Mir Osman Ali Khan
His Exalted Highness Nawab Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi, Asaf Jah VII, was the last Nizam of the princely state of Hyderabad, the largest princely state in British India. He ruled Hyderabad State between 1948, until it was annexed by India, he was styled as His Exalted Highness the Nizam of Hyderabad. In many accounts, the Nizam is held to have been a benevolent ruler who patronized education and development. During his 37-year rule, electricity was introduced, railways and airways were developed, he is credited with the establishment numerous public institutions in the city of Hyderabad, including the Osmania University, Osmania General Hospital, State Bank of Hyderabad, Begumpet Airport, Hyderabad High Court. Two reservoirs, namely Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were built during his reign, to prevent another great flood in the city; the Nizam was one of the wealthiest people of all time. In 1937, he was featured on the cover of Time magazine, labelled as the 5th richest man in history, he was a philanthropist, donating millions of rupees to various educational and religious institutions all over India.
Apart from his wealth, he was known for his eccentricities, as he used to knit his own socks, borrow cigarettes from guests. After India's independence in 1947, the Nizam did not wish to accede his state to the newly formed nation. By his power had weakened due to the Telangana movement and rise of a radical Muslim militia known as the Razakars. In 1948, the Indian Army invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, the Nizam was forced to surrender, he was made the Rajpramukh of Hyderabad State between 1950 and 1956, after which the state was partitioned and became part of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The Nizam died in 1967; the famous Golconda mines was the major source of wealth for the Nizam's apart from land revenue. Hyderabad State in British India was the only supplier of Diamonds for the global market in the 18th century, he acceded as the Nizam of Hyderabad upon the death of his father in 1911. The state of Hyderabad was the largest of the princely states in pre-independence India. With an area of 86,000 square miles, it was the size of the present-day United Kingdom.
The Nizam was the highest-ranking prince in India, was one of only five princes entitled to a 21-gun salute, held the unique title of "Nizam", was titled "His Exalted Highness" and "Faithful Ally of the British Crown" In 1908, three years before the Nizam's coronation, the city of Hyderabad was struck by a major flood that resulted in the death of thousands. The Nizam, on the advice of Sir Visvesvaraya, ordered the construction of two large reservoirs, namely the Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar to prevent another flood, he was given the title of "Faithful Ally of the British Crown" after World War One due to his financial contribution to the British Empire's war effort. He paid for a Royal Navy vessel, the N-class destroyer, HMAS Nizam commissioned in 1940 and transferred to the Royal Australian Navy. In 1918, the Nizam issued a firman that brought into existence the Osmania University, the first university to have Urdu as a medium of instruction; the present campus was completed in 1934. In 1919, the Nizam ordered the formation of the Executive Council of Hyderabad, presided by Sir Sayyid Ali Imam, with eight other members, each in charge of one or more departments.
The President of the Executive Council would be the Prime Minister of Hyderabad. The Begumpet Airport was established in the 1930s with formation of Hyderabad Aero Club by the Nizam, it was used as a domestic and international airport for the Nizam's Deccan Airways, the earliest airline in British India. The terminal building was created in 1937, he arranged a matrimonial alliance between his son Azam Jah and Princess Durrushehvar of the Ottoman Empire. It was believed at that time that the matrimonial alliance between the Nizam and the deposed Caliph would lead to the emergence of a Muslim ruler who could be acceptable to the world powers in place of the Ottoman Sultans. After India's Independence, the Nizam made vain attempts to declare his sovereignty over the state of Hyderabad, either as a protectorate of the British Empire, or as a sovereign monarchy. However, his power weakened due to the Telangana rebellion and rise of the Razakars, a radical Muslim militia who wanted Hyderabad to remain under Muslim rule.
In 1948, India invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, the rule of the Nizam ended. Nearly all the major public buildings and institutions in Hyderabad city, such as Osmania General Hospital, Hyderabad High Court, Jubilee Hall, Nizamia Observatory, Nizamia Hospital, Moazzam Jahi Market, Kachiguda Railway Station, Asafiya Library now known as the State Central Library, Town Hall now known as the Assembly Hall, Hyderabad Museum now known as the State Museum and many other monuments were built under his reign, he built the Hyderabad House in Delhi, now used for diplomatic meetings by the Government of India. Apart from giving donations to major educational institutions throughout India, he introduced many educational reforms during his reign. 11% of the Nizam's budget was spent on education. He made large donations to many institutions in India and abroad with special emphasis given to educational institutions such as the Jamia Nizamia and the Darul Uloom Deoband; the foundation of agricultural research in Marathwada region of erstwhile Hyderabad state was laid by the Nizam with the commencement of the Main Experimental Farm in 1918 in Parbhani.
During the Nizam's ru
Government of India
The Government of India abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in the capital of India. Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state, the union government is composed of the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister and the supreme court; the President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, the Rajya Sabha the upper house; the judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, the criminal procedure code.
Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law; the full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases; the terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are used and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi; the powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
The Lok Sabha is considered the House of the people. The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court. However, it does exercise some control over the executive; the members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha; the Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved; the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term. The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy; the division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The executive power is vested in the President of India, as per Article 53 of the constitution.
The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53. The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India; the council of ministers remains in power during the'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha; the president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the president, as the head of state receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time in cases involving punishment of death; the decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister; the vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president; the vice president has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The
Jacob given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites. According to the Book of Genesis, Jacob was the third Hebrew progenitor with whom God made a covenant, he is the son of Isaac and Rebecca, the grandson of Abraham and Bethuel, the nephew of Ishmael, the younger twin brother of Esau. Jacob had twelve sons and at least one daughter, by his two wives and Rachel, by their handmaidens Bilhah and Zilpah. Jacob's twelve sons, named in Genesis, were Reuben, Levi, Dan, Gad, Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin, his only daughter mentioned in Genesis is Dinah. The twelve sons became the progenitors of the "Tribes of Israel"; as a result of a severe drought in Canaan and his sons moved to Egypt at the time when his son Joseph was viceroy. After 17 years in Egypt, Jacob died, the length of Jacob's life was 147 years. Joseph carried Jacob's remains to the land of Canaan, gave him a stately burial in the same Cave of Machpelah as were buried Abraham, Isaac and Jacob's first wife, Leah. Jacob is mentioned in a number of sacred scriptures, including the Hebrew Bible, the Talmud, the New Testament, the Quran and the Book of Mormon.
According to the folk etymology found in Genesis 25:26, the name Yaʿaqob יעקב is derived from aqeb עָקֵב "heel". The historical origin of the name is uncertain. Yaʿqob-'el is notably recorded as a placename in a list by Thutmose III; the same name is recorded earlier still, in cuneiform inscriptions. The suggestion that the personal name may be shortened from this compound name, which would translate to "may El protect", originates with Bright; the Septuagint renders the name Ιακωβος, whence Latin Jacobus, English Jacob. The name Israel given to Jacob following the episode of his wrestling with the angel is etymologized as composition of אֵל el "god" and the root שָׂרָה śarah "to rule, have power, prevail over": שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים; the biblical account of the life of Jacob is found in the Book of Genesis, chapters 25–50. Jacob and his twin brother, were born to Isaac and Rebecca after 20 years of marriage, when Isaac was 60 years of age. Rebekah went to inquire of God why she was suffering.
She received the prophecy that twins were fighting in her womb and would continue to fight all their lives after they became two separate nations. The prophecy said that "the one people shall be stronger than the other people. According to Genesis 25:25, Isaac and Rebecca named the first son Hebrew: Esau; the second son they named יעקב, Jacob. The boys displayed different natures as they matured. ... and Esau was a man of the field. Moreover, the attitudes of their parents toward them differed: "And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison: but Rebecca loved Jacob." Genesis 25:29–34 tells the account of Esau selling his birthright to Jacob. This passage tells that Esau, returning famished from the fields, begged Jacob to give him some of the stew that Jacob had just made. Jacob offered to give Esau a bowl of stew in exchange for his birthright; as Isaac aged, he became blind and was uncertain when he would die, so he decided to bestow Esau's birthright upon him. He requested. Isaac requested that Esau make "savory meat" for him out of the venison, according to the way he enjoyed it the most, so that he could eat it and bless Esau.
Rebecca overheard this conversation. It is suggested that she realized prophetically that Isaac's blessings would go to Jacob, since she was told before the twins' birth that the older son would serve the younger. Rebecca blessed Jacob and she ordered Jacob to bring her two kid goats from their flock so that he could take Esau's place in serving Isaac and receiving his blessing. Jacob protested that his father would recognize their deception since Esau was hairy and he himself was smooth-skinned, he feared his father would curse him as soon as he felt him, but Rebecca offered to take the curse herself insisted that Jacob obey her. Jacob did as his mother instructed and, when he returned with the kids, Rebekah made the savory meat that Isaac loved. Before she sent Jacob to his father, she dressed him in Esau's garments and laid goatskins on his arms and neck to simulate hairy skin. Disguised as Esau, Jacob entered Isaac's room. Surprised that Esau was back so soon, Isaac asked. Jacob responded, "Because the LORD your God brought it to me."
Rashi, on Genesis 27:21 says Isaac's suspicions were aroused more, because Esau never used the personal name of God. Isaac demanded that Jacob come close so he could feel him, but the
A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is transparent with no hue, or color. However, in reality no gem-sized natural diamonds are perfect; the color of a diamond may be affected by chemical impurities and/or structural defects in the crystal lattice. Depending on the hue and intensity of a diamond's coloration, a diamond's color can either detract from or enhance its value. For example, most white diamonds are discounted in price when more yellow hue is detectable, while intense pink diamonds or blue diamonds can be more valuable. Of all colored diamonds, red diamonds are the rarest; the Aurora Pyramid of Hope displays a spectacular array of colored diamonds, including red diamonds. Diamonds occur in a variety of colors—steel gray, blue, orange, green, pink to purple and black. Colored diamonds contain interstitial impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration, pure diamonds are transparent and colorless. Diamonds are scientifically classed into two main types and several subtypes, according to the nature of impurities present and how these impurities affect light absorption: Type I diamonds have nitrogen atoms as the main impurity at a concentration of 0.1%.
If the nitrogen atoms are in pairs they do not affect the diamond's color. If the nitrogen atoms are in large even-numbered aggregates they impart a yellow to brown tint. About 98% of gem diamonds are type Ia, most of these are a mixture of IaA and IaB material: these diamonds belong to the Cape series, named after the diamond-rich region known as Cape Province in North Africa, whose deposits are Type Ia. If the nitrogen atoms are dispersed throughout the crystal in isolated sites, they give the stone an intense yellow or brown tint. Synthetic diamond containing nitrogen is Type Ib. Type I diamonds absorb from 320 nm, they have a characteristic fluorescence and visible absorption spectrum. Type II diamonds have no measurable nitrogen impurities. Type II diamonds absorb in a different region of the infrared, transmit in the ultraviolet below 225 nm, unlike Type I diamonds, they have differing fluorescence characteristics, but no discernible visible absorption spectrum. Type IIa diamond can be colored pink, red, or brown due to structural anomalies arising through plastic deformation during crystal growth—these diamonds are rare, but constitute a large percentage of Australian production.
Type IIb diamonds, which account for 0.1% of gem diamonds, are light blue due to scattered boron within the crystal matrix. However, a blue-grey color may occur in Type Ia diamonds and be unrelated to boron. Not restricted to type are green diamonds, whose color is caused by GR1 color centers in the crystal lattice produced by exposure to varying quantities of radiation. Pink and red are caused by plastic deformation of the crystal lattice from pressure. Black diamonds are caused by microscopic black or gray inclusions of other materials such as graphite or sulfides and/or microscopic fractures. Opaque or opalescent white diamonds are caused by microscopic inclusions. Purple diamonds are caused by a combination of high hydrogen content; the majority of diamonds that are mined are in a range of pale yellow or brown color, termed the normal color range. Diamonds that are of intense yellow or brown, or any other color are called fancy color diamonds. Diamonds that are of the highest purity are colorless, appear a bright white.
The degree to which diamonds exhibit body color is one of the four value factors by which diamonds are assessed. Diamonds have a color grading system; this system goes from D to Z. The more colorless a diamond is, the rarer and more valuable it is because it appears white and brighter to the eye. Color grading of diamonds was performed as a step of sorting rough diamonds for sale by the London Diamond Syndicate; as the diamond trade developed, early diamond grades were introduced by various parties in the diamond trade. Without any co-operative development these early grading systems lacked standard nomenclature, consistency; some early grading scales were. Numerous terms developed to describe diamonds of particular colors: golconda, jagers, blue white, fine white, gem blue, etc. Refers to a grading scale for diamonds in the normal color range used by internationally recognized laboratories; the scale ranges from D, colorless to Z, a pale yellow or brown color. Brown diamonds darker than K color are described using their letter grade, a descriptive phrase, for example M Faint Brown.
Diamonds with more depth of color than Z color fall into the fancy color diamond range. Diamond color is graded by comparing a sample stone to a master stone set of diamonds; each master stone is known to exhibit the least amount of body color that a diamond in that color grade may exhibit. A trained diamond grader compares a diamond of unknown grade against the series of master stones, assessing where in the range of color the diamond resides; this process occurs in a lighting box, fitted with daylight equivalent lamps. Accurate color grading can only be performed with diamond unset, as the comparison with master
Reserve Bank of India
The Reserve Bank of India is India's central banking institution, which controls the issuance and supply of the Indian rupee. Until the Monetary Policy Committee was established in 2016, it controlled monetary policy in India, it commenced its operations on 1 April 1935 in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The original share capital was divided into shares of 100 each paid, which were owned by private shareholders. Following India's independence on 15 August 1947, the RBI was nationalised on 1 January 1949; the RBI plays an important part in the Development Strategy of the Government of India. It is a member bank of the Asian Clearing Union; the general superintendence and direction of the RBI is entrusted with the 21-member central board of directors: the governor. Each of these local boards consists of five members who represent regional interests, the interests of co-operative and indigenous banks; the central bank was an independent apex monetary authority which regulates banks and provides important financial services like storing of foreign exchange reserves, control of inflation, monetary policy report till August 2016.
A central bank is known by different names in different countries. The functions of a central bank vary from country to country and are autonomous or quasi-autonomous body and perform or through another agency vital monetary functions in the country. A central bank is a vital financial apex institution of an economy and the key objects of central banks may differ from country to country still they perform activities and functions with the goal of maintaining economic stability and growth of an economy; the bank is active in promoting financial inclusion policy and is a leading member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. The bank is referred to by the name Mint Street. RBI is known as banker's bank; the preamble of the Reserve Bank of India describes the basic functions of the reserve bank as: "to regulate the issue of Bank notes and keeping of reserves with a view to securing monetary stability in India and to operate the currency and credit system of the country to its advantage. The Reserve Bank of India was established following the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934.
Though owned it was nationalised in 1949 and since fully owned by Government of India. The Reserve Bank of India was founded on 1 April 1935 to respond to economic troubles after the First World War; the Reserve Bank of India was conceptualized based on the guidelines presented by the Central Legislative Assembly which passed these guidelines as the RBI Act 1934. RBI was conceptualized as per the guidelines, working style and outlook presented by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar in his book titled “The Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution” and presented to the Hilton Young Commission; the bank was set up based on the recommendations of the 1926 Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance known as the Hilton–Young Commission. The original choice for the seal of RBI was The East India Company Double Mohur, with the sketch of the Lion and Palm Tree. However, it was decided to replace the lion with the national animal of India; the Preamble of the RBI describes its basic functions to regulate the issue of bank notes, keep reserves to secure monetary stability in India, to operate the currency and credit system in the best interests of the country.
The Central Office of the RBI was established in Calcutta but was moved to Bombay in 1937. The RBI acted as Burma's central bank until April 1947 though Burma seceded from the Indian Union in 1937. After the Partition of India in August 1947, the bank served as the central bank for Pakistan until June 1948 when the State Bank of Pakistan commenced operations. Though set up as a shareholders’ bank, the RBI has been owned by the Government of India since its nationalization in 1949. RBI has monopoly of note issue. In the 1950s, the Indian government, under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, developed a centrally planned economic policy that focused on the agricultural sector; the administration nationalized commercial banks and established, based on the Banking Companies Act, 1949, a central bank regulation as part of the RBI. Furthermore, the central bank was ordered to support economic plan with loans; as a result of bank crashes, the RBI was requested to establish and monitor a deposit insurance system.
Meant to restore the trust in the national bank system, it was initialized on 7 December 1961. The Indian government founded funds to promote the economy, used the slogan "Developing Banking"; the government of India nationalized a lot of institutes. As a result, the RBI had to play the central part in controlling and supporting this public banking sector. In 1969, the Indira Gandhi-headed government nationalized 14 major commercial banks. Upon Indira Gandhi's return to power in 1980, a further six banks were nationalized; the regulation of the economy and the financial sector was reinforced by the Government of India in the 1970s and 1980s. The central bank became the central p
The Koh-i-Noor spelt Kohinoor and Koh-i-Nur, is one of the largest cut diamonds in the world, weighing 105.6 carats, part of the British Crown Jewels. Mined in Golconda, there is no record of its original weight, but the earliest well-attested weight is 186 old carats. Koh-i-Noor is Hindi-Urdu and Persian for "Mountain of Light", it changed hands between various factions in south and west Asia, until being ceded to Queen Victoria after the British conquest of the Punjab in 1849. The stone was of a similar cut to other Mughal era diamonds like Darya-i-Noor which are now in the Iranian Crown Jewels. In 1851, it went on display at the Great Exhibition in London, but the lacklustre cut failed to impress viewers. Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, ordered it to be re-cut as an oval brilliant by Coster Diamonds. By modern standards, the culet is unusually broad, giving the impression of a black hole when the stone is viewed head-on; because its history involves a great deal of fighting between men, the Koh-i-Noor acquired a reputation within the British royal family for bringing bad luck to any man who wears it.
Since arriving in the UK, it has only been worn by female members of the family. Victoria wore the stone in a circlet. After she died in 1901, it was set in the Crown of Queen Alexandra, wife of Edward VII, it was transferred to the Crown of Queen Mary in 1911, to the crown of Queen Elizabeth in 1937 for her coronation as Queen consort. Today, the diamond is on public display in the Jewel House at the Tower of London, where it is seen by millions of visitors each year; the governments of India and Pakistan have both claimed ownership of the Koh-i-Noor and demanded its return since the two countries gained independence from the UK in 1947. The British government insists the gem was obtained under the terms of the Last Treaty of Lahore and has rejected the claims; the diamond is believed to have come from Kollur Mine, a series of 4-metre deep gravel-clay pits on the banks of Krishna River in the Golconda, India. It is impossible to know when or where it was found, many unverifiable theories exist as to its original owner.
Babur, the Turco-Mongol founder of the Mughal Empire, wrote about a "famous" diamond that weighed just over 187 old carats – the size of the 186-carat Koh-i-Noor. Some historians think. According to his diary, it was acquired by Alauddin Khalji, second ruler of the Khalji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, when he invaded the kingdoms of southern India at the beginning of the 14th century and was in the possession of Kakatiya dynasty, it passed to succeeding dynasties of the Sultanate, Babur received the diamond in 1526 as a tribute for his conquest of Delhi and Agra at the Battle of Panipat. Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal emperor, had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne. In 1658, his son and successor, confined the ailing emperor to Agra Fort. While in the possession of Aurangzeb, it was cut by Hortenso Borgia, a Venetian lapidary, reducing the weight of the large stone to 186 carats. For this carelessness, Borgia was fined 10,000 rupees. According to recent research, the story of Borgia cutting the diamond is not correct, most mixed up with the Orlov, part of Catherine the Great's imperial Russian sceptre in the Kremlin.
Following the 1739 invasion of Delhi by Nader Shah, the Afsharid Shah of Persia, the treasury of the Mughal Empire was looted by his army in an organised and thorough acquisition of the Mughal nobility's wealth. Along with millions of rupees and an assortment of historic jewels, the Shah carried away the Koh-i-Noor, he exclaimed Koh-i-Noor!, Persian for "Mountain of Light", when he obtained the famous stone. One of his consorts said, "If a strong man were to throw four stones – one north, one south, one east, one west, a fifth stone up into the air – and if the space between them were to be filled with gold, all would not equal the value of the Koh-i-Noor". After Nader Shah was killed and his empire collapsed in 1747, the Koh-i-Noor fell to his grandson, who in 1751 gave it to Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Afghan Empire, in return for his support. One of Ahmed's descendants, Shuja Shah Durrani, wore a bracelet containing the Koh-i-Noor on the occasion of Mountstuart Elphinstone's visit to Peshawar in 1808.
A year Shujah formed an alliance with the United Kingdom to help defend against a possible invasion of Afghanistan by Russia. He was overthrown, but fled with the diamond to Lahore, where Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire, in return for his hospitality, insisted upon the gem being given to him, he took possession of it in 1813, its new owner, Ranjit Singh, willed the diamond to the East India Company-administered Hindu Jagannath Temple in Puri, in modern-day Odisha, India. However, after his death in 1839, his will was not executed. On 29 March 1849, following the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the Kingdom of Punjab was formally annexed to Company rule, the Last Treaty of Lahore was signed ceding the Koh-i-Noor to Queen Victoria and the Maharaja's other assets to the company. Article III of the treaty read: "The gem called the Koh-i-Noor, taken from Shah Sooja-ool-moolk by Maharajah Ranjeet Singh, shall be surrendered by the Maharajah of Lahore to the Queen of England"; the Governor-General in charge of the ratification of this treaty was the Marquess of Dalhousie.
The manner of his aidi