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Jacob Abbott

Jacob Abbott was an American writer of children's books. On November 14, 1803, Abbott was born in Maine, he attended the Hallowell Academy. Abbott graduated from Bowdoin College in 1820. At some point during his years there, he added the second "t" to his surname, to avoid being "Jacob Abbot the 3rd". Abbott studied at Andover Theological Seminary in 1821, 1822, 1824. Abbott was tutor in 1824–1825. From 1825 to 1829 was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Amherst College, he was a prolific author, writing juvenile fiction, brief histories, religious books for the general reader, a few works in popular science. He was a coauthor or editor of 31 more, he died in Farmington, where he had spent part of his time after 1839, where his brother, Samuel Phillips Abbott, founded the Abbott School. His Rollo Books, such as Rollo at Work, Rollo at Play, Rollo in Europe, etc. are the best known of his writings, having as their chief characters a representative boy and his associates. In them Abbott did for one or two generations of young American readers a service not unlike that performed earlier, in England and America, by the authors of Evenings at Home, The History of Sandford and Merton, The Parent's Assistant.

To follow up his Rollo books, he wrote of Uncle George, using him to teach the young readers about ethics, geography and science. He wrote 22 volumes of biographical histories and a 10 volume set titled the Franconia Stories, his brothers, John Stevens Cabot Abbott and Gorham Dummer Abbott, were authors. His sons, Benjamin Vaughan Abbott, Austin Abbott, both eminent lawyers, Lyman Abbott, Edward Abbott, a clergyman, were well-known authors. See his Young Christian, Memorial Edition, with a Sketch of the Author by Edward Abbott with a bibliography of his works. Other works of note: Lucy Books, Jonas Books, Harper's Story Books, Marco Paul, Gay Family, Juno Books. On May 18, 1828, Abbott married Harriet Vaughan. Abbott had four sons and they are Benjamin Vaughan Abbott, Edward Abbott, Austin Abbott and Lyman Abbott; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Abbott, Jacob". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Jacob Abbott at Find a Grave Portrait clipping of Jacob Abbott from The New York Public Library Digital Collections Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske and Stanley L. Klos.

Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887–1889 Works by Jacob Abbott at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jacob Abbott at Internet Archive Works by Jacob Abbott at LibriVox Works by Jacob Abbott at Online Books


P. A. W. S. or Pets Are Wonderful Support refers to a number of North American non-profit organisations that advocate the value of the bond between humans and their pets as a means to extend a person's quality of life and life-span elderly or disabled persons. The PAWS organizations provide subsidized pet food, veterinary care, pet medication and human services such as dog walking, litter box cleaning and transportation to thousands of clients; the first PAWS organization was founded in San Francisco, California in 1987 as part of the response to the HIV/AIDS crisis when volunteers at the San Francisco AIDS Foundation food bank noticed that HIV/AIDS patients had used the food supplied to them to feed their pets. PAWS began with a focus on AIDS patients, many of whom found themselves without support from family and friends, relied on their pets for companionship. In 2003, PAWS San Francisco expanded its services to persons with other serious illnesses or mental health problems, in 2007 to senior citizens with low incomes.

More than thirty other PAWS agencies have been established in other North American cities. Actress Nadia Sutton founded the Los Angeles agency in 1989. PAWS San Diego was founded in 1993 in Northern San Diego County, as "P. A. W. S. North County"; the founder operated the organization out of her own home, used her own car to deliver the ideals of P. A. W. S. to San Diegans. In 1997, P. A. W. S. North County expanded its services to low income, chronically ill and elderly clients. In 2001 P. A. W. S. San Diego County was founded when the greater San Diego office was absorbed as a result of financial issues. In 2005, P. A. W. S. San Diego County doubled the number of its clients and partnered with the San Diego Humane Society to share office space and storage. In 2006 P. A. W. S. San Diego County expanded its operations. By 2011 they had outgrown their space and moved to a warehouse space in Grantville and adopted the name "PAWS San Diego." Today PAWS San Diego has established itself as an integral part of the San Diego community by delivering essential pet supplies and support to homebound San Diegans through their Wellness program and supplemental meals and assisting other San Diego non-profits through their PAWS Pantry program.

PAWS San Francisco


Pelaaja is a Finnish video games magazine published 11 times a year by H-Town. Pelaaja turned 15 years old in 2017. Pelaaja consoles, although between 2003 and 2007 it focused only on consoles. During that time the PC coverage was in a separate magazine named PCPelaaja, now defunct, its editor-in-chief was Miika Huttunen, the current editor-in-chief of Pelaaja. Pelaaja was started by 2002; the longest running editor-in-chief of Pelaaja was Thomas Puha. Its current editor-in-chief is Miika Huttunen, a veteran of the Finnish electronic gaming scene and among the permanent staff is Janne Pyykkönen, the editor-in-chief of H-Town's Pelaa! magazine. The art director is Lasse Erkola and some of the frequent collaborators include Miikka Lehtonen, Tero Lehtiniemi and Jukka O. Kauppinen; the magazine is more akin to European and American videogames magazines than Finnish ones with its focus on exclusive coverage on the latest games and extensive interviews with members of the development community. Game reviews are a big part of the magazine.

The magazine's tagline is "for the love of gaming" as the magazine's staff are hardcore gaming enthusiasts, evident in the passionate writing of the magazine features. The magazine was started because the people working on the magazine felt there was no high quality games magazine available in Finland which would focus on console games rather than the PC. Another feature is the international vibe of the magazine via Japan- and US- based writers contributing to the magazine. Pelaaja focuses on its art direction, handled by Lasse Erkola, with additional design during the years from Thomas Puha; the magazine was redesigned in summer of 2005 and re-launched in October 2005. Another redesign coincided with the magazine's 10th anniversary issue #121 in October 2012. PC games made a return to the magazine during this redesign. Puha and Huttunen are known to cable television and public broadcasting channel viewing audiences for both their games related program appearances and their program featuring neat webpages.

List of magazines in Finland Official website


OSRIC, short for Old School Reference and Index Compilation, is a fantasy role-playing game system. It is a recreation of the first edition of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, one of the most successful Dungeons & Dragons retro-clones. OSRIC describes itself as "a compilation of rules for old school-style fantasy gaming...intended to reproduce underlying rules used in the late 1970s to early 1980s". OSRIC uses the Open Gaming License and the System Reference Document of Dungeons & Dragons 3rd edition to create a new presentation of the first edition rule set; the purpose of OSRIC is to provide publishers with a tool to produce gaming materials compatible with first edition AD&D. More than 20 different publishers have produced more than 500 products branded as OSRIC-compatible; the initial version of OSRIC was released in 2006. The OSRIC rules are free to download from the game's site in PDF form. OSRIC v. 2.0 was released in 2008. In June 2009, hard copy versions of the rules became available from the Lulu print-on-demand service.

Additionally, Black Blade Publishing and Usherwood Publishing together released a deluxe hard-bound print version with extra art and indices not appearing in other editions. OSRIC v. 2.2, was released in 2013. OSRIC site Black Blade Publishing OSRIC hard bound site

Battle of São Mamede

The Battle of São Mamede took place on 24 June 1128 near Guimarães and is considered the seminal event for the foundation of the Kingdom of Portugal and the battle that ensured Portugal's Independence. Portuguese forces led by Afonso Henriques defeated forces led by his mother Teresa of Portugal and her lover Fernão Peres de Trava. Following São Mamede, the future king styled himself "Prince of Portugal", he would be called "King of Portugal" in 1139 and was recognised as such by neighbouring kingdoms in 1143. In late 11th century, Henry of Portugal, a knight and brother of the Duke of Burgundy, went to support the Christians of Hispania, he fought the Moors along with Alfonso VI of León. In honour of his fights in Hispania, the King gave him the County of Portugal; this gift came with a reinstated title. Henry became count of Portugal and Theresa, his wife. In 1095, the county was a dependency of the Kingdom of Galicia, itself a dependency of the Kingdom of León. In 1097 Portugal became a direct dependency of León.

However, from the early years of his rule, as he became influenced by the desire of the lords of the county for independence, Henry desired the independence of the county. Henry died in 1112, his wife Regina Tarasia became the countess of Portugal, she wished for independence from her sister, who became Queen of León after her father's, Alfonso VI of Leon, death. Like her husband, Theresa was ambitious. In an attempt to maintain the autonomy of her county, she allied herself to her sister's enemies or with her sister, whichever was most propitious at the time. In 1116, the Portuguese took two Galician cities and Ourense. In reply, the sister of Countess Theresa, Queen Urraca, attacked Theresa's dominions. Bishop Diego Gelmírez, a friend of a Galician noble, in the service of Theresa, led a revolt in the camp of Queen Urraca, she was obliged to make peace with her sister Theresa. Urraca died in 1126. Urraca's son, Alfonso VII, became king of León and Castile and demanded that Theresa become his vassal, which she refused to do.

In response, Alfonso attacked Portugal in the spring of 1127. This increased the power of her son, because she had lost the trust of the Leonese king, her son became the count of Portugal. Theresa became a puppet of the Galician Ferdinand Perez de Trava. Theresa and Prince Afonso became enemies, as both wanted to take control of the county, but only the supporters of Prince Afonso were interested in full independence. Afonso Henriques was not alone in the battle. In fact, he was pressured by the lords of the main Portuguese cities, by the local church, by its people to achieve the country's independence. Nobles participating in the battle with Afonso Henriques: Afonso Nunes de Barbosa D. Paio Mendes da Maia Egas Moniz de Cresconhe Egas Moniz de Ribadouro Ermígio Moniz de Ribadouro Fernão Captivo Garcia Soares Godinho Fafes de Lanhoso Gonçalo Mendes da Maia Gonçalo Mendes de Sousa Nuno Soares Velho Paio Ramires Ramirão Sancho Nunes de Barbosa Soeiro Mendes de Sousa The counts that dominated the counties of Portugal and Coimbra kept the idea of independence, their merger strengthened their positions.

Alfonso VI of León, knowing the wishes of the Portuguese, united all Galicia under a single rule of one lord, which he chose from one of his close relatives. Teresa, mother of Afonso Henriques, came to Guimarães to govern the Portuguese county; the Portuguese did not accept this, the battle started. Afonso won Portugal started its journey towards independence. In 1129, Henriques in 1139 as King of Portugal. León recognized Portugal's independence in 1143 in the Treaty of Zamora. In 1179, the Holy See declared de jure. Anderson, James Maxwell; the History of Portugal online Birmingham, David. A Concise History of Portugal Grissom, James. Portugal – A Brief History excerpt and text search Oliveira Marques, A. H. de. History of Portugal: Vol. 1: from Lusitania to empire. Nowell, Charles E. A History of Portugal online Payne, Stanley G. A History of Spain and Portugal full text online vol 2 after 1700. "History of Historiography and National Memory in Portugal," History Compass 10#10 pp 765–777. de Carvalho Homem, Armando Luís.

"A. H. de Oliveira Marques: Historiography and Citizenship," E-Journal of Portuguese History 5#2 pp 1–9. Wikimedia Atlas of Portugal Portugal Chronology World History Database History of Portugal: Primary documents

Mark Harris (softballer)

Mark Harris is an Australian Steelers fastpitch softball representative. He was first selected in the team in 2010 to play in a Tri-Series against New Zealand and Argentina that year in December at Hawker Park, ACT. Harris has remained in the team through to this present day and has since played in the 2013 and 2015 World Series Fastpitch Team with the Steelers Harris was born on 29 March 1985 in Derby, Western Australia. He's 185 cm tall, he attended Sevenoaks Senior College and attended ECU University in 2003 and studied Sports Science. Harris moved to Perth from Derby before his first birthday and spent a short period of time living in Melbourne during 2009. Harris is working as an IT Projects Administrator at the West Coast Eagles Football Club. In 2015 Harris announced his engagement to Leah Brenton in Paris. Harris has played a variety of positions including catching and has had brief appearances on the pitching rubber, he is known in the Steelers team for his outfielding and combo of short and long game.

Harris started his time in the sport as an umpire and coach, with over 350 games experience before playing the sport at the age of 17. In 2003 he took a stint on the side lines with a shoulder recon and had a second in 2009, however, he has recovered well and has continued to play the sport at the highest level. 2010 - Tri-Series, ACT Canberra - New Zealand, Argentina 2011 - Friendship Series, Argentina 2012 - 2013 World Series Qualifiers, ACT Canberra - Samoa, PNG 2013 - World Series, Auckland New Zealand / Trans-Tasman Series, Auckland New Zealand - New Zealand vs Australia 2014 - 2015 World Series Qualifiers, Auckland New Zealand - Samoa, New Zealand 2015 - World Series, Saskatoon Canada 2005 - Tasmania 2006 - Sydney 2007 - Sydney 2008 - 2009 - 2011 - Brisbane 2012 - Sydney 2013 - Canberra 2014 - Perth 2015 - BrisbaneDuring Harris's time with the Blaze he's won MVP Trophies in 2013 and 2011. He makes appearances behind the dish and plays Leftfield. In 2014 he made his debut on the pitching rubber, short lived however, he's since pitched again in 2015 with better results.

2004 - SEMSA Association Junior Head Coach, Perth 2005 - State Under 19's Assistant Coach, Tasmania 2006 - State Under 19's Assistant Coach, Canberra 2010 - State Under 16's Head Coach, in Sydney 2015 - State Under 17's Head Coach, in Canberra 2016 - Appointed as the Under 17's Head Coach, in PerthHarris had attained his coaching certifications and has since re-certified as a level 2 coach. Harris has been a driving force in developing Softball clinics throughout Western Australia and continues to run these around the metro area. Harris started his career at Dale Districts Men's Softball Association in which he's won 4 Runner-Up MVP's along with one MVP Trophy. He's played with several teams including Bandits, Breakaways, Animals and Western Cobras. Most of Mark's club level softball has been with Bayswater Morley Softball Club in which he's enjoyed much success. During his time at the club he's been under the tutelage of former national reps including, Stephen Oliver, Neal Del Pero, Dean Maringoni and Michael Titheridge.

In 2014 Harris was the winner of the Newcrest Softball WA Spirit Award, allocated to one member of Softball WA, that's displayed positive attributes within their teams and within the softball community throughout WA during that year. Over a period of 8 years Harris has join Toowoomba Softball Association at the Brisbane State Championships 7 times