recurring smaller rolesDr. Hoxie – autopsy surgeon played by Michael Fox.
Seen in seasons 1 through 7. Fox played other small roles in season 9. Sgt. Brice – a police officer, played by Lee Miller, who accompanies Tragg, Anderson or Drumm. Seen throughout the series run. Miller played other bit roles in seasons 1 and 2. Terrance Clay – owner of the upscale "Clay's Grill" where Perry, Della gather in the final season during the story's epilogue. Played by Dan Tobin. Gertrude "Gertie" Lade – Mason's mentioned but seen receptionist, played by Connie Cezon. Seen in seasons 1 and 2, with one appearance in season 4, four consecutive episodes in season 7. Court clerk – seen, but heard from, during courtroom procedures. Seen in seasons 2 through 6, played by George
Witness for the Prosecution (1957 film)
Witness for the Prosecution is a 1957 American film depicting an English courtroom drama with film noir elements. It was co-adapted and directed by Billy Wilder and starred Tyrone Power, Marlene Dietrich, Charles Laughton, with Elsa Lanchester in a supporting role. Set in the Old Bailey in London, the picture is based on the play of the same name by Agatha Christie and deals with the trial of a man accused of murder; this was the first film adaptation of Christie's story, was adapted for the screen by Larry Marcus, Harry Kurnitz and Wilder. Sir Wilfrid Robarts, a master barrister in ill health, takes on Leonard Vole as a client, despite the objections of his private nurse, Miss Plimsoll, who says the doctor warns him against taking on any criminal cases. Leonard is accused of murdering Mrs Emily French, a rich, older widow who had become enamoured with him, going so far as to make him the main beneficiary of her will. Strong circumstantial evidence points to Leonard as the killer, but Sir Wilfrid believes Vole is innocent.
When Sir Wilfrid speaks with Leonards's German wife Christine, he finds her rather cold and self-possessed, but she does provide an alibi, although by no means an convincing one. Therefore, he is surprised when, at the end of the trial, she is summoned as a witness by the prosecuting barrister. While a wife can not be compelled to testify against her husband, Christine was in fact still married to a German man when she wed Leonard, she testifies that Leonard admitted to her that he had killed Mrs French, that her conscience forced her to tell the truth. During the trial in the Old Bailey, Sir Wilfrid is contacted by a mysterious woman who, for a fee, provides him with letters written by Christine herself to a mysterious lover named Max; the affair revealed by this correspondence gives Christine such a strong motive to have lied that the jury finds Leonard not guilty. However, Sir Wilfrid is troubled by the verdict, his instincts tell him that it was "...too neat, too tidy, altogether too symmetrical!"
His belief proves correct when Christine, left alone with him by chance in the courtroom, informs him that he had help in winning the case. Sir Wilfrid had told her before the trial that "...no jury would believe an alibi given by a loving wife". So, she had instead given testimony implicating her husband, had forged the letters to the non-existent Max, had herself in disguise played the mysterious woman handing over the letters which discredited her own testimony and led to the acquittal, she furthermore admits that she saved Leonard though she knew he was guilty because she loves him. Leonard has overheard Christine's admission and, now protected by double jeopardy, cheerfully confirms to Sir Wilfred that he had indeed killed Mrs French. Sir Wilfrid is infuriated at being had by them both. Christine suffers a major shock when she finds Leonard has met a younger woman and is now going abroad with her. In a jealous rage, Christine grabs a knife earlier used as evidence, stabs Leonard to death.
After she is taken away by the police, Sir Wilfrid, urged on by Miss Plimsoll, declares that he will take on Christine's defence. Tyrone Power as Leonard Vole, the accused Marlene Dietrich as Christine Vole/Helm, the accused's wife Charles Laughton as Sir Wilfrid Robarts Q. C. senior counsel for Vole Elsa Lanchester as Miss Plimsoll, Sir Wilfrid's private nurse John Williams as Mr. Brogan-Moore, Sir Wilfrid's junior counsel in the trial Henry Daniell as Mr. Mayhew, Vole's solicitor who instructs Sir Wilfrid on the case Ian Wolfe as H. A. Carter, Sir Wilfrid's chief clerk and office manager Torin Thatcher as Mr. Myers Q. C. the Crown prosecutor Norma Varden as Mrs. Emily Jane French, the elderly woman, murdered Una O'Connor as Janet McKenzie, Mrs. French's housekeeper and a prosecution witness Francis Compton as Mr. Justice Wainwright, the judge Philip Tonge as Chief Inspector Hearne, the arresting officer Ruta Lee as Diana, a young woman watching the trial, waiting for Leonard to be freed Patrick Aherne as the court officer Marjorie Eaton as Miss O'Brien Franklyn Farnum as an old barrister Bess Flowers as a courtroom spectator Colin Kenny as a juror Ottola Nesmith as Miss Johnson J. Pat O'Malley as the shorts salesman Jack Raine as Sir Wilfrid's doctor Ben Wright as court clerk This was Power's final completed film.
He died of a heart attack after a lengthy dueling sequence two-thirds of the way through the filming of Solomon and Sheba and was replaced by Yul Brynner. In real life, Elsa Lanchester was Charles Laughton's wife. Una O'Connor was the only member of the original Broadway play's cast to reprise her role on film, it was her final film. Producers Arthur Hornblow and Edward Small bought the rights to the play for $450,000; the play was adjusted to build up the character of the defence barrister. Billy Wilder was signed to direct in April 1956. According to Wilder, when the producers approached Dietrich about the part she accepted on the condition that Wilder direct. Wilder said Dietrich liked "to play a murderess" but was "a little bit embarrassed when playing the love scenes."Laughton based his performance on Florance Guedella, his own lawyer, an Englishman, well known for twirling his monocle while cross-examining witnesses. Vivien Leigh and Marlene Dietrich were leading candidates to play Christine Vole.
In a flashback showing how Leonard and Christine first meet in a German nightclub, she is wearing her trademark trousers. A rowdy customer conveniently rips them down one side, revealin
Philip St. John Basil Rathbone MC was a South African-born English actor, he rose to prominence in the United Kingdom as a Shakespearean stage actor and went on to appear in more than 70 films costume dramas and horror films. Rathbone portrayed suave villains or morally ambiguous characters, such as Mr. Murdstone in David Copperfield and Sir Guy of Gisbourne in The Adventures of Robin Hood, his most famous role, was heroic—that of Sherlock Holmes in fourteen Hollywood films made between 1939 and 1946 and in a radio series. His career included roles on Broadway, as well as self-ironic film and television work, he received a Tony Award in 1948 as Best Actor in a Play. He was nominated for two Academy Awards and was honored with three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Rathbone was born in South Africa, to British parents, his mother, Anna Barbara, was a violinist, his father, Edgar Philip Rathbone, was a mining engineer and scion of the Liverpool Rathbone family. He had two older half-brothers and Horace, as well as two younger siblings and John.
Basil was the great-grandson of the noted Victorian philanthropist, William Rathbone V, thus a descendant of William Rathbone II. The Rathbones fled to Britain when Basil was three years old after his father was accused by the Boers of being a spy after the Jameson Raid, he was a distant cousin of Major Henry Rathbone, present at the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, was wounded trying to stop John Wilkes Booth. Rathbone attended Repton School in Derbyshire from 1906–1910, where he excelled at sports and given the nickname "Ratters" by schoolmates. Thereafter, he was employed by the Liverpool and Globe Insurance Companies, to appease his father's wish for him to have a conventional career. On 22 April 1911, Rathbone made his first appearance on stage at the Theatre Royal, Suffolk, as Hortensio in The Taming of the Shrew, with his cousin Sir Frank Benson's No. 2 Company, under the direction of Henry Herbert. In October 1912, he went to the United States with Benson's company, playing such parts as Paris in Romeo and Juliet, Fenton in The Merry Wives of Windsor, Silvius in As You Like It.
Returning to Britain, he made his first appearance in London at the Savoy Theatre on 9 July 1914, as Finch in The Sin of David. That December, he appeared at the Shaftesbury Theatre as the Dauphin in Henry V. During 1915, he toured with Benson and appeared with him at London's Court Theatre in December as Lysander in A Midsummer Night's Dream. During the First World War, Rathbone was called up in 1915 via the Derby Scheme into the British Army as a private with the London Scottish Regiment, joining a regiment that counted in its ranks his future professional acting contemporaries Claude Rains, Herbert Marshall and Ronald Colman at different points through the conflict. After basic training with the London Scots in early 1916 he received a commission as a lieutenant in the 2/10th Battalion of the King's Liverpool Regiment, where he served as an intelligence officer and attained the rank of captain. Rathbone's younger brother John was killed in action on 4 June 1918. In 2012 two letters Rathbone wrote to his family.
One reveals the anguish and anger he felt following the death of his brother, John: I want to tell him to mind his place. I think of his ridiculous belief that everything would always be well, his ever-hopeful smile, I want to cuff him for a little fool, he had no business to let it happen and it maddens me that I shall never be able to tell him so, or change it or bring him back. I can’t think of him without being consumed with anger at him for being dead and beyond anything I can do to him. Following his brother's death, Rathbone appears to have become unconcerned about the dangers of serving at the front. Author Richard Van Emden in Famous 1914-18 speculates that his extreme bravery may have been a form of guilt or need for vengeance, he persuaded his superiors to allow him to scout enemy positions during daylight rather than at night, as was the usual practice to minimise the chance of detection. Rathbone wore a special camouflage suit that resembled a tree with a wreath of freshly plucked foliage on his head with burnt cork applied to his hands and face.
As a result of these dangerous daylight reconnaissance missions in September 1918, he was awarded the Military Cross for "conspicuous daring and resource on patrol". During the Summer Festival of 1919, he appeared at Stratford-upon-Avon with the New Shakespeare Company playing Romeo, Ferdinand in The Tempest and Florizel in The Winter's Tale. During the 1920s, Rathbone appeared in Shakespearean and other roles on the British stage, he began to travel and appeared at the Cort Theatre, New York, in October 1923 in a production of The Swan opposite Eva Le Gallienne, which made him a star on Broadway. He toured in the United States in 1925, appearing in San Francisco in May and the Lyceum Theatre, New York, in October, he was in the US again in 1927 and 1930 and again in 1931, when he appeared on stage with Ethel Barrymore. He continued his stage career in Britain, returning late in 1934 to the US, where he appeared with Katharine Cornell in several plays. Rathbone was once arrested in 1926 along with every other member of the cast of The Captive, a play in which his character's wife left him for another woman.
Though the charges were dropped, Rathbone was angry abo
The Outer Limits (1963 TV series)
The Outer Limits is an American television series, broadcast on ABC from 1963 to 1965 at 7:30 PM Eastern Time on Mondays. The series is compared to The Twilight Zone, but with a greater emphasis on science fiction stories; the Outer Limits is an anthology of self-contained episodes, sometimes with a plot twist at the end. The series was revived in 1995, airing on Showtime from 1995 to 2000 on Sci-Fi Channel from 2001 until its cancellation in 2002. In 1997, the episode "The Zanti Misfits" was ranked #98 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time. A new revival is in the works at a premium cable network; each show would begin with either a cold open or a preview clip, followed by a "Control Voice" narration, run over visuals of an oscilloscope. Using an Orwellian theme of taking over your television, the earliest version of the narration ran as follows: A similar but shorter monolog caps each episode: We now return control of your television set to you; until next week at the same time, when the control voice will take you to – The Outer Limits.
Episodes used one of two shortened versions of the introduction. The first few episodes began with the title screen followed by the narration and no cold open or preview clip; the Control Voice was performed by actor Vic Perrin. The Outer Limits was broadcast on the American television network ABC. In total, 49 episodes were produced, it was one of many series influenced by The Twilight Zone and Science Fiction Theatre, though it proved influential in its own right. In the un-aired pilot, the series was called Please Stand By. Series creator Leslie Stevens retitled it The Outer Limits. With a few changes, the pilot aired as the premiere episode, "The Galaxy Being". Writers for The Outer Limits included creator Stevens and Joseph Stefano, the Season 1 producer and creative guiding force. Stefano wrote more episodes of the show than any other writer. Future Oscar-winning screenwriter Robert Towne wrote "The Chameleon", the final episode filmed for Season 1. Two notable Season 2 episodes "Demon with a Glass Hand" and "Soldier" were written by Harlan Ellison, with the former episode winning a Writers' Guild Award.
The former was for several years the only episode of The Outer Limits available on LaserDisc. Season 1 combined science-fiction and horror, while Season 2 was more focused on'hard science fiction' stories, dropping the recurring "scary monster" motif of Season 1; each show in Season 1 was to have a creature as a critical part of the story line. Season 1 writer and producer Joseph Stefano believed that this element was necessary to provide fear, suspense, or at least a center for plot development; this kind of story element became known as "the bear". This device was, however dropped in Season 2 when Stefano left; the "bear" in "The Architects of Fear", the monstrously altered Allen Leighton, was judged by some of ABC's local affiliate stations to be so frightening that they broadcast a black screen during the "Thetan's" appearances censoring most of the show's last act. In other parts of the United States, the "Thetan" footage was tape-delayed until after the 11pm/10c news. In others, it was not shown at all.
Season 1 had music by Dominic Frontiere. Like The Twilight Zone, The Outer Limits had an opening and closing narration in every episode. Both shows differed in style; the Twilight Zone stories were like parables, employing whimsy or irony, or extraordinary problem-solving situations. The Outer Limits was a straight action-and-suspense show which had the human spirit in confrontation with dark existential forces from within or without, such as in the alien abduction episode "A Feasibility Study" or the alien possession story "The Invisibles"; as well, The Outer Limits was known for its moody, textured look in many episodes whereas The Twilight Zone tended to be shot more conventionally. However, there is some common ground between certain episodes of the two shows; as Schow & Frentzen, the authors of The Outer Limits: The Official Companion, have noted, several Outer Limits episodes are misremembered by casual fans as having been Twilight Zone episodes, notably such "problem solving" episodes as "Fun and Games" or "The Premonition".
The program sometimes made use of techniques associated with film noir or German Expressionism (see for exa
The Twilight Zone (1959 TV series)
The Twilight Zone is an American anthology television series created and presented by Rod Serling, which ran for five seasons on CBS from 1959 to 1964. Each episode presents a stand-alone story in which characters find themselves dealing with disturbing or unusual events, an experience described as entering "the Twilight Zone," ending with a surprise ending and a moral. Although predominantly science-fiction, the show's paranormal and Kafkaesque events leaned the show towards fantasy and horror; the phrase “twilight zone,” inspired by the series, is used to describe surreal experiences. The series featured both established stars and younger actors who would become much better known later. Serling served as executive head writer, he was the show's host and narrator, delivering monologues at the beginning and end of each episode. Serling's opening and closing narrations summarize the episode's events encapsulating how and why the main character had entered the Twilight Zone. In 1997, the episodes "To Serve Man" and "It's a Good Life" were ranked at 11 and 31 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time.
Serling himself stated that his favorite episodes of the series were "The Invaders" and "Time Enough at Last". In 2016, the series was ranked No. 7 on Rolling Stone's list of the 100 greatest shows of all time. In 2002, The Twilight Zone was ranked No. 26 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked it as the third best-written TV series and TV Guide ranked it as the fourth greatest drama and the fifth greatest show of all time. By the late 1950s, Rod Serling was a prominent name in American television, his successful television plays included Patterns and Requiem for a Heavyweight, but constant changes and edits made by the networks and sponsors frustrated Serling. In Requiem for a Heavyweight, the line "Got a match?" had to be struck because the sponsor sold lighters. But according to comments in his 1957 anthology Patterns, Serling had been trying to delve into material more controversial than his works of the early 1950s; this led to Noon on Doomsday for the United States Steel Hour in 1956, a commentary by Serling on the defensiveness and total lack of repentance he saw in the Mississippi town where the murder of Emmett Till took place.
His original script paralleled the Till case was moved out of the South and the victim changed to a Jewish pawnbroker, watered down to just a foreigner in an unnamed town. Despite bad reviews, activists sent numerous wires protesting the production. Serling thought that a science-fictional setting, with robots and other supernatural occurrences, would give him more freedom and less interference in expressing controversial ideas than more realistic settings. "The Time Element" was Serling's 1957 pilot pitch for his show, a time travel adventure about a man who travels back to Honolulu in 1941 and unsuccessfully tries to warn everyone about the impending attack on Pearl Harbor. The script, was rejected and shelved for a year until Bert Granet discovered and produced it as an episode of Desilu Playhouse in 1958; the show was a great success and enabled Serling to begin production on his anthology series, The Twilight Zone. Serling's editorial sense of ironic fate in the writing done for the series was identified as significant to its success by the BFI Film Classics library which stated that for Serling "the cruel indifference and implacability of fate and the irony of poetic justice" were recurrent themes in his plots.
There is a fifth dimension, beyond that, known to man. It is a dimension as timeless as infinity, it is the middle ground between light and shadow, between science and superstition, it lies between the pit of man's fears and the summit of his knowledge. This is the dimension of imagination, it is an area. The Twilight Zone premiered the night of October 1959, to rave reviews. "Twilight Zone is about the only show on the air that I look forward to seeing. It's the one series that I will let interfere with other plans", said Terry Turner for the Chicago Daily News. Others agreed. Daily Variety ranked it with "the best, accomplished in half-hour filmed television" and the New York Herald Tribune found the show to be "certainly the best and most original anthology series of the year"; as the show proved popular to television's critics, it struggled to find a receptive audience of television viewers. CBS was banking on a rating of at least 21 or 22; the series' future was jeopardized when its third episode, "Mr. Denton on Doomsday" earned a 16.3 rating.
Still, the show attracted a large enough audience to survive a brief hiatus in November, after which it surpassed its competition on ABC and NBC and convinced its sponsors to stay on until the end of the season. With one exception, the first season featured scripts written only by Rod Serling, Charles Beaumont or Richard Matheson; these three were responsible for 127 of the 156 episodes in the series. Additionally, with one exception, Serling never appeared on camera during any first-season episode (as he woul