Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress; as president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards, he served in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property known as The Hermitage, became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In 1801, he was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia and was elected its commander the following year, he led troops during the Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia. In the concurrent war against the British, Jackson's victory in 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero. Jackson led U. S. forces in the First Seminole War. Jackson served as Florida's first territorial governor before returning to the Senate, he ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the electoral vote. As no candidate won an electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams in a contingent election. In reaction to the alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of President Adams, Jackson's supporters founded the Democratic Party. Jackson ran again in 1828. Jackson faced the threat of secession by South Carolina over what opponents called the "Tariff of Abominations." The crisis was defused when the tariff was amended, Jackson threatened the use of military force if South Carolina attempted to secede.
In Congress, Henry Clay led the effort to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson, regarding the Bank as a corrupt institution, vetoed the renewal of its charter. After a lengthy struggle and his allies dismantled the Bank. In 1835, Jackson became the only president to pay off the national debt, fulfilling a longtime goal, his presidency marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the party "spoils system" in American politics. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which forcibly relocated most members of the Native American tribes in the South to Indian Territory; the relocation process resulted in widespread death and disease. Jackson opposed the abolitionist movement. In foreign affairs, Jackson's administration concluded a "most favored nation" treaty with Great Britain, settled claims of damages against France from the Napoleonic Wars, recognized the Republic of Texas. In January 1835, he survived the first assassination attempt on a sitting president. In his retirement, Jackson remained active in Democratic Party politics, supporting the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk.
Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson advocated the annexation of Texas, accomplished shortly before his death. Jackson has been revered in the United States as an advocate for democracy and the common man. Many of his actions proved divisive, garnering both fervent support and strong opposition from many in the country, his reputation has suffered since the 1970s due to his role in Indian removal. Surveys of historians and scholars have ranked Jackson favorably among U. S. presidents. Andrew Jackson was born on March 1767 in the Waxhaws region of the Carolinas, his parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from present day Northern Ireland two years earlier. Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in current-day Northern Ireland, around 1738. Jackson's parents lived in the village of Boneybefore in County Antrim, his paternal family line originated in Killingswold Grove, England. When they immigrated to North America in 1765, Jackson's parents landed in Philadelphia.
Most they traveled overland through the Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the Waxhaws, straddling the border between North and South Carolina. They brought two children from Ireland and Robert. Jackson's father died in a logging accident while clearing land in February 1767 at the age of 29, three weeks before his son Andrew was born. Jackson, his mother, his brothers lived with Jackson's aunt and uncle in the Waxhaws region, Jackson received schooling from two nearby priests. Jackson's exact birthplace is unclear because of a lack of knowledge of his mother's actions following her husband's funeral; the area was so remote that the border between North and South Carolina had not been surveyed. In 1824 Jackson wrote a letter saying that he was born on the plantation of his uncle James Crawford in Lancaster County, South Carolina. Jackson may have claimed to be a South Carolinian because the state was considering nullification of the Tariff of 1824, which he opposed. In the mid-1850s, second-hand evidence indicated that he might have been born at a different uncle's home in North Carolina.
As a young boy, Jackson was offended and was considered something of a bully. He was, said to have taken a group of younger and weaker boys under his wing
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Lenawee County, Michigan
Lenawee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 99,892; the county seat is Adrian. The county was created from territory partitioned out of Monroe County, its governing structure was organized in 1826. Lenawee County comprises the Adrian, MI Micropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI Combined Statistical Area, it is served by the Toledo Media market. The county organization was created in 1826, after being authorized and described by the Michigan legislature in 1822, it was taken from Michigan. The county's name is a Henry Schoolcraft neologism, thought to be derived from a Native American word meaning "male"—from the Delaware "leno or lenno" or the Shawnee "lenawai." According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 761 square miles, of which 750 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. Lenawee County is considered to be part of Southeastern Michigan. Within Lenawee County's townships, north-south roads are referred to as "highways", while east-west roads are referred to as "roads".
Lenawee County has been reliably Republican in national elections. Since 1884, its voters have selected the Republican Party nominee in 85% of the national elections through 2016; the county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions—police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc.—are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Adrian College and Siena Heights University are located within the county. Lenawee County has supported candidates from both political parties in statewide elections making it a swing county. Tecumseh and Adrian have tended to lean Democrat, while Dover and Riga Townships have tended to lean Republican; the rural areas of the county are bastions of populism and libertarianism which helped the Tea Party Movement gain considerable support.
During the 2010 midterm elections, the county favored Republican Gubernatorial candidate Rick Snyder, Congressional candidate Tim Walberg, State Senate candidate Bruce Caswell, State Representative candidates Nancy Jenkins and Mike Shirkey. Lenawee County is located in Michigan's 7th congressional district, represented by Tea-Party backed Tim Walberg, a resident of the County. Walberg served as Lenawee's state representative. Walberg won the district, which includes all of Lenawee County, Jackson County, Hillsdale County, Branch County, Eaton County, as well as parts of Calhoun County and Washtenaw County, after defeating then-incumbent Democrat Mark Schauer. Schauer had defeated Walberg in the 2008 congressional election, after Walberg's first stint in Congress. Walberg defeated incumbent Republican Joe Schwarz, a former State Representative and gubernatorial candidate, during the 2006 primary election. During the 2006 midterm elections, Lenawee County voted for businessman Dick DeVos, the Republican nominee.
Most of Lenawee County is represented by Republican Nancy Jenkins in the Michigan House of Representatives. Jenkins represents the 57th District held by brothers Doug and Dudley Spade, both Democrats; each of the Spade brothers served for the maximum three terms. In 2008, Dudley Spade defeated Republican Emma Jenkins. Cambridge Township, which includes Onsted, is part of the 65th District, which covers much of the Irish Hills and is represented by Republican Mike Shirkey. Adrian is part of the 17th Senate District, represented by Dale Zorn of Michigan; until the 2014 state senate election, Lenawee County was part of the 16th State Senate District, represented by Republican Bruce Caswell of Hillsdale. Caswell was preceded by Republican Cameron Brown; the district contained all of Lenawee and Branch Counties. Current as of March 2019 Lenawee County Sheriff's Office Adrian City Police Blissfield Police Clinton Police Hudson Police Morenci Police Tecumseh Police Adrian Township Police Cambridge Township Police Columbia Township Police Madison Township Police Raisin Township Police Adrian & Blissfield Railroad Police As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 98,890 people, 35,930 households, 26,049 families in the county.
The population density was 132 people per square mile. There were 39,769 housing units at an average density of 53 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.51% White, 2.12% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.01% from other races, 1.49% from two or more races. 6.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 30.4% were of German, 11.6% English, 10.2% American and 9.9% Irish ancestry according to the 2000 United States Census. 94.7% spoke English and 4.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 35,930 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.50% were non-families. 22.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.07. The county population contained 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 10
Calhoun County, Michigan
Calhoun County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 136,146; the county seat is Marshall. The county was established on October 19, 1829 and named after John C. Calhoun, at the time Vice President under Andrew Jackson, making it one of Michigan's Cabinet counties. County government was first organized March 6, 1833. Calhoun County comprises the Battle Creek, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Kalamazoo-Battle Creek-Portage, MI Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 718 square miles, of which 706 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. Kalamazoo River Battle Creek River St. Joseph River Goguac Lake Eaton County - north Barry County - northwest Jackson County - east Kalamazoo County - west Hillsdale County - southeast Branch County - south St. Joseph County - southwest The Kalamazoo River oil spill occurred in July 2010 when a pipeline operated by Enbridge burst and flowed into Talmadge Creek, a tributary of the Kalamazoo River.
A six-foot break in the pipeline resulted in the largest inland oil spill, one of the costliest spills in U. S. history. The pipeline carries diluted bitumen, a heavy crude oil from Canada's Athabasca oil sands to the United States. Following the spill, the volatile hydrocarbon diluents evaporated, leaving the heavier bitumen to sink in the water column. Thirty-five miles of the Kalamazoo River were closed for clean-up until June 2012, when portions of the river were re-opened. On March 14, 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency ordered Enbridge to return to dredge portions of the river to remove submerged oil and oil-contaminated sediment; the 2010 United States Census indicates Calhoun County had a 2010 population of 136,146. This is a decrease of -1,839 people from the 2000 United States Census. Overall, the county had a -1.3% growth rate during this ten-year period. In 2010 there were 54,016 households and 35,220 families in the county; the population density was 192.8 per square mile. There were 61,042 housing units at an average density of 86.4 per square mile.
The racial and ethnic makeup of the county was 79.8% White, 10.7% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.6% Asian, 4.5% Hispanic or Latino, 0.1% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. There were 54,016 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were husband and wife families, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families, 28.8% were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.2% under age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males. The 2010 American Community Survey 1-year estimate indicates the median income for a household in the county was $42,921 and the median income for a family was $49,964.
Males had a median income of $25,712 versus $18,298 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,661. About 11.7% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under the age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services; the county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Prosecuting Attorney: David E. Gilbert Sheriff: Matthew M. Saxton County Clerk/Register of Deeds: Anne B. Norlander County Treasurer: Brian Wensauer Water Resource Commissioner: Christine Kosmowski Albion Battle Creek Marshall Springfield Athens Burlington Homer Tekonsha Union City Brownlee Park Level Park-Oak Park There are 83 recognized Michigan historical markers in the county.
List of Michigan county name etymologies List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Calhoun County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Calhoun County, Michigan Calhoun Intermediate School District "Bibliography on Calhoun County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 19, 2013. Calhoun County courts Calhoun County government Michigan Historical Markers including text and photographs National Register of Historic Places National Register of Historic Places.com - unofficial website Calhoun County, Michigan History and Genealogy
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern
Kent County, Michigan
Kent County is a county in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the county had a population of 602,622, its county seat is Grand Rapids. The county was set off in 1831, organized in 1836, it is named for New York jurist and legal scholar James Kent, who represented the Michigan Territory in its dispute with Ohio over the Toledo Strip. Kent County is part of the Grand Rapids -- MI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Kent County is West Michigan's economic and manufacturing center, with the Steelcase corporation based in the county, it is the home of the Frederik Meijer Gardens, a significant cultural landmark of the Midwest. The county is a traditional stronghold for the Republican Party, with a substantial conservative population, but in 2008, Barack Obama became the first Democratic presidential candidate to carry the county since 1964; the Gerald R. Ford International Airport is within the county; the Grand River runs through the county. On its west bank are burial mounds, remnants of the Hopewell Indians who lived there.
The river valley was an important center for the fur trade in the early 19th century. After the War of 1812, Rix Robinson and Louis Campau were the earliest traders in the area. In 1826, Campau established a trading post in. In 1831, he platted the town. Campau considered the town's "father". One year government surveyor Lucius Lyon purchased land north of Campau's property. Campau surveyed and platted the village following Native American trails and Lyon had platted his property in an English grid format, which meant there were two adjoining villages, with different platting formats. Campau merged the villages under the name of Grand Rapids. In 1831, it was set off from Kalamazoo County. In 1838, Grand Rapids was incorporated as the county's first village. By the end of the century, stimulated by the construction of several sawmills, the area was a significant center for agriculture and manufacturing furniture. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 872 square miles, of which 847 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water.
Kent County's highest point is Fisk Knob Park, in Solon Township, at 1048 feet. The Grand River flows through the county from its eastern border to the west, after passing through Ottawa County, empties into Lake Michigan at Grand Haven, it has three tributaries in Kent County, listed in order of convergence: Flat River, enters the county from the east, joins the Grand from the north, in Lowell. Thornapple River, enters the county from the south, joins the Grand in Ada. Rogue River, enters the county from the north, joins the Grand in Belmont; these hiking and biking trails run through the county: North Country Trail, runs north/south the length of the county, passing through Cedar Springs and Lowell. Lowell is the trail's half-way point, the national headquarters of the North Country Trail Association is located here. Thornapple Trail, runs southeast through Dutton and Caledonia. White Pine Trail begins in Comstock Park and runs northeast through Belmont, Cedar Springs, Sand Lake. Kent Trails runs north/south from John Ball Park in Grand Rapids to 84th Street in Byron Township, with an extension that runs east/west along 76th Street and north/south from 76th Street to Douglas Walker Park on 84th street.
The Frederik Meijer Trail, which, as of November, 2008, was incomplete, runs east/west along the M-6 freeway and will connect the Kent Trails and the Thornapple Trail when completed. Cannon Township Trail runs through Cannon Township in the eastern part of the county from Cannon Township Center on M-44, it runs along M-44 south near Sunfish Lake Road, turning east through the Cannonsburg Cemetery, ends at Warren Townsend Park near Cannonsburg. Newaygo County - north Montcalm County - northeast Muskegon County - northwest Ionia County - east Ottawa County - west Allegan County, - southwest Barry County - southeast As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 602,622 people residing in the county. 76.1% were non-Hispanic White, 10.2% Black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.7% Native American, 4.5% of some other race and 2.6% of two or more races. 9.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 574,335 people, 212,890 households, 144,126 families residing in the county; the current estimated population is 604,323.
The population density was 671 people per square mile. There were 224,000 housing units at an average density of 262 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.13% White, 8.93% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 1.86% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 3.34% from other races, 2.16% from two or more races. 7.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.6% reported being of Dutch ancestry. 90.0 % spoke only English at home. There were 212,890 households out of which 35.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.30% were married couples living together, 11.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.20. The age distribution of the county was as follows:28.30% were under the age of 18, 10.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 19.70% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.90 m
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol