Little India, Singapore
Little India is an ethnic district in Singapore. It is located east of the Singapore River—across from Chinatown, located west of the north of Kampong Glam. Both areas are part of the planning area of Rochor. Little India is commonly known as Tekka in the Indian Singaporean community, however, as Chulia Kampong became more crowded and competition for land escalated, many ethnic Indians moved into what is now known as Little India. The Little India area is reported to have developed around a settlement for Indian convicts. Its location along the Serangoon River originally made it attractive for raising cattle, other economic activity developed, and by the turn of the 20th century, the area began to look like an ethnic Indian neighbourhood. Little India was the site of a riot that occurred on 8 December 2013. 27 people were injured, and 40 people were arrested, contrary to stereotypes, Little India is not solely an Indian neighbourhood. One of the prominent examples of cross-cultural patronage besides those regarding food is that many Chinese parents go to shops in Little India to grind rice to make congee for infants.
The machinery utilised in this instance was initially flown in from India to grind spices into powder for use in Indian cuisine, Little India differs from many other neighbourhoods in Singapore in many ways. Tekka Market is multi-cultural, with produce and sundries that cater to the ethnic groups in Singapore. Serangoon Road is the commercial thoroughfare in Little India. It intersects Rochor Canal Road and Bukit Timah Sungei Road, along Serangoon Road is the Tekka Centre, the Tekka Mall, the Little India Arcade, Serangoon Plaza, and the Mustafa Centre. Farrer Park Fields is located in the district, the Abdul Gafoor Mosque, built in 1859 and named after a Tamil lawyers clerk, features Arabian- and Renaissance-style architecture. Its prayer hall, decorated with Moorish arch-work, displays a tableau featuring the history of the Islamic religion, the Sri Srinivasa Perumal Temple, along Serangoon Road, features a high gopuram, and was built in 1855. The Buddhist Sakyamuni Buddha Gaya Temple, along Serangoon Road, leong San See Temple is dedicated to Guanyin, the Chinese Boddhisattva of Mercy.
The area is served by the following MRT stations, Little India and Farrer Park on the North East Line, bus services 23,64,65,66,67,131,139,147,857 & NR6 pass through Little India via Serangoon Road
Ethnic groups in Europe
The ethnic groups in Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. The total number of minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people. There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the ethnic group or nationality. There are eight peoples of Europe with more than 30 million members residing in Europe and these eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population, Germans, British, Spanish, Poles. About 20–25 million residents are members of diasporas of non-European origin, the population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. Of the total population of Europe of some 730 million, over 80% or some 600 million fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, viz. Slavic and Germanic, the largest groups that do not fall within these three are the Greeks and the Albanians.
Beside the Indo-European languages there are two major language families on the European continent, Turkic languages and Uralic languages. The Semitic languages that dominate the coast of northern Africa as well as the Near East are preserved in Malta, abkhaz–Adyghean, Basque and Nakho-Dagestani are linguistic isolates with no known relation to each other or to any other languages inside or outside of Europe. The Basques are assumed to descend from the populations of the Atlantic Bronze Age directly, the Indo-European groups of Europe are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving in Europe by the Bronze Age. The Finnic peoples are mostly assumed to be descended from populations that had migrated to their homelands by about 3,000 years ago. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan and perhaps Eteocretan, a pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty. Regarding the European Bronze Age, the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek, a Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of both Italic and Celtic, and a Proto-Balto-Slavic language has been postulated with less confidence.
Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early Indo-European predecessor of the centum languages, iron Age populations of Europe known from Greco-Roman historiography, notably Herodotus, Pliny and Tacitus, Greek tribes, Pelasgians/Tyrrhenians, and Anatolians. Armenian Highlands/Anatolia, Armenians Balkans, Illyrians and Thracians, Georgians Italian peninsula, Italic peoples, Adriatic Veneti and Greek colonies. Western/Central Europe, Celts and Swabians, Vistula Veneti, Iberian peninsula, Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Basques and Phoenicians. Sardinia, ancient Sardinians, comprising the Corsi and Ilienses tribes, British Isles, Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland and Picts/Priteni. Northern Europe, Finnic peoples, Germanic peoples, iranian influence, Achaemenid control of Thrace and the Bosporan Kingdom, Scythians, Alans, Ossetes. The Jewish diaspora reached Europe in the Roman Empire period, the Jewish community in Italy dating to around AD70, the Bulgars, a semi-nomadic people, originally from Central Asia, eventually absorbed by the Slavs
Boat Quay is a historical quay in Singapore which is situated upstream from the mouth of the Singapore River on its southern bank. It was the busiest part of the old Port of Singapore, because the south of the river here resembles the belly of a carp, which according to Chinese belief is where wealth and prosperity lay, many shophouses were built, crowded into the area. Though serving aquatic trade is no longer Boat Quays primary role and it is the soft front to the composolitian banking and financial sectors lying immediately behind it. Boat Quay is the name of the road along the quay, since the founding of modern Singapore in 1819, the Singapore River was the artery for much of the islands trade and economic activities. The south bank of the river, where most of the commerce took place, is known as Boat Quay, in the 1820s, the area was swampy and built over with raft houses occupied by local traders. It was reclaimed with earth taken from a hill where Commercial Square, now Raffles Place.
As early as 1822, Sir Stamford Raffles had already designated the south of the river to be developed as a Chinese settlement. Boat Quay was completed in 1842 and the Chinese, mostly traders and labourers, conditions were squalid but Boat Quay flourished, rapidly exceeding in volume the trade on the north bank where the Europeans had their offices and government buildings. In the midst of Boat Quay were the offices of some of Singapores leading towkay and philanthropists, such as Tan Tock Seng. The level of activity on the river was an indicator of the economic status. In prosperous times, hundreds of bumboats would fight for limited berthing space, goods were carried from ships anchored in the river, to the road by lighters and coolies. Traders bought and sold items, from raw materials such as rubber and steel, to perishables such as rice and coffee. Boat Quay was very resilient to change and its role did not diminish even when a new harbour was built at Tanjong Pagar in 1852. On the contrary, it continued to grow, spurred on by the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, in fact, during that period, three quarters of Singapores overall trading business was transacted from Boat Quay.
Its decline really began in the 1960s, as mechanisation and computerisation gradually usurped the role in the shipping industry. In September 1983, the government opened a modern, high-tech cargo centre in Pasir Panjang and this led to the rapid demise of Boat Quays river trade, as the highly mechanised container port replaced the laborious and hazardous lighter system. Therefore, during the mid-1980s, after all the companies had moved out. In 1986, the Urban Redevelopment Authority announced plans to conserve Boat Quay as part of a plan for conserving the whole of the Singapore River
Port of Singapore
The Port of Singapore refers to the collective facilities and terminals that conduct maritime trade handling functions in harbours and which handle Singapores shipping. It was the busiest port in terms of cargo tonnage handled until 2005. Thousands of ships drop anchor in the harbour, connecting the port to over 600 other ports in 123 countries, the Port of Singapore is not a mere economic boon, but an economic necessity because Singapore is lacking in land and natural resources. The service industries such as hospitality services typical of a port of call restock the food, ships pass between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean through the Singapore Strait. The Straits of Johor on the north are impassable for ships due to the Johor-Singapore Causeway, built in 1923. In the late 13th century, a Kingdom known as Singapura was established on the bank of the Singapore River around what was called the Old Harbour. Although these goods were available from other Southeast Asian ports. Secondly, Singapore acted as a gateway into the regional and international system for its immediate region.
South Johor and the Riau Archipelago supplied products to Singapore for export elsewhere, Archaeological artefacts such as ceramics and glassware found in the Riau Archipelago evidence this. In addition, cotton was transshipped from Java or India through Singapore, by the 15th century, Singapore had declined as an international trading port due to the ascendance of the Malacca Sultanate. Local trade continued on the island, Singapore provided other regional ports with local products demanded by international markets. For instance, blackwood was exported from Singapore to Malacca, and was in turn purchased by Chinese traders, in the early 17th century, Singapores main settlement and its port were destroyed by a punitive force from Aceh. These networks were complementary, and positioned Singapore as the transshipment point of regional and international trade, by the 1830s, Singapore had overtaken Batavia as the centre of the Chinese junk trade, and become the centre of English country trade, in Southeast Asia.
This was because Southeast Asian traders preferred the free port of Singapore to other regional ports which had cumbersome restrictions. Singapore had supplanted Tanjung Pinang as the gateway for the gambier and pepper industry of the Riau–Lingga Archipelago by the 1830s. It had become the centre of the Teochew trade in marine produce and rice, as the volume of its maritime trade increased in the 19th century, Singapore became a key port of call for sailing and steam vessels in their passage along Asian sea routes. From the 1840s, Singapore became an important coaling station for steam shipping networks that were beginning to form, towards the late 19th century, Singapore became a staple port servicing the geographical hinterland of the Malay Peninsula. Following the institution of the British Forward Movement, Singapore became the capital of British Malaya
Sri Mariamman Temple, Singapore
The Sri Mariamman Temple is Singapores oldest Hindu temple. It is a temple, built in the Dravidian style. Located at 244 South Bridge Road, in the downtown Chinatown district, due to its architectural and historical significance, the temple has been gazetted a National Monument and is a major tourist attraction. Sri Mariamman Temple is managed by the Hindu Endowments Board, a board under the Ministry of Community Development, Youth. The Sri Mariamman Temple was founded in 1827 by Naraina Pillai, Pillai was a government clerk from Penang who arrived in Singapore with Sir Stamford Raffles on his second visit to the island in May 1819. Pillai went on to set up the islands first construction company and he rapidly established himself in business and was identified as a leader of the Indian community. Initially, the British authorities allotted land for a Hindu temple along Telok Ayer Street and this street ran alongside Telok Ayer Bay, where most early Asian immigrants first landed in Singapore, and where they went to pray and give thanks for a safe sea journey.
The Thian Hock Keng and Nagore Durgha Shrine, respectively Singapores earliest Chinese, Telok Ayer Street lacked a convenient source of fresh water which was needed for Hindu temple rituals. The British Resident of Singapore, William Farquhar, let Naraina Pillai occupy a site near Stamford Canal in 1821, once again, the site proved unsuitable, this time due to the 1822 Jackson Plan which reserved the Stamford Canal area for other uses. However, the plan designated a site next to the existing temple – marked as Kling Chapel. This site was near the area earmarked for the Indian community, in 1823, the current South Bridge Road site was finally granted to Pillai for the purposes of erecting a Hindu temple. The side streets flanking the temple were renamed in reference to the temple and its prominent tower – Pagoda Street, Chinatown residents referred to Pagoda Street in Chinese as back of the Indian place of worship. By 1827, Naraina Pillai had built a temple made of wood. In the same year, he installed Sinna Amman, a representation of the goddess Mariamman.
Mariamman is a rural South Indian mother goddess who is worshipped for protection against diseases. According to the Hindu Endowments Board, the current managers of the temple, as is the common practice, the temple is named after its principal deity. The temple was known to devotees over the years as the Sithi Vinayagar and Gothanda Ramaswamy Mariamman Temple or, more simply. The temple grounds were expanded in 1831 when private land was donated to the temple and this event is recorded on a stone tablet which still stands in the temple
The Downtown Core is the historical and downtown epicenter of the city-state of Singapore. It is one of the planning areas located within the Central Area. As the financial heart of Singapore, the Downtown Core houses the headquarters and offices of numerous corporations, the area is home to a large number of governmental institutions, notably the seat of Parliament and the Supreme Court of Singapore. As the old harbour grew along the mouth of the river bank, the name Downtown Core remains relatively unheard of and the term Central Business District is commonly used in conversation instead. However, the known as the CBD actually comprises a smaller area within the Downtown Core itself. It is made up of seven subzones, Cecil, Clifford Pier, Phillip, Raffles Place and Tanjong Pagar. The core of the CBD has since extended well beyond its boundaries, as a fledgling colony, the area which is now known as the Downtown Core was the financial and commercial centre of the colony. This area became the Downtown Core, draft Master Plan 2003 - Central Region
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, sometimes referred to as the Lion City or the Little Red Dot, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the tip of peninsular Malaysia. Singapores territory consists of one island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its size by 23%. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, after early years of turbulence, and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global commerce and transport hub, the country has been identified as a tax haven. Singapore ranks 5th internationally and first in Asia on the UN Human Development Index and it is ranked highly in education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, but does not fare well on the Democracy index. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied, 38% of Singapores 5.6 million residents are permanent residents and other foreign nationals.
There are four languages on the island, Mandarin, Tamil. English is its language, most Singaporeans are bilingual. Singapore is a multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The Peoples Action Party has won every election since self-government in 1959, however, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island, Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name, the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE, literally island at the end in Malay. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama and these Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Cœdès were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, which by was part of the Johor Sultanate.
The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period, in 1824 the entire island, as well as the Temenggong, became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan. In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, prior to Raffles arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese. By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations
A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, exporters, transport businesses and they are usually large plain buildings in industrial areas of cities and villages. They usually have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks, sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports. They often have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture, manufacturing, in Indian English a warehouse may be referred to as a godown. The origins of the warehouse are difficult to pinpoint, early civilizations relied on storage pits rather than large structures to protect seeds and surplus food. Sociologists like Alain Testart have argued that these early techniques were essential to the evolution of societies.
Some of the earliest examples of warehouses that resemble the buildings of today are Roman horrea and these were rectangular buildings, built of stone, with a raised ground floor and overhanging roof to keep the walls cool and dry. Roman horrea were typically used to store grain, but other such as olive oil, clothing. Though horrea were built throughout the Roman empire, some of the most studied examples are found in or around Rome, particularly at Ostia, a harbor city that served ancient Rome. The Horrea Galbae, a complex in the southern part of ancient Rome, demonstrates that these buildings could be substantial. The horrea complex contained 140 rooms on the floor alone. As a point of reference, less than half of U. S. warehouses today are larger than 100,000 square feet, dedicated warehouses could be found around ports and other commercial hubs to facilitate overseas trade. Examples of these include the Venetian fondaci, which combined a palace, market. During the industrial revolution the function of warehouses evolved and became more specialised, some warehouses from the period are even considered architecturally significant, such as Manchesters cotton warehouses.
Always a building of function, in the past few decades they have adapted to mechanisation, technological innovation, warehouses were a dominant part of the urban landscape from the start of the Industrial Revolution through the 19th century and into the twentieth century. The buildings remained when their original usage had changed, there are four identifiable types of warehouses. The cotton industry rose with the development of the warehouse, Warehouses of that period in Manchester were often lavishly decorated, but modern warehouses are more functional
Thian Hock Keng
Thian Hock Keng, known as the Tianfu Temple, is a temple of Mazu, a Chinese sea goddess, located in Singapore. It is the oldest and most important temple of the Hokkien people in the country, another shrine at the back is Buddhist dedicated to Guanyin, the Mahayana Buddhist bodhisattva of mercy. Thian Hock Keng was gazetted as a monument on 6 July 1973. The temple is located on Telok Ayer Street that originally ran along the coastline before land reclamation began in the 1880s. Starting in 1839, the temple was rebuilt with funds collected over the years and donations from the community, the largest of which was from Tan Tock Seng, a Hokkien businessman. The building materials of the temple and a statue of Mazu was brought over from China, some of the building materials, such as stone for the columns, timber as well as tiles were recycled from ballasts in ships. The temple was completed in 1842 at a cost of 30,000 Spanish dollars, in 1840, the clan association Hokkien Huay Kuan serving the Hokkien community was formed within the temple ground of Thian Hock Keng.
In 1849, the Chung Wen Pagoda and Chong Boon Gate were added to the right of the main temple, the building was renovated in 1906, and some western-style features were added, such as a wrought-iron gate from Glasgow and dado tiling. A scroll was presented to the temple by Guangxu Emperor to the temple in 1907, the Chong Hock Pavilion was built in 1913, and was once used by the Chong Hock Girls School established in the temple. The temple was gazetted as a National Monument in 1973, a major renovation of the temple was initiated in 1998 and completed in 2000 at a cost of US $2.2 million. The renovation received a mention from the UNESCO Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation in 2001. Thian Hock Keng is built on a site and is of traditional Chinese design whereby a group of buildings or pavilions cluster around the main courtyard. It has the layout of three halls commonly found in such temple, with an entrance hall, a main hall. The temple is constructed in the architecture style commonly found in Fujian.
The main halls are of single-storey beam-frame structures with brackets supporting curving roofs with wide eaves and other decorative motifs are placed on the roofs of the entrance hall as well as the main hall. The entrance hall has one door and two side doors, with a high step in front. The side entrances are decorated with coloured tiles with peacocks, guarding the doors are the traditional sentinels of Taoist temple – stone lions and Door Gods. The temple is decorated with coloured tiles, red and gold lacquered wood, as well as figures of dragons and phoenix, with embellished and gilded beams, brackets
Raffles Place is a geographical location in Singapore, south of the mouth of the Singapore River. Located in the Downtown Core within the Central Area, it some of the tallest buildings. The founder of modern Singapore, Sir Stamford Raffles, intended Singapore to become a great commercial emporium, at the heart of this dream was Raffles Place. Charted by Garrison Engineer Lieutenant R. N, philip Jacksons map of Raffles 1822 Town Plan, Raffles Place was located on the south bank of the Singapore River. A hill originally stood at Raffles Place, the soil of which was used to reclaim the southern bank of the Singapore River to form Boat Quay. Known as Commercial Square then, Raffles Place was no more than a quiet green when it was first developed from 1823 to 1824, as the economy of Singapore grew, two- and four-storey buildings sprang up around the square, housing mercantile offices and trading companies. In 1858, Commercial Square was renamed Raffles Place, the sea came right up to the buildings on the south side of the square then, many of which were godowns with jetties that allowed cargo to be loaded and unloaded directly from boats.
From 1857 to 1865, the land by the side was reclaimed for commercial use. This new land became Collyer Quay, with a larger area designated for commerce, more businesses flocked to Raffles Quay, most notably retail stores and banks. The second half of the 19th century saw the setting up of the two oldest department stores which survive today and John Little, some of the first banks to operate in Raffles Place were HSBC and Standard Chartered Bank. At the turn of the 20th century, the industry in Singapore took off. Home-grown banks came into play, competing against bigger banks with lower interest rates, from the 1950s, banking in Singapore entered a new league, with Bank of America establishing itself here in 1955 at 31 Raffles Place, and Bank of China at the adjacent Battery Road. In the early 1960s, the Whiteaways Building, previously a department store, was demolished to make way for Malayan Bank and this was followed in 1965 by the construction of the United Overseas Bank towers, which were, for many years, the tallest buildings in Singapore.
Raffles Place was the subject of carpet bombing during World War II when seventeen Japanese bombers conducted the first air raid on Singapore on 8 December,1941, with the exception of the Japanese Occupation years, the commercial development of Raffles Place took place almost continuously. The 1960s and 1970s saw an exodus of retailers to locations such as High Street, North Bridge Road and Orchard Road, skyscrapers with flagship banks, such as Singapore Land Tower, Clifford Centre, Ocean Building, OUB Centre and Republic Plaza, replaced the older buildings. Several key buildings are located in Raffles Place, including UOB Plaza, One Raffles Place, Republic Plaza, the stock exchange of Singapore - the Singapore Exchange - is located in the vicinity. Several key administrative buildings in Singapore, such as the Parliament House, the Supreme Court and City Hall are located north across the river, bus services run along Raffles Place. National Heritage Board, Singapores 100 Historic Places, Archipelago Press, ISBN 981-4068-23-3 A street level map of Raffles Place
Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, FRS was a British statesman, Lieutenant-Governor of British Java and Governor-General of Bencoolen, best known for his founding of Singapore. He was involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars. He was a writer and wrote a book titled The History of Java. Raffles was born on the ship Ann off the coast of Port Morant, Jamaica, to Captain Benjamin Raffles and his father was a Yorkshireman who had a burgeoning family and little luck in the West Indies trade during the American Revolution, sending the family into debt. The little money the family had went into schooling Raffles, in 1795, at the age of 14, Raffles started working as a clerk in London for the British East India Company, the trading company that shaped many of Britains overseas conquests. In 1805 he was sent to what is now Penang in the country of Malaysia, called the Prince of Wales Island and he started with a post under the Honourable Philip Dundas, the Governor of Penang.
At this time he made the acquaintance of Thomas Otho Travers. His knowledge of the Malay language, as well as his wit and ability, gained him favour with Lord Minto, Governor-General of India, and he was sent to Malacca. Then, in 1811, after the invasion and annexation of the Kingdom of Holland by France during Napoleons war, Raffles had no choice and he mounted a military expedition against the Dutch and French in Java, Indonesia. The British, led by Colonel Gillespie, stormed the fort, janssens attempted to escape inland but was captured. The British invasion of Java took a total of forty-five days and he took his residence at Buitenzorg and despite having a small subset of Britons as his senior staff, he kept many of the Dutch civil servants in the governmental structure. During the relatively brief British rule in Java, Raffles negotiated peace, Most significant of these was the 21 June 1812 assault on Yogyakarta, one of the two most powerful indigenous polities in Java. During the attack the Yogyakarta kraton was badly damaged and extensively looted by British troops, Raffles seized much of the contents of the court archive.
The event was unprecedented in Javanese history and it was the first time an indigenous court had been taken by storm by a European army, and the humiliation of the local aristocracy was profound. Under Raffless aegis, a number of ancient monuments in Java were systematically catalogued for the first time. The first detailed English-language account of Prambanan was prepared by Colin Mackenzie while Borobudur was surveyed and cleared of vegetation by H. C, under the harsh conditions of the island, his wife, died on 26 November 1814, an event that devastated Raffles. In 1815, he left again for England shortly before the island of Java was returned to control of the Netherlands following the Napoleonic Wars, under the terms of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. He sailed to England in early 1816 to clear his name and, en route, visited Napoleon, who was in exile at St. Helena, but found him unpleasant and unimpressive
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds. The land reclaimed is known as ground or land fill. In a number of jurisdictions, including parts of the United States. In Alberta, for example, reclamation is defined by the government as The process of reconverting disturbed land to its former or other productive uses. In Oceania it is referred to as land rehabilitation. Land reclamation can be achieved with a number of different methods, the most simple method involves simply filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock and/or cement, filling with clay and dirt until the desired height is reached. The process is called infilling and the used to fill the space is generically called infill. Draining of submerged wetlands is often used to land for agricultural use. Deep cement mixing is used typically in situations in which the material displaced by either dredging or draining may be contaminated, the creation of new land was for the need of human activities.
Notable examples include, Much of the coastlines of Mumbai, India and it took over 150 years to join the original seven islands of Mumbai. Much of the coastlines of Mainland China, Hong Kong, North Korea and it is estimated that nearly 65% of tidal flats around the Yellow Sea have been reclaimed. Inland lowlands in the Yangtze valley, including the areas of important cities like Shanghai, Much of the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan. A part of the Hamad International Airport in Qatar, around 36 square kilometres, the entire island of The Pearl-Qatar situated in West Bay, Qatar. The city-state of Singapore, where land is in supply, is famous for its efforts on land reclamation. The Palm Islands, The World and hotel Burj al-Arab off Dubai in the United Arab Emirates The Yas Island in Abu Dhabi and it is one of the six divisions of Malé City. The Eko Atlantic in Lagos, mexico City, the chinampas are a famous example. Parts of Panama City urban and street development are based on reclaimed land, aeroparque Jorge Newbery, in Buenos Aires, Argentina One of the earliest large scale projects was the Beemster Polder in the Netherlands, realized in 1612 adding 70 square kilometres of land.
In Hong Kong the Praya Reclamation Scheme added 20 to 24 hectares of land in 1890 during the phase of construction