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Jack the Ripper

Jack the Ripper was an unidentified serial killer active in the impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888. In both the criminal case files and contemporary journalistic accounts, the killer was called the Whitechapel Murderer and Leather Apron. Attacks ascribed to Jack the Ripper involved female prostitutes who lived and worked in the slums of the East End of London whose throats were cut prior to abdominal mutilations; the removal of internal organs from at least three of the victims led to proposals that their killer had some anatomical or surgical knowledge. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October 1888, letters were received by media outlets and Scotland Yard from a writer or writers purporting to be the murderer; the name "Jack the Ripper" originated in a letter written by an individual claiming to be the murderer, disseminated in the media. The letter is believed to have been a hoax and may have been written by journalists in an attempt to heighten interest in the story and increase their newspapers' circulation.

The "From Hell" letter received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee came with half of a preserved human kidney, purportedly taken from one of the victims. The public came to believe in a single serial killer known as "Jack the Ripper" because of the extraordinarily brutal nature of the murders, because of media treatment of the events. Extensive newspaper coverage bestowed widespread and enduring international notoriety on the Ripper, the legend solidified. A police investigation into a series of eleven brutal killings in Whitechapel up to 1891 was unable to connect all the killings conclusively to the murders of 1888. Five victims—Mary Ann Nichols, Annie Chapman, Elizabeth Stride, Catherine Eddowes, Mary Jane Kelly—are known as the "canonical five" and their murders between 31 August and 9 November 1888 are considered the most to be linked; the murders were never solved, the legends surrounding these crimes became a combination of genuine historical research and pseudohistory.

In the mid-19th century, Britain experienced an influx of Irish immigrants who swelled the populations of the major cities, including the East End of London. From 1882, Jewish refugees from pogroms in Tsarist Russia and other areas of Eastern Europe emigrated into the same area; the parish of Whitechapel in London's East End became overcrowded. Work and housing conditions worsened, a significant economic underclass developed. Fifty-five percent of children born in the East End died. Robbery and alcohol dependency were commonplace, the endemic poverty drove many women to prostitution to survive on a daily basis. In October 1888, London's Metropolitan Police Service estimated that there were 62 brothels and 1,200 women working as prostitutes in Whitechapel, with 8,500 people residing in the 233 common lodging-houses within Whitechapel every night, with the nightly price of a single bed being 4d and the cost of sleeping upon a "lean-to" rope stretched across the bedrooms of these houses being 2d for adults or children.

The economic problems in Whitechapel were accompanied by a steady rise in social tensions. Between 1886 and 1889, frequent demonstrations led to police intervention and public unrest, such as Bloody Sunday. Anti-semitism, nativism, social disturbance, severe deprivation influenced public perceptions that Whitechapel was a notorious den of immorality; such perceptions were strengthened in the autumn of 1888 when the series of vicious and grotesque murders attributed to "Jack the Ripper" received unprecedented coverage in the media. The large number of attacks against women in the East End during this time adds uncertainty to how many victims were murdered by the same individual. Eleven separate murders, stretching from 3 April 1888 to 13 February 1891, were included in a London Metropolitan Police Service investigation and were known collectively in the police docket as the "Whitechapel murders". Opinions vary as to whether these murders should be linked to the same culprit, but five of the eleven Whitechapel murders, known as the "canonical five", are believed to be the work of Jack the Ripper.

Most experts point to deep slash wounds to the throat, followed by extensive abdominal and genital-area mutilation, the removal of internal organs, progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of the Ripper's modus operandi. The first two cases in the Whitechapel murders file, those of Emma Elizabeth Smith and Martha Tabram, are not included in the canonical five. Smith was robbed and sexually assaulted in Osborn Street, Whitechapel, on 3 April 1888. A blunt object was inserted into her vagina, she died the following day at London Hospital. Smith stated that she had been attacked by three men, one of whom was a teenager; this attack was linked to the murders by the press, but most authors attribute Smith's murder to general East End gang violence unrelated to the Ripper case. Tabram was murdered in George Yard, Whitechapel, on 7 August 1888. Tabram had not been raped; the savagery of this murder, the lack of an obvious motive, the closeness of the location and date to the canonical Ripper murders led police to link this murder to those committed by Jack the Ripper.

However, this murder differs from the canonical murders because although Tabram had been stabbed, she had not suffered any slash wounds to her throat or abdomen. Many expert

She's Got the Look

She's Got the Look is a reality series created for and aired on TV Land. Hosted by model Kim Alexis, twenty women compete to become the next great supermodel 35 years or older. Celebrity judges, Robert Verdi, Sean Patterson and Roshumba Williams, whittle down the cast of twenty until they find the one who has ‘the look.’ Beverly Johnson was a judge for the first two seasons. The winner receives a lucrative modeling contract with the world famous Wilhelmina Models, Inc and a photo spread for Self. TV Land's nationwide search, which included months of online submissions and regional competitions in Los Angeles and New York City resulted in flying twenty contenders to New York; these semi-finalists were put to the test of expressing their fashion know-how. Ten finalists were selected to live in a loft and compete in challenges such as photo shoots, runway competitions and tests on their fashion sense. At the conclusion of the competition, one woman is crowned the ultimate winner; the series premiered on June 2008 with six back-to-back episodes.

A second season aired in 2009. Season three premiered on August 25, 2010. There are no plans to continue the show. Brooke Burke, Model/TV Show Host. Burke brought her modeling experience to the show as the host of season three, replacing supermodel Kim Alexis. Roshumba Williams, Model/TV Reporter. Williams replaced Beverly Johnson as a judge in season three. Robert Verdi, Celebrity Stylist. Celebrated for his keen eye and witty commentary as the red carpet correspondent and fashion columnist, Verdi is one of Hollywood's most sought-after stylists, whose clients include Eva Longoria and Hugh Jackman. Sean Patterson, President of Wilhelmina Models. Sean Patterson has helped launch and foster the careers of stars like Fergie, Mark Vanderloo and Gabriel Aubry. Kim Alexis Beverly Johnson Robert Verdi Sean Patterson The contestant won the leg-up challenge; the contestant was eliminated. The contestant won the reward challenge but was eliminated at the same episode The contestant was eliminated outside of judging panel The contestant won the competition.

In Episode 2, Kathy was called after Paula but was eliminated, leaving Hope and Sharon uncalled. Sharon was eliminated among those three. In Episode 4, Roxanne was called after Tanya but was eliminated, leaving Bahia and Melissa uncalled. Melissa was eliminated among those three. On September 16, 2008, TV Land announced casting for Season 2 of the series. Open casting calls were held in Los Angeles on September 29, 2008, in Dallas on October 2, 2008, in Chicago on October 6, 2008 and in New York City on October 8, 2008. On June 11, 2009, TV Land aired the first episode of Season 2. Eleven semi-finalists were chosen instead of the traditional ten; the contestant won the leg-up challenge. The contestant was eliminated; the contestant voluntarily withdrew from the competition. The contestant won the competition. In Episode 1, ten semi-finalists were chosen to enter the competition, but Shelly was added as an eleventh semi-finalist. In Episode 4, the women performed as duos. Cindy and Theresa were jointly called first Rachel and Sandy were called forward as the bottom two revealing Dolores, LeeAnne, Shelly to be safe.

In Episode 5, LeeAnne and Shelly were called forward as the bottom three revealing Cindy, Dolores and Theresa to be safe. In Episode 6, Dolores was called after Shelly but was eliminated, leaving Cindy, LeeAnne, Theresa as-then uncalled. Jamie was eliminated among those four. On August 25, 2010, TV Land aired the first episode of the new season of the series. Brooke Burke replaced Kim Alexis as the host for the third season and Beverly Johnson was replaced by Roshumba Williams; the cast was kept to the traditional ten contestants. The contestant was eliminated; the contestant won the leg-up challenge. The contestant was eliminated; the contestant won two leg-up challenges. The contestant won the competition. In Episode 1 the casting call-out order was not shown; the table reflects the call-out order from the first elimination. In Episode 2, the women were given makeovers, but Jocelyn was reluctant to have her hair cut to a shorter length. Marilin was granted immunity from elimination, she chose to save her immunity for use in the competition.

In Episode 3 the women did a wire-suspension fashion show for their elimination challenge. Julie was afraid to do the challenge due to her fear of heights, but still chose to perform the task. Marilin used her immunity from elimination, granted to her in the previous episode. In Episode 4 after Marilin and Jocelyn were said to be safe, Diane and Susan were called out. Susan was eliminated and Julie was said to be safe. Diane was eliminated revealing Nina and Rachelle to be safe. In Episode 6 Jocelyn and Marilin were called out after Rachelle was safe, Jocelyn was eliminated revealing Marilin and Julie to be safe. Airing franchise Franchise with an upcoming season Franchise no longer airing Watch Full episodes of She's Got the Look at TVLand.com Official Website at the Wayback Machine She's Got the Look on IMDb She's Got the Look at TV.com Cindy Cohen's website LeeAnne Locken's website

Palestinian governments of 2013

The Palestinian governments of 2013 were two Palestinian governments established in June and September 2013. They ruled de facto over the West Bank only; the Palestinian government of June 2013 was led by Rami Hamdallah, appointed by Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas by presidential decree on 6 June 2013 in Ramallah, the West Bank. The cabinet comprised 24 members, was not presented for approval by the Palestinian Legislative Council. Two weeks Hamdallah resigned in protest at the appointment of two deputy prime ministers for political and economic affairs. Hamdallah backtracked from his resignation and on 19 September 2013, the cabinet was sworn in for the second time, without any changes; the Hamdallah government succeeded the successive governments of Salam Fayyad, who had resigned as a consequence of the 2011–2012 anti-corruption protests. On 14 February 2013, amid pan-Arab calls for reform, Prime Minister Fayyad submitted to President Abbas his resignation along with that of his cabinet.

After consultations with other factions and civil society groups, Abbas asked Fayyad to form a new government. The reshuffle had long been demanded by Fayyad as well as members of Abbas's Fatah faction. On 6 June 2013, President Mahmud Abbas appointed Rami Hamdallah Prime Minister, but was not presented for approval by the Palestinian Legislative Council. Two weeks Hamdallah resigned in protest at the appointment of two deputy prime ministers for political and economic affairs. According to Hassan Khraisheh, deputy speaker of the PLC, the real reason Hamdallah resigned was because he discovered the Prime Minister has no power and that there was no point in having a prime minister “at a time when President Abbas has a monopoly over all the executive branch’s authorities.” “The presence of two deputy prime ministers, who are friends of President Abbas, means that the prime minister is a powerless figure,” Hamdallah’s June appointment was envisioned as an interim measure until a unity government with Hamas could be formed.

On 23 June 2013, Abbas accepted Hamdallah’s resignation, but asked him to stay on on a caretaker basis until a new premier could be appointed. On 19 September 2013, Hamdallah withdrew his resignation and the government was sworn in for the second time, without any changes. In June 2014, the government was replaced by a Fatah-Hamas unity government, with Hamdallah as prime minister. June 2013 to June 2014 Palestinian government Hamas government of 2012