SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jacob

Jacob given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites and so is an important figure in Abrahamic religions, such as Judaism and Islam. Jacob first appears in the Book of Genesis, the son of Isaac and Rebecca, the grandson of Abraham and Bethuel, the nephew of Ishmael, he was the second-born of Isaac's children. However, by deceiving Isaac when he was old and blind, Jacob was able to usurp the blessing that belonged to Esau as the firstborn son, become the leader of their family. Following a severe drought in his homeland Canaan and his descendants, with the help of his son Joseph, who had since become a confidante of Pharaoh, moved to Egypt, where he died, aged 147 years, was buried in the Cave of Machpelah. Jacob is said to have had twelve sons by four women, his wives and Rachel, his concubines and Zilpah, who were, in order of their birth, Simeon, Judah, Naphtali, Asher, Zebulun and Benjamin, all of whom became the heads of their own family groups known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, it is known that he had a daughter, Dinah.

It is possible he had more children than the thirteen named in the Bible, as the passages Gen. 37:35 and Gen. 46:7 both mention the existence of his sons and daughters, which could support the existence of additional children, who were unnamed in religious texts. Jacob displayed favoritism among his wives and children, preferring Rachel and her sons and Benjamin, causing tension within the family, culminating in the sale of Joseph by his brothers into slavery. According to the folk etymology found in Genesis 25:26, the name Ya'aqob יעקב‎ is derived from aqeb עָקֵב‎ "heel"; the historical origin of the name is uncertain. Yaqub-Har is recorded as a place name in a list by Thutmose III; the hieroglyphs are ambiguous, can be read as "Yaqub-Har", "Yaqubaal", or "Yaqub El". The same name is recorded earlier still, in cuneiform inscriptions; the suggestion that the personal name may be shortened from this compound name, which would translate to "may El protect", originates with Bright. The Septuagint renders the name Ιακωβος, whence Latin Jacobus, English Jacob.

The name Israel given to Jacob following the episode of his wrestling with the angel is etymologized as composition of אֵל‎ el "god" and the root שָׂרָה‎ śarah "to rule, have power, prevail over": שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים‎. The biblical account of the life of Jacob is found in the Book of Genesis, chapters 25–50. Jacob and his twin brother, were born to Isaac and Rebecca after 20 years of marriage, when Isaac was 60 years of age. Rebekah went to inquire of God why she was suffering, she received the prophecy that twins were fighting in her womb and would continue to fight all their lives after they became two separate nations. The prophecy said that "the one people shall be stronger than the other people; when the time came for Rebecca to give birth, the firstborn, came out covered with red hair, as if he were wearing a hairy garment, his heel was grasped by the hand of Jacob, the secondborn. According to Genesis 25:25, Isaac and Rebecca named the first son Hebrew: Esau; the second son they named יעקב, Jacob.

The boys displayed different natures as they matured. ... and Esau was a man of the field. Moreover, the attitudes of their parents toward them differed: "And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison: but Rebecca loved Jacob". Genesis 25:29–34 tells the account of Esau selling his birthright to Jacob; this passage tells that Esau, returning famished from the fields, begged Jacob to give him some of the stew that Jacob had just made. Jacob offered to give Esau a bowl of stew in exchange for his birthright; as Isaac aged, he became blind and was uncertain when he would die, so he decided to bestow Esau's birthright upon him. He requested. Isaac requested that Esau make "savory meat" for him out of the venison, according to the way he enjoyed it the most, so that he could eat it and bless Esau. Rebecca overheard this conversation, it is suggested that she realized prophetically that Isaac's blessings would go to Jacob, since she was told before the twins' birth that the older son would serve the younger.

Rebecca blessed Jacob and she ordered Jacob to bring her two kid goats from their flock so that he could take Esau's place in serving Isaac and receiving his blessing. Jacob protested that his father would recognize their deception since Esau was hairy and he himself was smooth-skinned, he feared his father would curse him as soon as he felt him, but Rebecca offered to take the curse herself insisted that Jacob obey her. Jacob did as his mother instructed and, when he returned with the kids, Rebe

Nominal power (photovoltaic)

The nominal power is the nameplate capacity of photovoltaic devices, such as solar cells and systems, is determined by measuring the electric current and voltage in a circuit, while varying the resistance under defined conditions. The nominal power is important for designing an installation in order to dimension its cabling and converters; the peak power is not the same as the power under actual radiation conditions. In practice, this will be 15-20% lower due to the considerable heating of the solar cells. Moreover, in installations where electricity is converted to AC, such as solar power plants, the actual total electricity generation capacity is limited by the inverter, sized at a lower peak capacity than the solar system for economic reasons. Since the peak DC power is reached only for a few hours each year, using a smaller inverter allows to save money on the inverter while clipping only a small portion of the total energy production; the capacity of the power plant after DC-AC conversion is reported in WAC as opposed to Wp or WDC.

The nominal power of PV devices is measured under Standard Test Conditions, specified in standards such as IEC 61215, IEC 61646 and UL 1703. The light intensity is 1000 W/m2, with a spectrum similar to sunlight hitting the earth's surface at latitude 35°N in the summer, the temperature of the cells being 25 °C; the power is measured while varying the resistive load on the module between an open and closed circuit. The highest power thus measured is the'nominal' power of the module in watts; this nominal power divided by the light power that falls on a given area of a photovoltaic device defines its efficiency, the ratio of the device's electrical output to the incident energy. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures, which maintains the SI-standard, states that the physical unit and its symbol should not be used to provide specific information about a given physical quantity and that neither should be the sole source of information on a quantity. Nonetheless, colloquial English sometimes conflates the quantity power and its unit by using the non-SI unit watt-peak and the non-SI symbol Wp prefixed as within the SI, e.g. kilowatt-peak, megawatt-peak, etc.

As such a photovoltaic installation may for example be described as having "one kilowatt-peak" in the meaning "one kilowatt of peak power". Outside the SI, the peak power is sometimes written as "P = 1 kWp" as opposed to "Ppeak = 1 kW". In the context of domestic PV installations, the kilowatt is the most common unit for peak power, sometimes stated as kWp. Solar power need to be converted from direct current to alternate current to be injected into the power grid. Since solar panels generate peak power only for few hours each year, DC to AC converters are expensive, the converters are sized to be smaller than the peak DC power of the panels; this means that the extra energy is lost. This has little impact on the total energy generated throughout a year, but saves considerable amount of balance of system costs. Due to under-sizing of converters, AC ratings of solar plants are significantly lower than DC ratings, as much as 30%; this in turn increases the calculated yearly capacity factor of the plant.

The downrating of peak power and the related clipping is different from the losses incurred in the conversion from DC to AC, which happen at any power level and are relatively small. Most countries refer to installed nominal nameplate capacity of PV systems and panels by counting DC power in watt-peak, denoted as Wp, or sometimes WDC, as do most manufacturers and organizations of the photovoltaic industry, such as Solar Energy Industries Association, the European Photovoltaic Industry Association or the International Energy Agency. However, in some places of the world, a system's rated capacity is given after the power output has been converted to AC, being the output to the grid; these places include Canada, Japan and the United States. AC instead of DC is given for most utility-scale PV power plants using CdTe-technology; some grid regulations may limit the AC output of a PV system to as little as 70% of its nominal DC peak power. Because of these two different metrics, international organizations need to reconvert official domestic figures from the above-mentioned countries back to the raw DC output in order to report coherent global PV-deployment in watt-peak.

In order to clarify whether the nominal power output is in fact DC or converted into AC, it is sometimes explicitly denoted as MWDC and MWAC or kWDC and kWAC. The converted WAC is often written as "MW", "MWac" or "MWAC". Just as for Wp, these units are non SI-compliant but used. In California, for example, where the rated capacity is given in MWAC, a downrating of 15 percent in the conversion from DC to AC is assumed. Although watt-peak is a convenient measure, is the standardized number in the photovoltaic industry on which prices and growth numbers are based, it is arguably not the most important number for actual performance. Since a solar panel's job is to generate electric power at minimal cost, the amount of power that it generates under real-life conditions in relation to its cost should be the most important number to evaluate; this cost per watt measure is used in the industry. It can happen that a panel from brand A and a panel of brand B give the same watt-peak in laboratory test, but their power output is different in a real installation.

This difference

WIBN

WIBN is an FM radio station licensed to the city of Earl Park, Indiana. The station operates on the FM radio frequency of 98.1 MHz, FM channel 251. The studios are located at 130 E. McConnell Street in Indiana; the tower is located one mile east of Dunnington, Indiana, a small community in rural western Benton County. WIBN signed on the air in 1983 at 98.3 on the FM dial built and owned by Frank and Sandra Hertel of Evansville, IN. The station broadcast at 3,000 watts and served the communities of Earl Park and Kentland; the studio and tower were both located in Earl Park. The format was a mix of country and Adult contemporary music; the station had stints doing each of the aforementioned formats throughout the 1980s. By the mid-1980s, the station was purchased by Indiana radio pioneer Sidney Thompson, his company, known as IBN Broadcasting, began looking into ways to make the station more powerful as well as more profitable. The 98.3 frequency was cluttered in northwestern Indiana at the time with three other stations occupying the frequency within a 100-mile radius of WIBN.

In 1988, the FCC granted a request to move WIBN to 98.1 and strengthen its power from 3,000 watts to 25,000 watts. This power increase would provide the station with primary coverage to larger Illinois towns such as Watseka and Hoopeston and secondary coverage to Greater Lafayette. Once the move to 98.1 was complete, WIBN became an Adult contemporary station with programming provided by Satellite Music Network's Starstation format. In the mid-90s, Brothers Broadcasting Corporation, headed by John Balvich, purchased the station; the station maintained its affiliation with Starstation but renamed itself "Interstate 98" or "I-98" for short. As I-98, WIBN featured a mix of music, farm reports, sports, both local and national. In 2001, it was decided, it was speculated that WIBN would attempt to program toward the Lafayette market as many former Lafayette radio personalities and managers were hired in to oversee operations. Format speculations ranged from alternative rock to hot AC. By the Spring, it was decided that WIBN would become Hot adult contemporary as B 98.

However, the decision was pulled right before the launch when Lafayette's WNJY changed format and became B 102.9. The station remained I-98 and kept its affiliation with ABC Radio's Hits and Favorites format until October 1, 2001 when the station flipped to Oldies as "98 Gold" utilizing ABC Radio Networks Pure Gold format. Today, WIBN continues to program an oldies format and now uses Westwood One Networks Good Time Oldies; the station runs regional news. High school sports broadcasts run from mid-August with one football game per week, including post-season action. From November thru March, high school basketball games feature Benton Central and other area teams.. WIBN broadcasts from area 4-H county fairs. In April 2010 WIBN's tower was knocked over by heavy farm equipment, which fell onto the building housing its transmitter, taking the station off the air. WIBN continued to stream online. WIBN went back on the air at 8 pm on July 27, 2010. In February 2014, Matt Wilson joined WIBN with Marvelous Matt in the Morning.

Matt has fresh contests, plays some rare tracks and provides local sports score updates from 6am til 10am. Matt left for about six months to pursue another interest in which time Charlie Harrigan came on to do mornings. Matt returned in December 2015 to do afternoon drive. Matt continues every weekday morning. All Times Eastern WIBN plays pop hits from 1955-1979 with supplemental 80s tunes from popular 60s and 70s artists. Weekday Mornings: Marvelous Matt. 6am - 11am EST. Matt has: The Beatles Wake up 6am. Time Tunnel Instrumental Oldies Salute Forgotten 45 Daily Top 5 Oldies News Report Name That Movie! Twin Spin Tuesdays Throwback Thursdays Featured Artist Fridays Pet Savers - Friday 9am Special shows: Saturday**9am - 10:30am The Big Bargain Show with Matt and Deb. 12pm - 3pm MG Kelly's American Hit List. Sunday**5:30am Issues Today. 8am-12Noon MG Kelly's Back to the 70's. WIBN Website Query the FCC's FM station database for WIBN Radio-Locator information on WIBN Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WIBN