René Depestre is a Haitian poet and former communist activist. He is considered to be one of the most prominent figures in Haitian literature, he lived in Cuba as an exile from the Duvalier regime for many years and was a founder of the Casa de las Americas publishing house. He is best known for his poetry, he did his primary studies with the Breton Brothers of Christian Instruction. His father died in 1936, René Depestre left his mother, his two brothers and his two sisters to go live with his maternal grandmother. From 1940 to 1944, he completed his secondary studies at the Pétion college in Port-au-Prince, his birthplace is evoked in his poetry and his novels, in particular Hadriana in All My Dreams. Étincelles, his first collection of poetry, appeared in 1945, prefaced by Edris Saint-Amand. He was only nineteen years old; the poems were influenced by the marvelous realism of Alejo Carpentier, who planned a conference on this subject in Haiti in 1942. Depestre created a weekly magazine with three friends: Baker, Gérald Bloncourt: The Hive.
“One wanted to help the Haitians to become aware of their capacity to renew the historical foundations of their identity”. The Haitian government at the time seized the 1945 edition, published in honor of André Breton, which led to the insurrection of 1946. Depestre met with all his Haitian intellectual contemporaries, including Jean Price-Mars, Léon Laleau, René Bélance, who wrote the preface to his second collection, Gerbe de sang, in 1946, he met with foreign intellectuals. He took part in and directed the revolutionary student movements of January 1946, which led to the overthrow of President Élie Lescot; the Army quickly seized power, Depestre was arrested and imprisoned before being exiled. He pursued his studies in letters and political science at the Sorbonne from 1946 - 1950. In Paris, he met French surrealist poets as well as foreign artists, intellectuals of the négritude movement who coalesced around Alioune Diop and Présence Africaine. Depestre took an active part in the decolonization movements in France, he was expelled from French territory.
He left for Prague, from where he was driven out in 1952. He went to Cuba, invited by the writer Nicolás Guillén, where again he was stopped and expelled by the government of Fulgencio Batista, he was denied entry by Italy. He left for Austria Chile and Brazil, he remained in Chile long enough to organize, with Pablo Neruda and Jorge Amado, the Continental Congress of Culture. After Brazil, Depestre returned to Paris in 1956 where he met other Haitians, including Jacques-Stephen Alexis, he took part in the first Pan-African congress organized by Présence Africaine in September 1956. He wrote in Présence Africaine and other journals of the time such as Esprit, Lettres Francaises, he returned to Haiti in. Refusing to collaborate with the Duvalierist regime, he called on Haitians to resist, was placed under house arrest. Depestre left for Cuba at the invitation of Che Guevara. Convinced of the aims of the Cuban Revolution, he helped with managing the country. Depestre travelled, taking part in official activities and took part in the first Pan-African Cultural Festival, where he met the Congolese writer Henri Lopes, with whom he would work at UNESCO.
During his various travels and his stay in Cuba, Rene Depestre continued working on a major piece of poetry. His most famous collection of poetry is undoubtedly Un arc-en-ciel pour l'Occident chrétien, a mix of politics and Voudoo, topics that are found in all of his works. Poet in Cuba is a reflection on the evolution of the Cuban revolution. Pushed aside by the Castrist régime in 1971, Depestre broke with the Cuban experiment in 1978 and went back to Paris where he worked at the UNESCO Secretariat. In 1979, in Paris, he published his first novel. In 1980, he published Alléluia pour une femme-jardin, for which he was awarded the Prix Goncourt de la nouvelle in 1982. Depestre retired in the Aude region of France. In 1988, he published Hadriana in All My Dreams, which received many literary awards, including the Prix Théophraste Renaudot, the Prix de la Société des Gens de Lettres, the Prix Antigone of the town of Montpellier, the Belgian Prix du Roman de l'Académie royale de la langue et de la littérature françaises.
He obtained French citizenship in 1991. He continued to receive awards and honors, in particular the Prix Apollinaire de poésie for his personal Anthology and the Italian Grisane Award for the theatrical adaptation of Mat de Cocagne in 1995, as well as bursaries, he was the subject of a documentary film by Jean-Daniel Lafond, Haiti in All Our Dreams, filmed in Montreal. Depestre published major essays. Bonjour et adieu à la négritude presents a reflexion on his ambivalent position regarding the négritude movement started by Léopold Sédar Senghor, Aimé Césaire and Leon-Gontran Damas. Impressed by Aime Césaire, who came to Haiti to speak about surrealism and négritude, he was fascinated by créole life, or the créolo-francophonie, which did not stop him from questioning the concept of négritude. Rebellious of the concept since his youth, which he associated with ethnic essentialism, he measured the histo
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked. They are produced in a wide variety of shapes. Since the 20th century all cigars are made up of three distinct components: the filler, the binder leaf which holds the filler together, a wrapper leaf, the best leaf used; the cigar will have a band printed with the cigar manufacturer's logo. Modern cigars come with 2 bands Cuban Cigar bands, showing Limited Edition bands displaying the year of production. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Central America and the islands of the Caribbean, including Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, Guatemala and Puerto Rico; the origins of cigar smoking are still unknown. A Mayan ceramic pot from Guatemala dating back to the tenth century features people smoking tobacco leaves tied together with a string. Regular cigar smoking is known to carry serious health risks including increased danger of various types of cancer and cardiovascular illnesses; the word cigar derives from the Mayan sikar.
The Spanish word, "cigarro" spans the gap between the Mayan and modern use. The English word came into general use in 1730. Explorer Christopher Columbus is credited with the introduction of tobacco to Europe. Three of Columbus's crewmen during his 1492 journey, Rodrigo de Jerez, Hector Fuentes and Luis de Torres, are said to have encountered tobacco for the first time on the island of Hispaniola, in what is present day Haiti and the Dominican Republic, when natives presented them with dry leaves that spread a peculiar fragrance. Tobacco was diffused among all of the islands of the Caribbean and was therefore encountered in Cuba where Columbus and his men had settled, his sailors reported that the Taínos on the island of Cuba smoked a primitive form of cigar, with twisted, dried tobacco leaves rolled in other leaves such as palm or plantain. In time and other European sailors adopted the practice of smoking rolls of leaves, as did the Conquistadors, smoking primitive cigars spread to Spain and Portugal and France, most through Jean Nicot, the French ambassador to Portugal, who gave his name to nicotine.
Tobacco use spread to Italy and, after Sir Walter Raleigh's voyages to the Americas, to Britain. Smoking became familiar throughout Europe—in pipes in Britain—by the mid-16th century. Spanish cultivation of tobacco began in earnest in 1531 on the island of Santo Domingo. In 1542, tobacco started to be grown commercially in North America, when the Spaniards established the first cigar factory on the island of Cuba. Tobacco was thought to have medicinal qualities, but there were some who considered it evil, it was denounced by James I of England. Around 1592, the Spanish galleon San Clemente brought 50 kilograms of tobacco seed to the Philippines over the Acapulco-Manila trade route, it was distributed among Roman Catholic missionaries, who found excellent climates and soils for growing high-quality tobacco there. The use of the cigar did not become popular until the mid-eighteenth century, although there are not many drawings from this era, there are some reports. In Seven Years' War it is believed Israel Putnam brought back a cache of Havana cigars, making cigar smoking popular in the US after the American Revolution.
He brought Cuban tobacco seeds which he planted in the Hartford area of New England. This resulted in the development of the renowned Connecticut Wrapper. Towards the end of the 18th century and in the 19th century, cigar smoking was common, while cigarettes were still comparatively rare. In the early 20th century, Rudyard Kipling wrote his famous smoking poem, "The Betrothed." The cigar business was an important industry and factories employed many people before mechanized manufacturing of cigars became practical. Cigar workers in both Cuba and the US were active in labor strikes and disputes from early in the 19th century, the rise of modern labor unions can be traced to the CMIU and other cigar worker unions. In 1869, Spanish cigar manufacturer Vicente Martinez Ybor moved his Principe de Gales operations from the important cigar manufacturing center of Havana, Cuba to Key West, Florida to escape the turmoil of the Ten Years' War. Other manufacturers followed, Key West became another important cigar manufacturing center.
In 1885, Ybor moved again, buying land near the then-small city of Tampa and building the largest cigar factory in the world at the time in the new company town of Ybor City. Friendly rival and Flor de Sánchez y Haya owner Ignacio Haya built his own factory nearby in the same year, many other cigar manufacturers soon followed after an 1886 fire that gutted much of Key West. Thousands of Cuban and Spanish tabaqueros came to the area from Key West and New York to produce hundreds of millions of cigars annually. Local output peaked in 1929, when workers in Ybor City and West Tampa rolled over 500,000,000 "clear Havana" cigars, earning the town the nickname "Cigar Capital of the World". In New York, cigars were made by rollers working in their own homes, it was reported that as of 1883, cigars were being manufactured in 127 apartment houses in New York, employing 1,962 families and 7,924 individuals. A state statute banning the practice, passed late that year at the urging of trade unions on the basis that the practice suppressed wages, was ruled unconstitutional less than four months l
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution. He was a leader of the growing resistance, his military and political acumen saved the gains of the first Black insurrection in November 1791. He first fought for the Spanish against the French, he helped transform the slave insurgency into a revolutionary movement. By 1800 Saint-Domingue, the most prosperous French slave colony of the time, had become the first free colonial society to have explicitly rejected race as the basis of social ranking. Although Louverture did not sever ties with France in 1800, he created a de facto autonomous colony; the colony's constitution proclaimed him governor for life against Napoleon Bonaparte's wishes. He died betrayed before the most violent stage of the armed conflict. However, his achievements set the grounds for the Black army's absolute victory and for Jean-Jacques Dessalines to declare the sovereign state of Haiti in January 1804.
Louverture's prominent role in the Haitian success over colonialism and slavery had earned him the admiration of friends and detractors alike. Toussaint Louverture began his military career as a leader of the 1791 slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue. Allied with the Spaniards of neighboring Santo Domingo, Louverture switched allegiance to the French when the new government abolished slavery, he established control over the whole island and used political and military tactics to gain dominance over his rivals. Throughout his years in power, he worked to improve the security of Saint-Domingue. Worried about the economy, which had stalled, he restored the plantation system using paid labour, negotiated trade treaties with the UK and the United States, maintained a large and well-disciplined army. After defeating leaders among the free people of color, in 1801, he promulgated an autonomist constitution for the colony, which named him as Governor-General for Life. In 1802 he was forced to resign by forces sent by Napoleon Bonaparte to restore French authority in the former colony.
He was deported to France, where he died in 1803. Suffering the loss of two-thirds of their forces from yellow fever, the French withdrew from Saint-Domingue that year; the Haitian Revolution continued under Louverture's lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared independence on 1 January 1804. That year he ordered the 1804 Haiti massacre, in which many white people and free people of color were murdered. For years little was known for certain about Toussaint Louverture's early life, as there were contradictory accounts and evidence about his life before the advent of the Haitian Revolution; the earliest records of his life are his recorded remarks and the reminiscences of his second legitimate son, Isaac Louverture. Toussaint Louverture's parents are not known. John Beard's biography of Louverture claims that family traditions name his grandfather as Gaou Guinou, a son of the King of Allada. Louverture was the eldest of several children. Pierre Baptiste Simon is considered to have been his godfather.
Louverture is thought to have been born on the plantation of Bréda at Haut de Cap in Saint-Domingue, owned by the Comte de Noé and managed by Bayon de Libertate. His date of birth is uncertain, he was about 50 at the start of the revolution in 1791. Various sources have given birth dates between 1739 and 1746; because of the lack of written records, Louverture may not have known his exact birth date. In childhood, he earned the nickname Fatras-Bâton, suggesting he was small and weak, though he was to become known for his stamina and riding prowess. An alternative explanation of Louverture's origins is that he was brought to Bréda by the new overseer Bayon de Libertate, who took up his duties in 1772. Louverture is believed to have been well educated by his godfather Pierre Baptiste, a free person of color who lived and worked on the Bréda plantation. Historians have speculated as to Louverture's intellectual background, his extant letters demonstrate a command of French in addition to Creole. His public speeches as well as his life's work, according to his biographers, show a familiarity with Machiavelli.
Some cite Abbé Raynal, who wrote against slavery, as a possible influence: The wording of the proclamation issued by rebel slave leader Louverture on 29 August 1793, which may have been the first time he publicly used the name "Louverture", seems to refer to an anti-slavery passage in Abbé Raynal's "A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies."He may have received some education from Jesuit missionaries. His medical knowledge is attributed to familiarity with African or Creole herbal-medical techniques, as well techniques found in Jesuit-administered hospitals. A few legal documents signed on Louverture's behalf between 1778 and 1781 suggest that he could not write at that time. Throughout his military and political career, he used secretaries to prepare most of his correspondence. A few surviving documents in his own hand confirm that he could write, although his spelling in the French language was "strictly phonetic." In 1782, Louverture married Suzanne Simone Baptiste, thought to have been his cousin or the daughter of his godfather.
Toward the end of his life, he told General Caffarelli that he had
First Republic of Venezuela
The First Republic of Venezuela was the first independent government of Venezuela, lasting from July 5, 1811, to July 25, 1812. The period of the First Republic began with the overthrow of the Spanish colonial authorities and the establishment of the Junta Suprema de Caracas on April 19, 1810, initiating the Venezuelan War of Independence, ended with the surrender of the republican forces to the Spanish Captain Domingo de Monteverde; the congress of Venezuela declared the nation's independence on July 5, 1811, wrote a constitution for it. In doing so, Venezuela is notable for being the first Spanish American colony to declare its independence. Several European events set the stage for Venezuela's declaration of independence; the Napoleonic Wars in Europe not only weakened Spain's imperial power, but put Britain unofficially on the side of the independence movement. In May 1808, Napoleon asked for and received the abdication of Ferdinand VII and the confirmation of his father Charles IV's abdication a few months earlier.
Napoleon made his brother Joseph Bonaparte, King of Spain. That marked the beginning of Spain's own War of Independence from French hegemony and partial occupation, before the Spanish American wars of independence began; the focal point of the Spanish political resistance was the Supreme Central Junta, which formed itself to govern in the name of Ferdinand, which managed to get the loyalty of the many provincial and municipal juntas that had formed throughout Spain in the wake of the French invasion. In Venezuela during 1809 and 1810 there were various attempts at establishing a junta, which took the form of both legal, public requests to the Captain General and secret plots to depose the authorities; the first major defeat that Napoleonic France suffered was in Andalusia. Despite this victory, the situation soon reversed itself and the French advanced into southern Spain and the Spanish government had to retreat to the island redout of Cádiz. In Cádiz, the Supreme Central Junta dissolved itself and set up a five-person Regency to handle the affairs of state until the Cortes Generales could be convened.
On 18 April 1810, agents of the Spanish Regency arrived in the city of Caracas. After considerable political tumult, the local nobility announced an extraordinary open hearing of the cabildo, set for the morning of 19 April, Maundy Thursday. On that day, an expanded municipal government of Caracas took power in the name of Ferdinand VII, calling itself The Supreme Junta to Preserve the Rights of Ferdinand VII and deposed Captain General Vicente Emparán and other colonial officials; this initiated a process. Soon after 19 April, many other Venezuelan provinces established juntas, most of which recognized the Caracas one. Still other regions never established juntas, but rather kept their established authorities and continued to recognize the government in Spain; this situation led to a civil war between Venezuelans who were in favor of the new autonomous juntas and those still loyal to the Spanish Crown. The Caracas Junta called for the convention of a congress of the Venezuelan provinces which began meeting the following March, at which time the Junta dissolved itself.
The Congress set up a triumvirate to handle the executive functions of the union. Shortly after the juntas were set up, Venezuelan émigré Francisco de Miranda had returned to his homeland taking advantage of the changing political climate, he had been a persona non grata since his failed attempt at liberating Venezuela in 1806. Miranda was elected to the Congress and began agitating for independence, gathered around him a group of similarly-minded individuals, who formed an association, modeled on the Jacobin Club, to pressure the Congress. Independence was formally declared on 5 July 1811; the Congress established a Confederation called the American Confederation of Venezuela in its Declaration of Independence, referred variously as States of Venezuela and afterwards United States of Venezuela, American Confederation of Venezuela in the Constitution, crafted by lawyer Juan Germán Roscio, that it ratified on 21 December 1811. The Constitution created a strong bicameral legislature and, as happened in neighboring New Granada, the Congress kept the weak executive consisting of a triumvirate.
This government was not in force for long, since the provinces did not implement it. The provinces wrote their own constitutions, a right which the Congress recognized. Though the Congress declared independence, the provinces of Maracaibo and Guayana and the district of Coro remained loyal to the Supreme Central Junta of Spain and the Cádiz Cortes that followed it; the new Confederation claimed the right to govern the territory of the former Captaincy General, the region plunged into full civil war by 1810 with fighting breaking out between royalist and republican areas. A military expedition from Caracas to bring Coro back under its control, was defeated in November; the Caracas Junta, which continued to govern Caracas Province, did not have much power in the newly declared Confederation, had a hard time getting supplies and reinforcements from the other confede
Labadee is a port located on the northern coast of Haiti within the arrondissement of Cap-Haïtien in the Nord department. It is a private resort leased to Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. for the exclusive use of passengers of its three cruise lines: Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara Club Cruises, until 2050. Royal Caribbean has contributed the largest proportion of tourist revenue to Haiti since 1986, employing 300 locals, allowing another 200 to sell their wares on the premises for a fee and paying the Haitian government $12 USD per tourist; the resort is tourist-oriented, is guarded by a private security force. The site is fenced off from the surrounding area, passengers are not allowed to leave the property. Food available to tourists is brought from the cruise ships. A controlled group of Haitian merchants are given sole rights to sell their merchandise and establish their businesses in the resort. Although sometimes described as an island in advertisements, it is a peninsula contiguous with the island of Hispaniola.
The cruise ship moors to the pier at Labadee capable of servicing the Oasis class ships, completed in late 2009. Attractions include a Haitian flea market, watersports, a water-oriented playground, an alpine coaster, the largest zip-line over water; the location is named after the Marquis de La Badie, a Frenchman who first settled the area in the 17th century. The peninsula and a village were named Labadie; the cruise company spells the name "Labadee" to make it easier for English-speakers to pronounce. In 1991, a journalist reported that passengers who disembarked at the location were not informed they were in Haiti. In November 2001, a crew member from the cruise line Royal Caribbean was attacked on Labadee in an apparent robbery; the assailants were arrested by Haitian police. In February 2004, during the 2004 Haitian coup d'état, Royal Caribbean temporarily suspended use of the stop due to the political unrest in the country. In 2009, Royal Caribbean made US$55 million improvements to the facilities, including upgrading port facilities to allow docking of their largest cruise ships.
In January 2010, just after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Royal Caribbean announced its intention to continue cruise stopovers at the port and use cruise ships to ferry relief supplies and personnel. In addition, it would donate US$1 million to fund relief efforts in Haiti. In January 2016, Haitians in boats protesting against the Haitian government blocked the port. Royal Caribbean's Freedom of the Seas cancelled their port stop on January 19 as a result. Labadee at the Royal Caribbean website Google. "Labadie". Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 13 October 2016
Arrondissements of Haiti
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in Haiti. As of 2015, the 10 departments of Haiti were divided into 42 arrondissements. Arrondissements are further divided into communal sections; the term arrondissement can be translated into English as district. A more etymologically precise, but less allegorical, definition would be encirclements, from the French arrondir, to encircle; because no single translation adequately conveys the layered sense of the word, the French term is used in English writing. The Arrondissements are listed below, by department: Dessalines Gonaïves Gros-Morne Marmelade Saint-Marc Cerca-la-Source Hinche Lascahobas Mirebalais Anse d'Hainault Corail Jérémie Anse-à-Veau Baradères Miragoâne Acul-du-Nord Borgne Cap-Haïtien Grande-Rivière-du-Nord Limbé Plaisance Saint-Raphaël Fort-Liberté Ouanaminthe Trou-du-Nord Vallières Môle-Saint-Nicholas Port-de-Paix Saint-Louis-du-Nord Arcahaie Croix-des-Bouquets Gonâve Léogâne Port-au-Prince Bainet Belle-Anse Jacmel Aquin Les Cayes Chardonnières Côteaux Port-Salut Code Postal Haitien Haiti-Référence 7320.
- Arrondissements et communes d’Haiti Haiti Departments of Haiti Communes of Haiti
Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres
Frey Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres was a Spanish soldier from a noble family and a Knight of the Order of Alcántara, a military order of Spain. He was Governor of the Indies from 1502 until 1509, sent by the Spanish crown to investigate the administration of Francisco de Bobadilla and re-establish order, his administration subdued rebellious Spaniards, completed the brutal "pacification" of the native Taíno population of Hispaniola. Nicolás Ovando y Cáceres was born in Brozas in 1460. Born into a noble and pious family, second son of Diego Fernández de Cáceres y Ovando, 1st Lord of the Manor House del Alcázar Viejo, his first wife Isabel Flores de las Varillas, Ovando entered the military Order of Alcántara, where he became a Master or a Commander-Major; this Spanish military order, founded in 1156, resembled the Order of Templars, with whom it fought the Moors during the Reconquista. His elder brother was Diego de Cáceres y Ovando; as Commander of Lares de Guahaba Ovando became a favorite of the Spanish Catholic Monarchs of the pious Queen Isabella I.
Thus, in response to complaints from Christopher Columbus and others about Francisco de Bobadilla the Spanish monarch on September 3, 1501, appointed Ovando to replace Bobadilla. Ovando became the third Governor of the Indies, the Islands, the Province of Tierra Firme. Thus, on 13 February 1502, he sailed from Spain with a fleet of thirty ships, it was the largest fleet that had sailed to the New World. The thirty ships carried around 2,500 colonists. Unlike Columbus's earlier voyages, this group of colonists was deliberately selected to represent an organized cross-section of Spanish society; the Spanish Crown intended to develop the West Indies economically and thereby expand Spanish political and administrative influence in the region. Along with him came Francisco Pizarro, who would explore western South America and conquer the Inca Empire. Another ship carried Bartolomé de las Casas, who became known as the'Protector of the Indians' for exposing atrocities committed by Ovando and his subordinates.
Hernán Cortés, a family acquaintance and distant relative, was supposed to sail to the Americas in this expedition, but was prevented from making the journey by an injury he sustained while hurriedly escaping from the bedroom of a married woman of Medellín. The expedition reached Santo Domingo in April 1502, included Diego de Nicuesa and Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon. On board were 13 Franciscans, led by Friar Alonso de Espinar, bringing the total on the island to 25; when Ovando arrived in Hispaniola in 1502, he found the once-peaceful natives in revolt. Ovando and his subordinates ruthlessly suppressed this rebellion through a series of bloody campaigns, including the Jaragua Massacre and Higüey Massacre. Ovando's administration in Hispaniola became notorious for its cruelty toward the native Taíno. Estimates of the Taino population at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards in 1492 vary, with Anderson Córdova giving a maximum of 500,000 people inhabiting the island. By the 1507 census, according to Bartolomé de las Casas battlefield slaughter and disease had reduced the native population to 60,000 people, the decline continued.
In 1501, Ovando ordered the first importation of Spanish-speaking black slaves into the Americas. Many Spanish aristocrats ordered slaves to work as servants in their homes. However, most slaves were sent to work in the sugar cane fields, which produced the valuable cash crop. After the conquests made by his lieutenants including Juan Ponce de León and Juan de Esquivel, Ovando founded several cities on Hispaniola, he developed the mining industry, introduced the cultivation of sugar cane with plants imported from the Canary Islands, commissioned expeditions of discovery and conquest throughout the Caribbean. Ovando allowed Spanish settlers to use the natives in forced labor, to provide food for the colonists as well as ships returning to Spain. Ovando allowed the Taíno to be exploited for their labor, hundreds of thousands died while forced to extract gold from the nearby mines. Pursuant to a deathbed promise he made to his wife Queen Isabella I, King Ferdinand II of Aragon recalled Ovando to Spain in 1509 to answer for his treatment of the native people.
Diego Columbus was appointed his successor as governor, but the Spanish Crown permitted Ovando to retain possession of the property he brought back from the Americas. Ovando died in Spain on 29 May 1511, he was buried in the church of the former monastery of San Benito de Alcántara, which belonged to his military order and which sustained significant damage in centuries. Colony of Santo Domingo People of the Colony of Santo Domingo Spanish Empire Spanish West Indies Viceroyalty of New Spain Castro Pereira Mouzinho de Albuquerque e Cunha, Fernando de, Instrumentário Genealógico - Linhagens Milenárias, p. 311 Lamb, Ursula. Frey Nicolás de Ovando Sauer, Carl O.. The Early Spanish Main Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "article name needed". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton; the Louverture Project: Nicolás de Ovando - Article from Haitian history wiki