U.S. Route 22
U. S. Route 22 is a west–east route and is one of the original United States highways of 1926, running from Cincinnati, Ohio, at US 27, US 42, US 127, US 52 to Newark, New Jersey, at U. S. Route 1/9 in the Newark Airport Interchange. US 22 is named the "William Penn Highway" throughout most of Pennsylvania. In southwest Ohio, it overlaps with State Route 3 and is familiarly known as the 3C Highway, "22 and 3", Montgomery Road. A section of US 22 in Pennsylvania between New Alexandria at U. S. Route 119 and Harrisburg at Interstate 81 has been designated a part of Corridor M of the Appalachian Development Highway System. US 22 has its westernmost end-point in downtown Cincinnati—however, its eastbound and westbound end-points are not at the same intersection. US 22 Eastbound begins on Central Avenue at 5th Street proceeds north, turning east onto 7th Street. Meanwhile, US 22 Westbound follows 9th Street and ends at Central Avenue. From downtown Cincinnati to Washington Court House, US 22 follows the historic 3C Highway which connected Cincinnati and Cleveland.
This section is concurrent with State Route 3. At Washington Court House, SR 3 and US 22 diverge. US 22 continues to the east through Circleville to Lancaster. From Lancaster to Zanesville, US 22 follows the route of Zane's Trace, an early pioneer road blazed by Colonel Ebenezer Zane beginning in 1796. Starting just west of Cadiz, US 22 becomes a limited-access expressway for the remainder of its 30-some miles in Ohio as it approaches and enters the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, it junctions with State Route 7 for a mile along the Ohio River shoreline in Steubenville. Known as the Robert C. Byrd Expressway, the expressway route that began 30 miles to the west near Cadiz, Ohio continues for five miles within the state of West Virginia as it approaches more population density within the Pittsburgh metro area. US 22 travels through or borders the city of Weirton for its entire length in West Virginia, from the Ohio state line over the Ohio River, to the Pennsylvania state line. US 22 enters Pennsylvania as a limited-access highway connecting Weirton, West Virginia, Steubenville, with Pittsburgh.
Through much of the Pittsburgh area, it multiplexes with Interstate 376 and US 30. US 30 merges with US 22 near Imperial and Pittsburgh International Airport, both highways merge with Interstate 376 in Robinson Township. Together, these three highways form a limited-access multiplex through the city of Pittsburgh. US 30 splits from Interstate 376 and US 22 in Wilkinsburg, the I-376/US 22 concurrency continues to the Pennsylvania Turnpike in Monroeville, where I-376 ends. East of Interstate 376, US 22 continues east as a primary arterial highway between Pittsburgh and major population centers in central Pennsylvania, such as Johnstown, State College, Huntingdon and Lewistown; the entire length between Pittsburgh and US 220 and Interstate 99 just west of Altoona was widened to at least four lanes by summer 2011. US 22 in eastern Pennsylvania is a four lane limited-access expressway between Easton and Interstate 78 to the west; the original designation for this expressway was to be Interstate 78, but local opposition to a freeway in Phillipsburg, along with substandard conditions at Easton, forced federal highway officials to relocate Interstate 78 south of Allentown, Bethlehem and Phillipsburg.
U. S. 22 crosses the Delaware River on the Easton–Phillipsburg Toll Bridge. US 22 between eight miles east of Interstate 81 to Allentown is concurrent with Interstate 78. Former highway alignments of US 22 that parallel this section are collectively known as the "Hex Highway", so called because of the Berks County-based Pennsylvania Dutch families that hang hex signs on their barns. U. S. Route 22 in New Jersey predates, was replaced by, Interstate 78 as it was built between 1956 and 1989, shares designation with I-78 from exit 3 to exit 18. US 22 was an expressway in some segments, including the area around Clinton, it connects Phillipsburg with Newark in New Jersey. US 22 has one major interchange besides I-78, that being Interstate 287, although it is not a full interchange, with two missing movements: US 22 eastbound to I-287 northbound and I-287 southbound to US 22 westbound. One of two level crossing of the highway happens in Union County in the Union Township section of the highway, it once belonged to the Rahway Valley Railroad.
US 22 is one of the original U. S. Routes, though in the 1925 plan it was to terminate in Cleveland, entering Ohio on modern U. S. Route 422. In the finalized 1926 plan, it followed the current course to U. S. Route 40. In 1932, it had been extended to Cincinnati as it is replacing Ohio State Route 10 and following preexisting State Route 3. Before the Byrd Expressway, West Virginia's segment of U. S. 22 ran from Pennsylvania Avenue at the PA/WV state line to Main St. left on Main St. through downtown Weirton, right on Freedom Way to the Fort Steuben Bridge and Ohio River to Steubenville, Ohio. An "Alternate U. S. 22" route ran along Cove Road from Pennsylvania Avenue to the intersection of Harmon Creek Road and the continuation of Cove Road
The Ordovician Reedsville Formation is a mapped surficial bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, that extends into the subsurface of Ohio. This rock is a slope-former adjacent to the prominent ridge-forming Bald Eagle sandstone unit in the Appalachian Mountains, it is abbreviated Or on geologic maps. The Reedsville Formation is an olive-gray to dark-gray siltstone and fine-grained sandstone. In Central Pennsylvania along the Nittany Arch, extending into the subsurface of northern West Virginia, the base of the Reedsville formation includes the black calcareous Antes Shale formation; the type locality is at Pennsylvania. Relative age dating of the Reedsville places it in the Upper Ordovician, it rests conformably atop the Upper Ordovician Coburn Formation at the top of the Trenton Group limestone and conformably below the Bald Eagle Formation. Isotopic dating of shale mylonite in Pennsylvania reveals a K-Ar age of 372+/-8 Ma; the Reedsville is quarried locally in borrow pits for road fill.
Geology of Pennsylvania
Wills Mountain is a quartzite-capped ridge in the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania and Maryland, United States, extending from near Bedford, Pennsylvania, to near Cumberland, Maryland. It is the northernmost of several mountain ridges included within the Wills Mountain Anticline; the Pennsylvania part of Wills Mountain is in Bedford County. Although there are mountains in Pennsylvania's Appalachian Plateau that are higher, Wills Mountain is the highest in its Ridge and Valley physiographic province. Wills Mountain may have the highest prominence in Pennsylvania; the mountain ridge begins abruptly near the Juniata River just north of 2,560-foot Kinton Knob, west of Bedford, just south of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. The valley to the south of Kinton Knob is known as Milligans Cove, an excellent geological example of a breached anticline. Portions of Wills Mountain, including the summit, are located in Pennsylvania State Game Lands No. 48, where access to the mountain is limited, with only jeep trails and a gravel road on the ridge.
The summit, like Martin Hill to the east, has no transmitters. However, access to the summit is difficult, requiring a hike of more than 1,800 ft; the Maryland part of Wills Mountain is located in Allegany County, where the mountain rises steeply from the Cumberland Narrows, a water gap west of Cumberland, half a mile west of the mouth of Warrior Run. From there, the mountain extends northeasterly into Pennsylvania. Haystack Mountain is on the south side of the Narrows. Geologically, the two mountains are equivalent, both being central ridges of the Wills Mountain Anticline; the Cumberland Narrows was carved into these quartzite-capped mountain ridges by Wills Creek, a Potomac River tributary, over millions of years. The Cumberland Narrows serves as a western gateway from Cumberland to the Appalachian Plateau and the Ohio River Valley beyond; the Old National Road, now Alternate U. S. 40, passes through the Narrows, along with the former Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's main line between Baltimore/Washington and Pittsburgh, now part of the CSX system, a former line of the Western Maryland Railroad, now used by the steam- and diesel-powered excursion trains of the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad and the Great Allegheny Passage bike trail.
A prominent rocky outcropping at the south end of Wills Mountain in the Cumberland Narrows is known as Lover's Leap. Wills Mountain is capped by the erosion-resistant Silurian Tuscarora quartzite; the mountain stands in the center of the Wills Mountain Anticline, a geological structure that extends from southern Pennsylvania through Maryland and West Virginia into Virginia. In this anticline, the Tuscarora and various other rock strata are bent upward, with the erosion-resistant Tuscarora capping the mountain's ridgetop, more eroded Silurian limestones and shales on the mountain's slopes. Wills Mountain State Park "Wills Mountain, Pennsylvania". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2008-08-22
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued; the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands. Today the importance of the fur trade has diminished. Animal rights organizations oppose the fur trade, citing that animals are brutally killed and sometimes skinned alive. Fur has been replaced in some clothing by synthetic imitations, for example, as in ruffs on hoods of parkas. Before the European colonization of the Americas, Russia was a major supplier of fur pelts to Western Europe and parts of Asia, its trade developed in the Early Middle Ages, first through exchanges at posts around the Baltic and Black seas. The main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Kievan Russia, the first Russian State, was the first supplier of the Russian Fur Trade.
Russia exported raw furs, consisting in most cases of the pelts of martens, wolves, foxes and hares. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberia, a region rich in many mammal fur species, such as Arctic fox, sable, sea otter and stoat. In a search for the prized sea otter pelts, first used in China, for the northern fur seal, the Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska. From the 17th through the second half of the 19th century, Russia was the world's largest supplier of fur; the fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a regional symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast and the Siberian Novosibirsk and Irkutsk Oblasts of Russia; the European discovery of North America, with its vast forests and wildlife the beaver, led to the continent becoming a major supplier in the 17th century of fur pelts for the fur felt hat and fur trimming and garment trades of Europe.
Fur was relied on to make warm clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating. Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats. From as early as the 10th century and boyars of Novgorod had exploited the fur resources "beyond the portage", a watershed at the White Lake that represents the door to the entire northwestern part of Eurasia, they began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute. Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League. Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals. Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, killing many Russian tribute-collectors throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries.
As Muscovy gained more power in the 15th century and proceeded in the "gathering of the Russian lands", the Muscovite state began to rival the Novgorodians in the North. During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes. One strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe. Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a much larger scale in 1483 and 1499. Besides the Novgorodians and the indigenes, Muscovites had to contend with the various Muslim Tatar khanates to the east of Muscovy. In 1552 Ivan IV, the Tsar of All the Russias, took a significant step towards securing Russian hegemony in Siberia when he sent a large army to attack the Kazan Tartars and ended up obtaining the territory from the Volga to the Ural Mountains. At this point the phrase "ruler of Obdor and all Siberian lands" became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow.
So, problems ensued after 1558 when Ivan IV sent Grigory Stroganov to colonize land on the Kama and to subjugate and enserf the Komi living there. The Stroganov family soon came into conflict with the Khan of Sibir. Ivan told the Stroganovs to hire Cossack mercenaries to protect the new settlement from the Tatars. From ca 1581 the band of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich fought many battles that culminated in a Tartar victory and the temporary end to Russian occupation in the area. In 1584 Ivan’s son Fyodor sent military governors and soldiers to reclaim Yermak conquests and to annex the land held by the Khanate of Sibir. Similar skirmishes with Tartars took place across Siberia. Russian conquerors treated the natives of Siberia as exploited enemies who were inferior to them; as they penetrated deeper into Siberia, traders built outposts or winter lodges called zimovya where they lived and collected fur tribute from native tribes. By 1620 Russia dominated the land from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey valley and to the Altai Mountains in the south, comprising about 1.25 million square miles of land.
Furs would become Russia's largest source of wealth during the seventeenth centuries. Keeping up with the advances of Western Europe required significant capital and Russia did not have sources of gold and silver, but it did have furs, which became known as "soft gold" and provided Russia with hard cur
Laurel Hill (Pennsylvania)
Laurel Hill known as Laurel Ridge or Laurel Mountain, is a 70-mile-long mountain in Pennsylvania's Allegheny Mountains. This ridge is flanked by Chestnut Ridge to its west; the mountain is home to six state parks: Laurel Ridge State Park, Laurel Mountain State Park, Linn Run State Park, Kooser State Park, Laurel Hill State Park, Ohiopyle State Park. The 70-mile-long Laurel Highlands Hiking Trail runs the length of the ridge. Two state forests, comprising over 22,000 acres, are located on Laurel Hill: Gallitzin State Forest and Forbes State Forest. State Game Lands 42 and 111 are located on the mountain and comprise a little over 22,000 acres. Laurel Hill has an average elevation of 2,700 ft along its length, while there are individual "knobs" that rise above 2,900 ft; the highest point is above the Seven Springs Mountain Resort at 2,994 ft. Laurel Hill is flanked on its north end by the Conemaugh Gorge and on its south end by the Youghiogheny Gorge, both water gaps being 1,700 ft in depth; the ridge continues north of the Conemaugh Gorge for several miles as Rager Mountain, which reaches an elevation of 2,580 feet.
South of the Youghiogheny Gorge, a short ridge still labeled Laurel Hill, at the edge of Ohiopyle State Park, reaches above 2,920 feet. The industrial city of Johnstown and historic borough of Ligonier are located near its northern end, while the recreational boroughs of Confluence and Ohiopyle are located towards its southern end. Two major highways cross Laurel Hill, the Pennsylvania Turnpike and U. S. Route 30; the abandoned Laurel Hill Tunnel goes beneath Laurel Hill. A number of smaller state roads cross at other points on the mountain. Laurel Hill is made up of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian clastic sedimentary rocks, consisting of conglomerate and shale. Formations include the Burgoon, Mauch Chunk and Allegheny; the mountain is anticlinal in structure. Along the length of this ridge there are several prominent knobs, they are as follows south to north: Sugarloaf Knob 2,667 ft, Highpoint 2,994 ft, Birch Rock Hill 2,934 ft, Painter Rock Hill 2,920 ft, Bald Knob 2,930 ft, Ulery Hill 2,820 ft, Pea Vine Hill 2,900 ft, Pikes Peak 2,840 ft, Mystery Hill 2,880 ft, Sugar Camp Hill 2,908 ft.
The Laurel Hill region shares the humid continental climate of the Middle Atlantic Region of the United States. The mountain ridge, has an influence on the local weather patterns, can cause air temperatures to be several degrees cooler than the surrounding towns and valleys. A difference of 5 to 10 °F cooler can be noted depending on weather variables; the orography along with moisture from the Great Lakes can cause heavy snowfall during winter months. The mountain ridge is oriented at right angles to approaching weather systems, forcing the prevailing westerly airflows upward; as rising air cools, moisture in the air mass condenses, once reaching the saturation point, precipitation results. Laurel Hill may act as a barrier to systems and slow the movement of storms having an impact on the local area, forming a "micro-climate". Although this mountain is not high enough to create its own weather, its structure is enough to nudge weather from hot to warm, cool to cold and from rain to snow. Laurel Hill has a diversity of habitats, with that comes a variety of birds and mammals.
The raven and wild turkey are seen on this mountain. The hermit thrush, Canada warbler, brown creeper, winter wren all nest near the bog at Spruce Flats. During the summer, black-throated and blue warblers and red-eyed vireos are seen. Raptors on the mountain include the broad winged, red tailed and red shouldered hawks, along with barred owls. Seen mammals on the mountain include. More elusive animals include the woodchuck and opossum. Black bear have been seen on this mountain but are shy and reclusive and not to be come across. Snakes make their home on Laurel Hill including the timber rattler and copperhead snakes. Caution should be exercised during the summer months. Sundquist and William J. Curry, eds. A Hiker's Guide to the Laurel Highlands Trail, Sixth edition, Sierra Club, Pennsylvania Chapter and Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, Pennsylvania. Beck, George Cannelos, John Clark, William Curry and Charles Loehr The Laurel Hill Study. Laurel Highlands Development Project. Dutcher, Russell R. John C.
Ferm, Norman K. Flint and E. G. Williams "Field Trip #2: The Pennsylvanian of Western Pennsylvania". In Guidebook for Field Trips Pittsburgh Meeting, 1959. Geological Society of America, Colorado. Alan R. Geyer "Outstanding Geologic Features of Pennsylvania", Geological Survey of Pennsylvania Charles H. Shultz The Geology of Pennsylvania, Geological Survey of Pennsylvania ISBN 0-8182-0227-0 Jere Martin Pennsylvania Almanac. Stackpole Books, ISBN 0-8117-2880-3
A water gap is a gap that flowing water has carved through a mountain range or mountain ridge and that still carries water today. Such gaps that no longer carry water currents are called wind gaps. Water gaps and wind gaps offer a practical route for road and rail transport to cross the mountain barrier. A water gap is an indication of a river, older than the current topography; the occurrence is that a river established its course when the landform was at a low elevation, or by a rift in a portion of the crust of the earth having a low stream gradient and a thick layer of unconsolidated sediment. In a hypothetical example, a river would have established its channel without regard for the deeper layers of rock. A period of uplift would cause increased erosion along the riverbed, exposing the underlying rock layers; as the uplift continued, the river, being large enough, would continue to erode the rising land, cutting through ridges as they formed. Water gaps are common in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians of eastern North America.
Alternatively, a water gap may be formed through headward erosion of two streams on opposite sides of a ridge resulting in the capture of one stream by the other. Chicago Portage, Illinois - Saddle Point runs through the city itself. Columbia River Gorge and Washington, Wallula Gap, United States Cumberland Narrows, United States Delaware Water Gap, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, United States Heavitree Gap, Alice Springs, Australia Kali Gandaki Gorge - cuts through the world's tallest mountain range, the Himalayas in Nepal Manawatu Gorge, New Zealand Potomac Water Gap, United States Pongo de Manseriche, Peru Pongo de Mainique, Peru The Middle Rhine in Germany The Weltenburg Narrows on the Danube in Bavaria The Iron Gates on the Danube, forming the border between Serbia and Romania Antecedent drainage stream Defile Peneplain Wind gap
The Ordovician Juniata Formation is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania and Maryland. It is a relative slope-former occurring between the two prominent ridge-forming sandstone units: the Tuscarora Formation and the Bald Eagle Formation in the Appalachian Mountains; the Juniata is defined as a grayish-red to greenish-gray, thin- to thick-bedded siltstone and fine to medium-grained crossbedded sandstone or subgraywacke and protoquartzite with interbedded conglomerate. The Juniata is a lateral equivalent of the Queenston Shale in western Pennsylvania; the depositional environment of the Juniata has always been interpreted as terrestrial or shallow marine deposits resulting in a molasse sequence produced by the Taconic orogeny. Few fossils exist in the Juniata Formation, but different types of trace fossils such as tracks and burrows can be found. Relative age dating of the Juniata places it in the Upper Ordovician period, being deposited between 488.3 and 443.7 million years ago. It rests conformably atop the Bald Eagle Formation in Pennsylvania and the Martinsburg Formation in Maryland, conformably below the Tuscarora Formation.
The Juniata is a good source of road material and building stone. Geology of Pennsylvania