2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Battle of New Orleans
The Battle of New Orleans was fought on January 8, 1815, between the British Army under Major General Sir Edward Pakenham, the United States Army under Brevet Major General Andrew Jackson. It took place 5 miles east-southeast of the city of New Orleans, close to the present-day town of Chalmette and was a U. S. victory. The battle took place directly after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814, before news of the treaty could reach the United States. U. S. troops defeated a poorly executed British assault on New Orleans, despite the British having a large advantage in training and fielded troops. In just over a half-hour, the U. S. suffered just over 60 casualties, while the British suffered 2,000 casualties. On October 24, 1814, in Pakenham's Secret Orders the Secretary of War and the Colonies, Henry Bathurst wrote: War Department 24th October 1814 M Genl The Hon Sir E. Pakenham Secret Sir: It has occurred to me that one case may arise affecting your situation upon the Coasts of America for which the Instructions addressed to the late Major General Ross have not provided.
You may hear whilst engaged in active operations that the Preliminaries of Peace between His Majesty and the United States have been signed in Europe and that they have been sent to America in order to receive the Ratification of The President. As the Treaty would not be binding until it shall have received such Ratification in which we may be disappointed by the refusal of the Government of the United States, it is advisable that Hostilities should not be suspended until you shall have official information that The President has ratified the Treaty and a Person will be duly authorized to apprise you of this event; as during this interval, judging from the experience we have had, the termination of the war must be considered as doubtful, you will regulate your proceedings accordingly, neither omitting an opportunity of obtaining signal success, nor exposing the troops to hazard or serious loss for an inconsiderable advantage. And you will take special care not so to act under the expectation of hearing that the Treaty of Peace has been ratified, as to endanger the safety of His Majesty's Forces, should that expectation be unhappily disappointed.
I have etc. Bathurst By December 14, 1814, sixty British ships with 14,450 soldiers and sailors aboard, under the command of Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, had anchored in the Gulf of Mexico to the east of Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne. Preventing access to the lakes was an American flotilla, commanded by Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones, consisting of five gunboats. On December 14, around 1,200 British sailors and Royal Marines under Captain Nicholas Lockyer set out to attack Jones' force. Lockyer's men sailed in 42 longboats, each armed with a small carronade. Lockyer captured Jones' vessels in a brief engagement known as the Battle of Lake Borgne. 17 British sailors were killed and 77 wounded, while 6 Americans were killed, 35 wounded, 86 captured. The wounded included both Lockyer. Now free to navigate Lake Borgne, thousands of British soldiers, under the command of General John Keane, were rowed to Pea Island where they established a garrison, about 30 miles east of New Orleans. On the morning of December 23, Keane and a vanguard of 1,800 British soldiers reached the east bank of the Mississippi River, 9 miles south of New Orleans.
Keane could have attacked the city by advancing for a few hours up the river road, undefended all the way to New Orleans, but he made the fateful decision to encamp at Lacoste's Plantation and wait for the arrival of reinforcements. Meanwhile, General Jackson learned of the advances and position of the British encampment from Colonel Pierre Denis de La Ronde and his son-in-law, Gabriel Villeré, son of Colonel Jacques Villeré; the young major had escaped through a window after capture, when the advancing British invaded his family home. At the close of Major Villere's narrative the General drew up his figure, bowed with disease and weakness, to its full height, with an eye of fire and an emphatic blow upon the table with his clenched fist, exclaimed:'By the Eternal, they shall not sleep on our soil! That evening, attacking from the north, led 2,131 men in a brief three-pronged assault on the unsuspecting British troops, who were resting in their camp. Jackson pulled his forces back to the Rodriguez Canal, about 4 miles south of the city.
The Americans suffered 24 killed, 115 wounded, 74 missing, while the British reported their losses as 46 killed, 167 wounded, 64 missing. Historian Robert Quimby says, "The British did win a tactical victory, which enabled them to maintain their position." However, Quimby goes on to say, "It is not too much to say that it was the battle of December 23 that saved New Orleans. The British were disabused of their expectation of an easy conquest; the unexpected and severe attack made Keane more cautious... he made no effort to advance on the twenty-fourth or twenty-fifth." As a consequence, the Americans were given time to begin the transformation of the canal into a fortified earthwork. On Christmas Day, General Edward Pakenham arrived on the battlefield and ordered a reconnaissance-in-force on December 28 against the American earthworks protecting the advance to New Orleans; that evening, General Pakenham, angry with the position in which the army had been placed, met with General Keane and Admiral Cochrane for an update on the situation.
General Pakenham wanted to use Chef Menteur Road as the invasion route, but he was overruled by Admiral Cochrane, who insisted that
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Big Muddy River
The Big Muddy River is a 156-mile-long river in southern Illinois. It joins the Mississippi River just south of Grand Tower; the Big Muddy has been dammed near Benton. The Big Muddy has a mud bottom for most of its length; the Big Muddy drains a 2,344-square-mile watershed. In 1995, water quality was assessed as "fair" to "good". Pollution sources include agricultural practices and municipalities; the watershed of the Big Muddy was covered by the Illinoian Glacier about 300,000 to 132,000 years before present. The Big Muddy basin formed after the retreat of that glacier; the Big Muddy was not covered by about 70,000 to 10,000 years before present. However, during the melting of that glacier, the level of the Mississippi River was much higher. Water backed up into the Big Muddy Basin, forming a lake much like the artificial Rend Lake but covering a larger area; the ancient lake silted in. After the melting of the Wisconsinan glacier, the level of the Mississippi dropped, allowing the lake to drain. A new channel formed within the old lake bed.
This channel meandered in the flat bottom of the Wisconsinan-era lake. This is; the Big Muddy joins the Mississippi River in Jackson County near the La Rue-Pine Hills Ecological Area and less than 1 mile south of Grand Tower Island. The Pine Hills are bluffs overlooking the Big Muddy. During the melting of the Wisconsinan glacier, the Mississippi River flood plain was filled with rushing meltwater in summer. During the winter the flow of meltwater was cut off, the floodplain was a wide stretch of exposed mud. Winter winds created dust storms that covered Southern Illinois with "loess", fine grained, wind born deposits. At the edge of the floodplain, called "loess hills", formed; the Pine Hills are loess hills standing several hundred feet above the floodplain. Prior to the construction of Rend Lake, much of the ancient lake bed was swamp: a forested area, covered by water through most of the winter, during wet summers; when the Big Muddy flooded, the water covered the flat bottom of the ancient lake bed for miles either direction from the meandering channel.
The upper reaches of the Big Muddy are near Illinois. Here the outline of the Wisconsinan Era lake bed is evident in what were the northern reaches of the ancient lake, where the lake bed was only a few hundred feet wide; the steep Illinoian hills are truncated where they meet the flat bottom of the Wisconsinan Era lake bed. Here the tributaries of the Big Muddy are tiny, intermittent streams, meandering though these narrow valleys at the headwaters; the Big Muddy basin contains a significant portion of the planet's coal reserves. Most of this is hidden under its deep mud. At a few places the river has eroded the sides of hills; the first coal mine in Illinois is believed to have been opened in 1810 on the banks of the Big Muddy in Jackson County. The Big Muddy cuts through the Shawnee Hills south of Murphysboro near the confluence with its smaller tributary, Kinkaid Creek. From there, it runs southward twenty miles and meets the Mississippi directly south of Grand Tower. Near its mouth, a small portion of the Big Muddy acts as the dividing line between Jackson and Union counties.
Major tributaries of the Big Muddy include Beaucoup Creek, the Little Muddy River, Casey Creek, the Middle Fork of the Big Muddy and Crab Orchard Creek. Smaller tributaries include Town Creek, Kinkaid Creek, Shoal Creek; the basin includes Kinkaid Lake, Rend Lake, Crab Orchard Lake, Devil's Kitchen Lake, Little Grassy Lake and Cedar Lake. The northern limit of the watershed is north of Kell, about 2 miles into Marion County; this is on Casey Creek. Big Muddy List of Illinois rivers Exploring the Land and Rocks of Southern Illinois, Stanley E. Harris, Jr. et al. Southern Illinois University Press, 1977 Trails & Tails of Illinois, Stu Fliege, University of Illinois Press, 2002
Franklin County, Illinois
Franklin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 39,561, its county seat is Benton. It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt". Franklin County was established on January 2, 1818 and formed from parts of Gallatin and White counties, it was named for Benjamin Franklin. Coal was mined in Franklin County as early as 1889, at the King Coal Mine, located at Township 5 South, Range 3 East; the high levels of gas found in Franklin County's coal deposits have resulted in mining disasters and explosions over the years. Between 1905 and 1968, there were eleven mine disasters. In 1905, the Zeigler No. 1 mine, located in Zeigler, had an explosion that killed about fifty people. In 1917, an explosion in Old Ben Mine No. 11, located in Christopher, killed 17. The worst explosion occurred in 1951, in the Orient No. 2 Mine in West Frankfort, in which 119 people died. The West Frankfort quadrangle of Franklin County is home to 17 coal mines, according to a 2004 report.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 431 square miles, of which 409 square miles is land and 23 square miles is water. Justin Kay State Recreation Area is located in this county. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Benton have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 90 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.87 inches in February to 4.59 inches in May. In 1912, a tornado destroyed facilities at the Possum Ridge Mine. Jefferson County Hamilton County Saline County Williamson County Jackson County Perry County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 39,561 people, 16,617 households, 10,912 families residing in the county; the population density was 96.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,525 housing units at an average density of 45.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.7% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.8% were German, 18.7% were Irish, 15.9% were English, 9.4% were American, 5.7% were Italian. Of the 16,617 households, 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families, 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 41.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $34,381 and the median income for a family was $43,170. Males had a median income of $39,122 versus $28,950 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,504. About 14.5% of families and 19.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.5% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Mulkeytown Franklin County is divided into twelve townships: Franklin, Johnson and Williamson County Regional Office of Education #21 Christopher Unit School District #99 Sesser Unit School District Benton School District #47 Frankfort Community Unit School District #168 Zeigler-Royalton Community Unit School District #188 Thompsonville Community Unit School District #174 Ewing-Northern Community Unit School District #115 Morthland College - West Frankfort John A. Logan College Extension Center - West Frankfort Franklin & Jefferson County Special Education Cooperative Until the 2000s, Franklin County, owing to its strong Southern leanings and opposition to the “Yankee” Civil War was Democratic-leaning.
It voted for Republican Presidential nominees only in landslide GOP victories, Walter Mondale when he came within 3,819 votes of losing all fifty states in 1984 was able to carry Franklin County by 1,011 votes. However, since the turn of the century opposition to the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues has produced a powerful swing towards the Republican Party. In 2016, Hillary Clinton did fifteen percent worse than any previous Democratic candidate, receiving only 25 percent of the county’s ballots. National Register of Historic Places listings in Franklin County, Illinois United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War, was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio. It was the initial post-colonial Territory of the United States and encompassed most of pre-war British colonial territory west of the Appalachian mountains north of the Ohio River, it included all the land west of Pennsylvania, northwest of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River below the Great Lakes. It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U. S. States, it was created as a Territory by the Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787, reduced to Ohio, eastern Michigan and a sliver of southeastern Indiana with the formation of Indiana Territory July 4, 1800, ceased to exist March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio, the remainder attached to Indiana Territory. At its inception the Territory was a vast wilderness sparsely populated by nomadic Indians including the Delaware, Potawatomi and others.
At the territory's dissolution, there were dozens of towns and settlements, a few with thousands of settlers in Ohio chiefly along the Ohio and Miami Rivers and around the Great Lakes. The region was ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris of 1783; the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 to provide for the administration of the territories and set rules for admission of jurisdictions as states. On August 7, 1789, the new U. S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution; the Territory was governed by martial law under a governor and three judges, but as population increased, a legislature, the Territorial General Assembly, was formed. Administratively, the Territory was divided into a succession of counties totaling 13. Conflicts between settlers and Native American inhabitants of the Territory resulted in the Northwest Indian War culminating in General "Mad" Anthony Wayne's victory at Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
The subsequent Treaty of Greenville 1795 opened the way for settlement of eastern Ohio. The Northwest Territory included all the then-owned land of the United States west of Pennsylvania, east of the Mississippi River, northwest of the Ohio River, it incorporated most of the former Ohio Country except a portion in western Pennsylvania, Illinois Country. It covered all of the modern states of Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota. Lands west of the Mississippi River were the Louisiana Province of New France; the area included more than 260,000 square miles and comprised about 1/3 of the land area of the United States at the time of its creation. It was inhabited by about 45,000 Native Americans and 4,000 traders Canadien and British. Among the tribes inhabiting the region were the Shawnee, Miami, Wyandot and Potawatomi. Notably, the Miami capital along with British trading posts was at Kekionga at the site of present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. Neutralizing Kekionga became the focus of the Northwest Indian War, the driving events in the early evolution of the territory.
Integration of the Northwest Territory into a political unit, settlement, depended on three factors: relinquishment by the British, extinguishment of states' claims west of the Appalachians, usurpation or purchase of lands from the Indians. These objectives were accomplished correspondingly by the American Revolutionary War, provisions in the Articles of Confederation, various treaties preceding the Northwest Indian War including Treaty of Fort Stanwix and Treaty of Fort McIntosh; the treaty process would extend well beyond the War and existence of the Territory as a political entity. European exploration of the region began with French-Canadian voyageurs in the 17th century, followed by French missionaries and French fur traders. French-Canadian explorer Jean Nicolet was the first recorded European entrant into the region, landing in 1634 at the current site of Green Bay, Wisconsin; the French exercised control from separate posts in the region, which they claimed as New France. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain as part of the Indian Reserve in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, after being defeated in the French and Indian War.
From the 1750s to the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812, the British had a long-standing goal of creating an Indian barrier state, a large "neutral" Indian state that would cover most of the Old Northwest. It would be independent of the United States and under the tutelage of the British, who would use it to block American expansion and to build up their control of the fur trade headquartered in Montreal. A new colony, named Charlotina, was proposed for the southern Great Lakes region. However, facing armed opposition by Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited white colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains; this action angered American colonists interested in expansion, as well as those who had settled in the area. In 1774, by the Quebec Act
Slavery in the United States
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries. Slavery had been practiced in British America from early colonial days, was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, it lasted in about half the states until 1865, when it was prohibited nationally by the Thirteenth Amendment. As an economic system, slavery was replaced by sharecropping. By the time of the American Revolution, the status of slave had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry; when the United States Constitution was ratified in 1789, a small number of free people of color were among the voting citizens. During and following the Revolutionary War, abolitionist laws were passed in most Northern states and a movement developed to abolish slavery. Northern states depended on free labor and all had abolished slavery by 1805.
The rapid expansion of the cotton industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin increased demand for slave labor to pick cotton when it all ripened at once, the Southern states continued as slave societies. Those states attempted to extend slavery into the new Western territories to keep their share of political power in the nation. Southern leaders wanted to annex Cuba as a slave territory; the United States became polarized over the issue of slavery, split into slave and free states, in effect divided by the Mason–Dixon line which delineated Pennsylvania from Maryland and Delaware. During the Jefferson administration, Congress prohibited the importation of slaves, effective 1808, although smuggling via Spanish Florida was not unusual. Domestic slave trading, continued at a rapid pace, driven by labor demands from the development of cotton plantations in the Deep South. More than one million slaves were sold from the Upper South, which had a surplus of labor, taken to the Deep South in a forced migration, splitting up many families.
New communities of African-American culture were developed in the Deep South, the total slave population in the South reached 4 million before liberation. As the West was developed for settlement, the Southern state governments wanted to keep a balance between the number of slave and free states to maintain a political balance of power in Congress; the new territories acquired from Britain and Mexico were the subject of major political compromises. By 1850, the newly rich cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, tensions continued to rise. Many white Southern Christians, including church ministers, attempted to justify their support for slavery as modified by Christian paternalism; the largest denominations—the Baptist and Presbyterian churches—split over the slavery issue into regional organizations of the North and South. When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, seven states broke away to form the Confederacy; the first six states to secede held the greatest number of slaves in the South.
Shortly after, the Civil War began. Four additional slave states seceded after Lincoln requested arms in order to make a retaliatory strike. Due to Union measures such as the Confiscation Acts and Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the war ended slavery before ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865 formally ended the legal institution throughout the United States. Africans first came to the New World with Christopher Columbus in 1492. Juan Las Canaries was a crewman on the Santa Maria. Not much longer after, the first enslavement occurred in what would be the United States. In 1508, Ponce de Leon established the first settlement near present-day San Juan and began enslaving the indigenous Tainos. In 1513, to supplement the dwindling Tainos population, the first African slaves were imported to Puerto Rico; the first African slaves within the continental United States arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. On August 28, 1565, St. Augustine, Florida was founded by the Spanish conquistador Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles and he brought three African slaves with him. During the 16th and 17th centuries, St. Augustine was the hub of the slave trade in Spanish colonial Florida and the first permanent settlement in the continental United States to include African slaves.60 years in the early years of the Chesapeake Bay settlements, colonial officials found it difficult to attract and retain laborers under the harsh frontier conditions, there was a high mortality rate. Most laborers came from Britain as indentured laborers, signing contracts of indenture to pay with work for their passage, their upkeep and training on a farm.
The colonies had agricultural economies. These indentured laborers were young people who intended to become permanent residents. In some cases, convicted criminals were transported to the colonies as indentured laborers, rather than being imprisoned; the indentured laborers were not slaves, but were required to work