|4th President of South Africa|
9 May 2009 – 14 February 2018
|Preceded by||Kgalema Motlanthe|
|Succeeded by||Cyril Ramaphosa|
|President of the African National Congress|
18 December 2007 – 18 December 2017
|Preceded by||Thabo Mbeki|
|Succeeded by||Cyril Ramaphosa|
|Deputy President of South Africa|
14 June 1999 – 14 June 2005
|Preceded by||Thabo Mbeki|
|Succeeded by||Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka|
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma|
12 April 1942
Nkandla, South Africa
|Political party||African National Congress|
Gertrude Sizakele Khumalo (m. 1973)
(m. 1976; d. 2000)
(m. 1982; div. 1998)
Nompumelelo Ntuli (m. 2008)
Thobeka Mabhija (m. 2010)
Gloria Bongekile Ngema (m. 2012)
|Children||20 (estimated), including Gugulethu, Thuthukile and Duduzane|
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (Zulu: [geɮʱejiɬeˈkisa ˈzʱuma]; born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018. Zuma is also referred to by his initials JZ and his clan name Msholozi.
Zuma served as Deputy President of South Africa from 1999 to 2005, but was dismissed by President Thabo Mbeki in 2005 after Zuma's financial adviser, Schabir Shaik, was convicted of soliciting a bribe for Zuma. Zuma was nonetheless elected President of the African National Congress (ANC) on 18 December 2007 after defeating Mbeki at the ANC conference in Polokwane. On 20 September 2008, Mbeki announced his resignation after being recalled by the ANC's National Executive Committee. The recall came after South African High Court Judge Christopher Nicholson ruled Mbeki had improperly interfered with the operations of the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA), including the prosecution of Jacob Zuma for corruption.
Zuma led the ANC to victory in the 2009 general election and was elected President of South Africa. He was re-elected as ANC leader at the ANC conference in Mangaung on 18 December 2012, defeating challenger Kgalema Motlanthe by a large majority, and remained president of South Africa after the 2014 general election, although his party suffered a decline in support, partly due to growing dissatisfaction with Zuma as president.
Zuma faced significant legal challenges before and during his presidency. He was charged with rape in 2005, but was acquitted. He has fought a long legal battle over allegations of racketeering and corruption, resulting from his financial advisor Schabir Shaik's conviction for corruption and fraud. On 6 April 2009, the National Prosecuting Authority dropped the charges against Zuma, citing political interference, although the decision was successfully challenged by opposition parties, and as of February 2018[update] the charges were before the NPA for reconsideration. After extensive state-funded upgrades to his rural homestead at Nkandla, the Public Protector found that Zuma had benefited improperly from the expenditure, and the Constitutional Court unanimously held in 2016's Economic Freedom Fighters v Speaker of the National Assembly that Zuma had failed to uphold the country's constitution, resulting in calls for his resignation and a failed impeachment attempt in the National Assembly. Zuma's rule is estimated to have cost the South African Economy R1 Trillion (approximately US$83 Billion). He has also been implicated in reports of state capture through his friendship with the influential Gupta family. He survived multiple motions of no confidence, both in parliament and within the ANC.
On 18 December 2017, Cyril Ramaphosa was elected to succeed Zuma as President of the ANC at the ANC Conference at Nasrec, Johannesburg. Subsequent months saw growing pressure on Zuma to resign as President of South Africa, culminating in the ANC "recalling" him as President of South Africa. Facing a motion of no confidence in parliament, Zuma announced his resignation on 14 February 2018, and was succeeded by Ramaphosa the next day.
- 1 Early life and political career
- 2 Criminal charges
- 3 Rise to the Presidency
- 4 President of South Africa (2009–2018)
- 4.1 Release of Shaik on parole
- 4.2 Ngcobo's nomination as Chief Justice
- 4.3 Failure to disclose assets
- 4.4 Death of Nelson Mandela
- 4.5 Second term
- 4.6 Foreign policy
- 4.7 Political-economic orientation
- 4.8 Zuma and Zimbabwe
- 4.9 Nkandla homestead and Public Protector findings
- 4.10 Gupta family relationship
- 4.11 Dismissal of Nhlanhla Nene
- 4.12 Dismissal of Pravin Gordhan
- 4.13 2017 motion of no confidence
- 4.14 Succession and resignation
- 5 Post-presidency
- 6 Controversy
- 7 Personal life
- 8 Jacob Zuma Foundation
- 9 Honours and awards
- 10 Filmography
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Early life and political career
Zuma was born in Nkandla, Natal Province (now part of the province of KwaZulu-Natal). His father was a policeman who died when Zuma was five, and his mother was a domestic worker. His middle name, Gedleyihlekisa, means "one who smiles while causing you harm" in Zulu. He received no formal schooling.
Imprisonment and exile
Zuma began engaging in politics at an early age, and joined the African National Congress in 1959. He became an active member of Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1962, following the South African government's banning of the ANC the previous year.
That year, he was arrested with a group of 45 recruits near Zeerust in the western Transvaal, currently part of the North West Province. Convicted of conspiring to overthrow the apartheid government, a government led by the white minority, Zuma was sentenced to ten years imprisonment, which he served on Robben Island with Nelson Mandela and other notable ANC leaders also imprisoned during this time. Whilst imprisoned, Zuma served as a referee for prisoners' association football games, organised by the prisoners' own governing body, Makana F.A.
After his release from prison, Zuma was instrumental in the re-establishment of ANC underground structures in the Natal province. During this time Zuma joined the African National Congress' Department of Intelligence where he later became the departments Head of Intelligence.
Zuma first left South Africa in 1975 and met Thabo Mbeki in Swaziland, and proceeded to Mozambique, where he dealt with the arrival of thousands of exiles in the wake of the Soweto uprising. He became a member of the ANC National Executive Committee in 1977. He also served as Deputy Chief Representative of the ANC in Mozambique, a post he occupied until the signing of the Nkomati Accord between the Mozambican and South African governments in 1984. After signing the Accord, he was appointed as Chief Representative of the ANC.
He served on the ANC's political and military council when it was formed in the mid-1980s, and was elected to the politburo of the SACP in April 1989.
In December 1986, the South African government requested Mozambican authorities expel six senior members of the ANC, including Zuma. As a result of the pressure applied by the apartheid government on Mozambique, he was forced to leave Mozambique in January 1987. He moved to the ANC Head Office in Lusaka, Zambia, where he was appointed Head of Underground Structures and shortly thereafter Chief of the Intelligence Department.
Return from exile
Following the end of the ban on the ANC in February 1990, Zuma was one of the first ANC leaders to return to South Africa to begin the process of negotiations.
In 1990, he was elected Chairperson of the ANC for the Southern Natal region, and took a leading role in fighting political violence in the region between members of the ANC and the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP). He was elected the Deputy Secretary General of the ANC the next year, and in January 1994, he was nominated as the ANC candidate for the Premiership of KwaZulu Natal.
The IFP, led by Mangosuthu Buthelezi, put particular emphasis on Zulu pride and political power during this period. In this context, Zuma's Zulu heritage made his role especially important in the ANC's efforts to end the violence, to emphasise the political (rather than ethnic) roots of the violence, and to win the support of Zulu people in the region.
MEC of Economic Affairs and Tourism
After Nelson Mandela was elected president and Thabo Mbeki his deputy, Zuma became the Member of the Executive Council (MEC) for Economic Affairs and Tourism in his home Province of KwaZulu-Natal.
After the 1994 general election, with the ANC becoming a governing party but having lost KwaZulu-Natal province to the IFP, he was appointed as Member of the Executive Committee (MEC) of Economic Affairs and Tourism for the KwaZulu-Natal provincial government.
In December 1994, he was elected National Chairperson of the ANC and chairperson of the ANC in KwaZulu-Natal, and was re-elected to the latter position in 1996. He was elected Deputy President of the ANC at the National Conference held at Mafikeng in December 1997 and subsequently appointed executive Deputy President of South Africa in June 1999.
During this time, he also worked in Kampala, Uganda, as facilitator of the Burundi peace process, along with Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni. Museveni chairs the Great Lakes Regional Initiative, a grouping of regional presidents overseeing the peace process in Burundi, where several armed Hutu groups took up arms in 1993 against a government and army dominated by the Tutsi minority that they claimed had assassinated the first president elected from the Hutu majority.
Zuma became embroiled in a corruption controversy, one of many, after his financial advisor, Schabir Shaik, was charged with corruption and fraud. Bulelani Ngcuka, the national director of Public Prosecutions at the time, investigated both Zuma and the Chief Whip of the ANC, Tony Yengeni, after allegations of abuse of power were levelled against them. This concerned improper influence in the controversial arms deal, and the question of financial benefit as a result of such influence. While Yengeni was found guilty, the case was dropped against Zuma, with Ngcuka stating, "...that there was prima facie evidence of corruption, but insufficient to win the case in court."
In 2004, Zuma became a key figure mentioned in the Schabir Shaik trial. Schabir Shaik, a Durban businessman and his financial advisor, was questioned over bribery in the course of the purchase of Valour class frigates for the South African Navy, a proposed waterfront development in Durban, and lavish spending on Zuma's residence in Nkandla. In the trial Shaik was shown to have solicited a bribe of R500 000 per annum for Zuma in return for Zuma's support for the defence contractor Thomson CSF, documented in the infamous "encrypted fax". On 2 June 2005, Shaik was found guilty and sentenced to 15 years in prison.
Judge Hilary Squires elaborates in detail on the numerous transactions that transpired between Zuma and Shaik, summarising with "all the accused companies were used at one time or another to pay sums of money to Jacob Zuma". The media mis-quoted Squires with the phrase "A generally corrupt relationship" (existed between Zuma and Shaik), whereas these exact words do not appear in the court transcripts. To the defence of the originators of this phrase, the full transcript of the judgment against Shaik actually does mention Zuma 471 times, uses word "corrupt" or "corruption" 54 times, and contains 12 sentences with both the word "corrupt" and the name "Zuma". Media sources later switched to the phrase "mutually beneficial symbiosis", from the judgment's paragraph 235: "It would be flying in the face of commonsense and ordinary human nature to think that he did not realise the advantages to him of continuing to enjoy Zuma's goodwill to an even greater extent than before 1997; and even if nothing was ever said between them to establish the mutually beneficial symbiosis that the evidence shows existed, the circumstances of the commencement and the sustained continuation thereafter of these payments, can only have generated a sense of obligation in the recipient."
After twelve days of intense media speculation about his future, President Thabo Mbeki relieved Zuma of his duties as deputy president on 14 June 2005. Mbeki told a joint sitting of parliament that "in the interest of the honourable Deputy President, the government, our young democratic system and our country, it would be best to release the honourable Jacob Zuma from his responsibilities as Deputy President of the republic and member of the cabinet." Zuma then resigned as a member of parliament.
In the aftermath of the Shaik trial, Zuma was formally charged with corruption by the National Prosecuting Authority. The case was struck from the roll of the Pietermaritzburg High Court, after the prosecution's application for a postponement (petitioned in order to allow the NPA to secure admissible forms of documentation required as evidence) was dismissed. In dismissing the application for postponement, the Court rendered moot the defence's application for a permanent stay of proceedings which would prevent Zuma from being criminally prosecuted.
Zuma's legal team continued to delay proceedings and in spite of Zuma's claim that he desired the matter to appear in court, succeeded in making critical evidence unavailable to the court resulting in the prosecution making an application for postponement on the set date. As the prosecution was not ready the case was struck from the roll after the prosecution's application for a postponement was dismissed, however Zuma's legal team was unsuccessful in its attempts to have the courts grant a permanent stay of proceedings (which would have rendered Zuma immune to prosecution on the charges). This left Zuma open to being recharged with corruption as soon as the NPA completed preparing its case.
On 8 November 2007, the Supreme Court of Appeal ruled in favour of the National Prosecuting Authority with respect to appeals relating to various search and seizure exercises performed by them, and rejected four appeals made by Zuma's defence team. This ruling pertained to the National Prosecuting Authority obtaining the personal diary of senior member of a French arms company, which may have provided information relating to Zuma's possible corrupt practices during the awarding of an arms deal.
On 28 December 2007, the Scorpions served Zuma an indictment to stand trial in the High Court on various counts of racketeering, money laundering, corruption and fraud. A conviction and sentence to a term of imprisonment of more than one year would have rendered Zuma ineligible for election to the South African Parliament, and consequently he would not have been eligible to serve as President of South Africa.
Charges declared unlawful
Zuma appeared in court on 4 August 2008. On 12 September 2008, Pietermaritzburg Judge Chris Nicholson held that Zuma's corruption charges were unlawful on procedural grounds in that the National Directorate of Public Prosecutions ("NDPP") did not give Zuma a chance to make representations before deciding to charge him (a requirement of the South Africa Constitution), and directed the state to pay legal costs. Nicholson also added, however that he believed political interference played a significant role in the decision to recharge Zuma, although he did not say this was the reason why he held that the charges brought against Zuma were unlawful, though it was implied. Nicholson also stressed that his ruling did not relate to Zuma's guilt or innocence, but was merely on a procedural point. Various media reports had incorrectly reported that the charges against Zuma had been dismissed. This was not the case. It remained competent for the NDPP to recharge Zuma, however, only once he had been given an opportunity to make representations to the NDPP in respect of the NDPP's decision to do so. In paragraph 47 of the Judgment, Judge Nicholson wrote:
The obligation to hear representations forms part of the audi alteram partem principle. What is required is that a person who may be adversely affected by a decision be given an opportunity to make representations with a view to procuring a favourable result. The affected person should usually be informed of the gist or the substance of the case, which he is to answer.
The Court held that the NDPP's failure to follow the procedure outlined in Section 179(5)(d) of the Constitution rendered the decision by the NDPP to recharge Zuma unlawful. Judge Nicholson found that there were various inferences to be drawn from the timing of the charges levelled against Zuma (such as the fact that he was charged soon after he was elected president of the ANC) which would warrant a conclusion that there had been a degree of political interference by the Executive arm of government. Judge Nicholson writes in paragraph 210 of his judgement:
The timing of the indictment [of Zuma] by Mr Mpshe on 28 December 2007, after the President suffered a political defeat at Polokwane was most unfortunate. This factor, together with the suspension of Mr Pikoli, who was supposed to be independent and immune from executive interference, persuade me that the most plausible inference is that the baleful political influence was continuing.
In paragraph 220 of the Judgement Judge Nicholson went on to write:
There is a distressing pattern in the behaviour which I have set out above indicative of political interference, pressure or influence. It commences with the "political leadership" given by Minister Maduna to Mr Ngcuka, when he declined to prosecute the applicant, to his communications and meetings with Thint representatives and the other matters to which I have alluded. Given the rules of evidence the court is forced to accept the inference which is the least favourable to the party's cause who had peculiar knowledge of the true facts. It is certainly more egregious than the "hint or suggestion" of political interference referred to in the Yengeni matter. It is a matter of grave concern that this process has taken place in the new South Africa given the ravages it caused under the Apartheid order.
Prior to the hearing there had been a spate of criticism of the South African Judiciary by Zuma supporters, amongst whom were some prominent legal minds, such as Paul Ngobeni. In that context, the irony was that this was the third time the South African Judiciary had found in his favour, including Zuma's acquittal of the rape charge brought against him. The NDPP soon announced its intention to appeal the decision.
Charges reinstated on appeal
It was improper for the court to make such far-reaching "vexatious, scandalous and prejudicial" findings concerning me, to be judged and condemned on the basis of the findings in the Zuma matter. The interests of justice, in my respectful submission would demand that the matter be rectified. These adverse findings have led to my being recalled by my political party, the ANC – a request I have acceded to as a committed and loyal member of the ANC for the past 52 years. I fear that if not rectified, I might suffer further prejudice.
The judgement for the appeal was handed down on 12 January 2009 at the Supreme Court of Appeal in Bloemfontein. Deputy Judge President Louis Harms had to rule on two aspects of the appeal. The first aspect was whether or not Zuma had the right to be invited to make representations to the NPA before they decided to reinstate charges of bribery and corruption against him. The second aspect was whether Judge Nicholson was correct in implying political meddling by the then President Thabo Mbeki with regards to the NPA's decision to charge Zuma.
On the question of the NPA's obligation to invite representations when reviewing decisions, Harms DP found that Nicholson's interpretation of section 179 of the Constitution was incorrect in that the NPA did not have such an obligation and thus was free to have charged Zuma as it did. On the question of Nicholson's inferences of political meddling by Mbeki, Harms DP found that the lower court "overstepped the limits of its authority".
On 6 April 2009, the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) dropped all charges against Zuma, as well as co-accused French arms company Thint, in light of new revelations about serious flaws in the prosecution.
The revelations were in the form of intercepted phone calls which Zuma's lawyers claimed showed that the head of the Scorpions, Leonard McCarthy, and the former National Director of Public Prosecutions, Bulelani Ngcuka, had conspired over the timing of the charges laid against Zuma, to the political advantage of Zuma's political rival, President Thabo Mbeki.
The announcement of the withdrawal of charges was made by the acting head of the NPA, Mokothedi Mpshe, who however stressed that the withdrawal was due to abuse which left the legal process "tainted", and did not amount to an acquittal.
Just before the NPA's announcement, however, at least two political parties intimated that they would consider legal action of their own should the charges be dropped.
The Democratic Alliance subsequently filed for a judicial review of the NPA's decision, with party leader Helen Zille stating that Mpshe had "not taken a decision based in law, but [instead had] buckled to political pressure". The case was set to be heard on 9 June 2009.
While Zuma filed his responses timely, Mpshe delayed the hearing of the matter, requesting two extensions to file the NPA's response. NPA spokesperson Mthunzi Mhaga said he could not file papers because there were "outstanding matters" to be resolved. Zille, the Democratic Alliance's party head contended that Zuma's response was fundamentally wrong and "devoid of any constitutional basis".
Whilst the legal challenges continued, a survey showed that, as at June 2009, more than half of South Africans believed President Jacob Zuma was doing a good job. The poll, conducted by TNS Research Studies in the last half of June 2009, revealed that Zuma's approval ratings had steadily improved. Around 57% of the people polled said they thought Zuma was a capable leader – this was up 3% from April 2009 when the president was inaugurated. In November 2008, just months after Mbeki was recalled and when Zuma was facing graft charges, only 36% of South Africans were positive about him.
On Friday, 29 April 2016, the High Court in Pretoria has said the decision taken by former NPA head Mokotedi Mpshe to drop corruption charges against President Jacob Zuma in 2009 was irrational. Judge Aubrey Ledwaba found three contradictions in Mr Mpshe's affidavits explaining his decision to withdraw the charges against President Zuma:
- Mpshe should have followed the legal processes on emergence of the "spy tapes" and allow the courts to decide if the charges should have been withdrawn.
- He acted "alone and impulsively", and therefore his decision was "irrational". The decision from 2009 has been set aside.
- The NPA and its head Shaun Abrahams must now decide if it will recharge President Jacob Zuma with the original 783 counts of corruption.
On Friday 13 October 2017, The Supreme Court of Appeal upheld the 29 April 2016 judgement handed down by the High Court stating that the decision to dismiss the case against Jacob Zuma was not upheld by any jurisprudence. Judge Eric Leach's ruling was made after an application was brought before the court by Zuma and the NPA to review the original judgement, resulting in them having to pay the costs of the failed application.
This ruling lays the path for charges to be brought against Zuma, who was given a 30 November deadline to present reasons to the National Prosecutor as to why 783 charges against him should not be reinstated.
Continued support after corruption charges
While serving as deputy president, Zuma enjoyed considerable support in parts of the left wing of the ANC, including many in the ANC Youth League, the South African Communist Party and the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). While Zuma faced corruption charges, these organisations remained supportive of him.
Zuma's dismissal was interpreted in two ways. Many international observers hailed it as a clear sign that the South African government was dedicated to rooting out corruption within its own ranks. On the other hand, some within South Africa focused on the fact that Zuma and Mbeki represent different constituencies within the African National Congress. Some left-wing supporters claimed that Mbeki and his more market-oriented wing of the party had conspired to oust Zuma to entrench their dominance in the ANC.
Zuma's cause rallied large crowds of supporters at each of his corruption-related court appearances in 2005. At one court date, Zuma supporters burned T-shirts with Mbeki's picture on them, which earned the condemnation of the ANC; Zuma and his allies urged a return to party discipline for subsequent gatherings. At the next court date in November, Zuma supporters numbering in the thousands gathered to support him; he addressed the Durban crowd in Zulu, urging party unity and singing the apartheid-era struggle song Lethu Mshini Wami with lyrics that translate literally as "bring me my machine" but understood to refer to a machine gun. At an October tour for the ANC Youth League elsewhere in the country, Zuma also earned the cheers of large crowds. While his political strength was at least partly based on his relationships within intra-party politics, one analyst argued that his supporters' loyalty could be explained as rooted in a Zulu approach to loyalty and mutual aid.
Because of his support among elements of the party, Zuma remained a powerful political figure, retaining a high position in the ANC even after his dismissal as the country's deputy president. A panel of political analysts convened in November 2005 agreed that if he was to be found innocent of the corruption charges brought against him, it would be hard for any other potential ANC candidate to beat Zuma in the race for the country's presidency in 2009. However, these analysts also questioned whether Zuma was indeed a left-wing candidate of the sort that many of his supporters seem to seek, and noted that the global and national economic constraints that have shaped Mbeki's presidency would be no different in the next presidential term.
In December 2005, Zuma was charged with raping a 31-year-old woman at his home in Forest Town, Gauteng. The alleged victim was from a prominent ANC family, the daughter of a deceased struggle comrade of Zuma, and also an AIDS activist who was known to be HIV-positive. Zuma denied the charges and claimed that the sex was consensual.
Even before charges were filed, as rumours about rape accusations surfaced later in November, Zuma's political prospects began to appear to take a turn for the worse. Most of his higher-level political supporters could not respond to these new charges the way they had the corruption charges. In a hearing prior to the rape trial, a group of thousands of his supporters gathered near the courthouse, as a smaller gathering of anti-rape groups demonstrated on behalf of the alleged rape victim. As he did throughout the trial, Zuma sang Lethu Mshini Wami (Bring me my machine gun) with the crowd, and ANC Youth League and Communist Party Youth League spokesmen spoke in support of Zuma.
As the rape trial proceeded, reports surfaced that the South African Communist Party was severely divided over how to address the issue of Zuma and the SACP's relationship to him. Many members of the party's youth wing supported Zuma while others in the SACP were sceptical about the value of rallying behind a particular person as opposed to emphasizing principles of governance.
Despite the defection of some former supporters, many Zuma supporters continued to rally outside the courthouse, arousing criticism by anti-rape groups for regular attacks on the integrity and moral standing of Zuma's accuser, insults yelled at a close friend of the accuser, and even stones thrown at a woman that members of the crowd mistook for the accuser. Zuma's defence team introduced evidence relating to the woman's sexual past, and asserted that the sex that took place was consensual. The prosecution asserted that her lack of resistance was due to a state of shock, and that the relationship between the two was like that of a 'father-daughter' pair.
The trial also generated political controversy when Zuma, who at the time headed the National AIDS Council, admitted that he had not used a condom when having sex with the woman who now accuses him of rape, despite knowing that she was HIV-positive. He stated in court that he took a shower afterwards to "cut the risk of contracting HIV". This statement was condemned by the judge, health experts, and AIDS activists. The popular South African comic strip, Madam & Eve, and well known political cartoonist, Zapiro, repeatedly lampooned the matter. HIV educators emphasised that this would do nothing to prevent HIV transmission.
On 8 May 2006, the court acquitted Zuma of rape, finding that the sexual act in question was consensual, but also censuring Zuma for having unprotected sex with an HIV woman who was not his partner.
As his rape trial ended, many South Africans wondered how their political system would recover from the rifts that Zuma's trials have exposed. A Mail & Guardian analysis saw these events as especially troubling:
The political damage is incalculable, with the ruling African National Congress now an openly divided and faltering movement. This has had a domino effect on the South African Communist Party and the Congress of South African Trade Unions, which have floundered and fractured in the face of damaging charges against a man they ardently backed as the country's next president.
The trial has been fought against the backdrop of a bitter succession war between Mbeki and Zuma. ... Mbeki's support in the ANC has crumbled, with the party faithful refusing to accept that he will anoint a leader... But even Zuma's most diehard supporters privately acknowledge that he cannot now be president, regardless of the trial outcome.
Nonetheless, Business Day's Karima Brown told The Guardian after the rape trial's verdict was handed down:
Jacob Zuma is back. This poses a serious dilemma for the ANC leadership. Now Zuma is marching back into Luthuli House [the ANC party HQ]. He will demand to be reinstated as deputy president and the others will find it difficult to block him … This is a major victory for Zuma's political career.
The prospect of Zuma's return as a contender for the presidency caused concern for international investors. An Independent analyst suggested, "The fear of seeing Zuma and his crowd marching to the Union Buildings wielding machine guns is unnerving mostly to the middle class and businessmen, according to recent surveys."
As a backlash to the frenzied media following his rape trial, Zuma filed a series of defamation lawsuits on 30 June 2006 against various South African media outlets for publishing content that allegedly besmirched his public profile, in the form of cartoons, commentary, photos and parody pieces. The media outlets that came under fire were The Star for R 20 million, Rapport for R 10 million, Highveld Stereo for R 6 million, The Citizen for R 5 million, Sunday Sun for R 5 million, Sunday Independent for R 5 million, and Sunday World for R 5 million.
Zuma appointed Former Conservative Party MP advocate Jurg Prinsloo, as well as Wycliffe Mothuloe to tackle his so-called "crucifixion by the media". Zuma said:
For a period of five years my person has been subjected to all types of allegations and innuendo, paraded through the media and other corridors of influence without these allegations having being [sic] tested. I have thereby been denied my constitutional right to reply and defend myself.
2018 corruption charges
On 16 March 2018, it was confirmed by the director of public prosecutions that Zuma would face 18 charges of corruption, including more than 700 counts of fraud and money laundering. Zuma's political allies within the ANC and Tripartite Alliance protested the prospect of a corruption trail. Some allies such as Julius Malema (then leader of the African National Congress Youth League) and Zwelinzima Vavi stated that they would "kill for Zuma" whilst other Zuma allies stated that the trail would threaten South Africa's political stability. Judge Nicholson set aside the National Prosecuting Authority' case against Zuma stating that he could not rule out political interference in it.
Rise to the Presidency
On 14 June 2005, President Thabo Mbeki removed Zuma from his post as Deputy President due to allegations of corruption and fraud related to the $5-billion weapons acquisition deal by the South African government in 1999. Zuma's successor as Deputy President of South Africa was Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, the wife of Bulelani Ngcuka. Mlambo-Ngcuka had been Minister of Minerals and Energy since 1999. While her appointment was widely welcomed by the business community, she was booed publicly at many ANC rallies by Zuma supporters between the time corruption charges had been filed but before rape charges were made, with the first booing taking place in Utrecht.
Election as ANC president
In terms of party tradition, as the deputy president of the ANC, Zuma was already in line to succeed Mbeki. Mbeki however sought a third term as ANC president, though the South African Constitution would not have allowed him a third term as President of South Africa. The party structures held their nominations conferences in October and November 2007, where Zuma appeared favourite for the post of ANC President, and, by implication, the President of South Africa in 2009. With then-incumbent ANC- and South African President Thabo Mbeki as his opposition, Zuma was elected President of the ANC on 18 December 2007 with 2329 votes, beating Mbeki's 1505 votes.
President of South Africa (2009–2018)
In September 2008, the breakdown in the relationship between the ruling ANC and its presidential appointee, Thabo Mbeki, reached a tipping point, with the ANC NEC's decision to recall Mbeki. Mbeki elected not to challenge this decision and resigned as President of South Africa. The ANC announced that the party's deputy president, Kgalema Motlanthe, would become president until 2009 general elections, after which it was intended that Zuma would become president. Zuma declared that he would prefer to only serve one term as president.
The ANC won the national election on 6 May 2009 and Zuma was sworn in as President of South Africa on 9 May 2009.
Release of Shaik on parole
In March 2009, Schabir Shaik was released from prison just 28 months into his fifteen-year sentence. He had been granted medical parole, a leniency meant only for the terminally ill, despite the opinion of his doctors that he was fighting fit and free for hospital discharge. Media speculation had it that Zuma may have played a role in this eventuality, but the ANC President's spokesman firmly denied it. Only days before, however, he had publicly stated that, as President of South Africa, he would personally ensure Shaik's release.
Ngcobo's nomination as Chief Justice
On 6 August 2009, Zuma nominated Sandile Ngcobo as Chief Justice of South Africa, drawing criticism from four opposition groups. On 1 October 2009, the appointment was confirmed. The Democratic Alliance, the Congress of the People, the Inkatha Freedom Party and the Independent Democrats accused Zuma of failing to consult properly ahead of his nomination of Ngcobo. The opposition urged Zuma to restart the process from scratch saying they would prefer current Deputy Chief Justice Dikgang Moseneke for the post.
Failure to disclose assets
As President of South Africa, Zuma was required to declare his financial interests within 60 days of taking office. But, as of March 2010, he had failed to do so, nine months after taking office. This led to calls for him to do so by opposition parties, and ANC alliance partner COSATU. ANC spokesman, Brian Sokutu, stated that Zuma constituted a "special case", because of his "large family" making it difficult to declare his assets. The ANC later distanced itself from this statement. Zuma disclosed his interests shortly after.
Death of Nelson Mandela
Zuma officially announced the death of Nelson Mandela, South Africa's first democratically elected president, in a press conference on 5 December 2013. Zuma was booed and heckled by the crowd at the memorial service for Nelson Mandela. Al Jazeera reported that "for many South Africans, Zuma represents some of the nation's least appealing qualities. They consider their deeply flawed president and faltering government and mutter dark thoughts about a failing state and a banana republic."
On 18 January 2014, it was reported that Zuma would be the sole candidate for the ANC in the upcoming national election. It was reported that, in spite of speculation to the contrary, because of the controversies surrounding him, the ANC was "united behind Zuma" and would not field another candidate for the presidency in the upcoming national election. ANC Deputy Secretary General Jesse Duarte stated "The policy is that the president of the ANC is always the candidate for the election. We don't have another candidate and there will be no other candidate. Let us be clear."
On 26 January 2014, it was reported that at least four of the 11 ANC regional leaders in KwaZulu-Natal had confirmed the existence of a "resolution" taken to approach Zuma to ask him not to run for a second term as the country's president. The resolution had reportedly gained momentum in November 2013 when the ANC was preparing for the national list conference, however, it "lost traction" after the death of Nelson Mandela.
Zuma has described himself as a socialist and became president with the support of a left-wing coalition of trade unions and the South African Communist Party, as well as the ANC Women's League and the ANC Youth League. However, The Guardian (UK) has also reported that Zuma has tried "to reassure foreign investors their interests will be protected".
Zuma and Zimbabwe
The African National Congress, of which Zuma was president, historically has considered the ZANU-PF party a natural ally, born out of mutual struggle against white minority rule. Former South African president Thabo Mbeki had never publicly criticised Mugabe's policies – preferring "quiet diplomacy" rather than "megaphone diplomacy", his term for the harsh Western condemnations of Mugabe's leadership. However, the left of the party and extra-party organisations such as the ANC Youth League, the South African Communist Party and the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) have advocated for a tougher stance on Zimbabwe. It was from these organisations that Zuma derived his support.
Zuma's stance on Zimbabwe was mixed. In a 2006 interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel, he expressed more sympathetic sentiments towards Mugabe, saying that "Europeans often ignore the fact that Mugabe is very popular among Africans. In their eyes, he has given blacks their country back after centuries of colonialism." He continued: "The people love him, so how can we condemn him? Many in Africa believe that there is a racist aspect to European and American criticism of Mugabe. Millions of blacks died in Angola, the Republic of Congo and Rwanda. A few whites lost their lives in Zimbabwe, unfortunately, and already the West is bent out of shape."
However, by December 2007, he was more forthright in criticising Zimbabwe's leadership, increasingly defining his own policy in contrast to that of Mbeki:
It is even more tragic that other world leaders who witness repression pretend it is not happening, or is exaggerated. When history eventually deals with the dictators, those who stood by and watched should also bear the consequences. A shameful quality of the modern world is to turn away from injustice and ignore the hardships of others.
Following the disputed elections in Zimbabwe on 29 March 2008, he became critical of the election process in Zimbabwe referring to delays in the outcome as "suspicious". In a press conference on 24 June, he asserted: "We cannot agree with ZANU-PF. We cannot agree with them on values. We fought for the right of people to vote, we fought for democracy." At an ANC dinner in July, he rebuked Mugabe for refusing to step down.
Nkandla homestead and Public Protector findings
After Zuma became president, his private homestead at Nkandla in rural KwaZulu-Natal was substantially upgraded by the state. In November 2013 opposition parties accused Zuma of having used taxpayer funds not only for security improvements, but also private additions and improvements to his home. Zuma answered in parliament that he was unaware of the scale of the work, but agreed to two investigations, one to probe its rising costs, and another to determine any breaches of parliamentary spending rules. The Public Protector's report "Secure in Comfort" found that Zuma and his family had benefited improperly from the upgrades, that a swimming pool (claimed to be a "fire pool"), amphitheatre, cattle kraal and chicken run were not security features, and that Zuma had violated the executive ethics code and had not asked "questions regarding the scale, cost and affordability of the Nkandla project." After rival reports by the police's Special Investigative Unit and a parliamentary ad hoc committee attempted to exonerate Zuma, opposition parties went to the Constitutional Court to establish whether the Public Protector's report was binding. Shortly before the Constitutional Court hearing in February 2016, Zuma's attorneys recognised that the Public Protector's findings were binding and said that Zuma was ready to pay back part of the cost of the upgrade. On 31 March 2016, the Constitutional Court delivered a unanimous judgement in Economic Freedom Fighters v Speaker of the National Assembly and Others stating that the Public Protector's report was binding and that Zuma and the National Assembly had failed to uphold the country's constitution. The court ordered National Treasury to determine the amount that Zuma must pay back and ordered Zuma to do so within 45 days of the court's approval of the National Treasury report.
In the immediate wake of the judgment, Julius Malema and Mmusi Maimane, the leaders of the two victorious applicants in the case, called for Zuma to step down. However, Zuma sought to downplay the judgment. In a press statement the following evening, he said he welcomed the judgment and had always accepted the Public Protector's reports were binding, and noted that the Court found he had been entitled to institute a parallel investigative process and had acted "honestly" and "in good faith". Legal commentators condemned these claims as serious misrepresentations of the judgment. They pointed out that it could not possibly have been the case, as Zuma claimed, that he was merely adopting the High Court's approach to the powers of the Public Protector in its DA v SABC judgment, because that was handed down six weeks after Zuma signaled his intention not to comply with her report. Commentators also condemned the Presidency's statement that the Court had never found Zuma breached his office, since that was the judgment's unmistakable implication.
But the ANC continued to support Zuma. The ANC Women's League had released a statement hours after the judgment saying its faith in Zuma "remains unshaken". Secretary-General Gwede Mantashe, speaking on behalf of the so-called Top Six, said he "welcomed" Zuma's apologetic statement but that calls for his impeachment were "over-exaggerated". Chief Whip Jackson Mthembu and Deputy Minister of Justice John Jeffery took the view that, although Zuma had breached the Constitution, the breach was not "serious". The impeachment bid by opposition MPs on 5 April 2016 failed by over 120 votes. Some were surprised that even Zuma's opponents within the ANC like Cyril Ramaphosa and Pravin Gordhan had voted against the motion. The Congress of the People, an opposition party, said it would boycott parliamentary proceedings in light of the National Assembly's failure to implement the Court's judgment.
Nevertheless, many analysts said the judgment might prove a fatal blow to Zuma, although factional battles within the ANC would be the ultimate decider. One suggested that powerful ANC members had lost faith in Zuma and might move to oust him at a more opportune moment. The South African Communist Party, part of Zuma's own Tripartite Alliance, had been skeptical about the adequacy of his response to the judgment. Some ANC members booed Zuma at his next subsequent appearance. And several prominent members of civil society and former ANC insiders, including Ahmed Kathrada, Ronnie Kasrils, Trevor Manuel, Cheryl Carolus, and retired Constitutional Court judge Zak Yacoob, called for Zuma's resignation, prompting a backlash from certain Zuma allies. The South African Council of Churches did the same, saying Zuma had "lost all moral authority". The Gauteng ANC, led by noted Zuma critic Paul Mashatile, formally resolved that Zuma must resign; doubts were raised about Zuma's leadership even within his traditional strongholds like the ANC's Limpopo branches; and an internal ANC memorandum sent by party veterans to the Top Six allegedly demanded Zuma's recall and compared him to detested apartheid-era President P. W. Botha. Finally, members of the Gupta family, thought to be Zuma's long-standing allies and crucial financial backers, resigned from their major holding company and fled South Africa for Dubai in the week after the judgment – leaving Zuma, in the opinion of some analysts, extremely vulnerable. In the wake of these developments, Malema said it was now time to "crush the head of the snake". On 12 April 2016, Max du Preez said the key question, "now that the balance of power has turned irrevocably against Zuma", was how to ensure he makes a managed – and non-violent – exit.
Gupta family relationship
Zuma's close and allegedly corrupt relationship with the Gupta family has been a major source of discontent within both his own party – the ANC – and the South African public. The portmanteau "Zupta", a combination of "Z" from "Zuma" and the "upta" from "Gupta", was first coined by the Economic Freedom Fighters at the 2016 South African presidential state of the nation address when they disrupted the event by repeatedly chanting "Zupta must fall" to express their dissatisfaction with this relationship.
South African Opposition parties have made claims of "State Capture" following allegations that the Guptas, said to be close to President Jacob Zuma, his family and other ANC leaders, had insinuated themselves into a position where they could offer Cabinet positions and influence the running of government. These allegations were made in light of revelations by Deputy Finance Minister Mcebisi Jonas and former MP Vytjie Mentor that they had been offered Cabinet positions by the Guptas at the family's home in Saxonwold, Johannesburg.
Dismissal of Nhlanhla Nene
On 9 December 2015, President Jacob Zuma issued a statement replacing Finance Minister Nhlanhla Nene with the little-known Des van Rooyen. It was widely suspected that Nene was replaced for reasons all related to him vetoing suspect and/or controversial uses of public funds including the vetoing of South African Airways (SAA) chairperson Dudu Myeni's attempt to purchase 5 Airbus A330s through an unnamed third party, not approving a proposed SAA direct flight route between Sudan and South Africa, Nene's resistance to approving funding for a nuclear deal with Russia, not approving the purchase of a new R4 billion Boeing 787 presidential plane, and the downgrading of South Africa's credit rating to just above 'junk' status by international rating agencies.
Strong links between both of Van Rooyen's top two advisers and the Gupta family came to light a few months later, prompting concerns that Nene's firing was an attempt at state capture by political and business associates of the Zuma family.
The dismissal of Nene caused a public outcry and a strongly negative reaction by international markets causing the rand to lose 10% of its value and the withdrawal of an estimated R180 billion from the Johannesburg Stock Exchange in the two days following the announcement. In addition to the public and opposition political parties the business community, COSATU and other trade unions, the Communist Party of South Africa, as well as many within the ruling ANC called for Zuma to reverse the decision. Four days after the announcement on 13 December a senior ANC delegation met with Zuma and told him to reinstate Nene or appoint former minister of finance Pravin Gordhan. A few hours later Zuma announced that van Rooyen would be replaced by the better known and trusted Pravin Gordhan. This event is thought to have increased the rift between Zuma and the rest of the ANC including Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa, something that Ramaphosa denied. Ranjeni Munusamy of the Daily Maverick stated that this has exposed President Zuma as a "weak leader who acted recklessly without proper advice" indicating that the firing of Nene has greatly damaged Zuma's political standing.
Dismissal of Pravin Gordhan
In the early hours of 31 March 2017, the Presidency announced a major cabinet reshuffle in which Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan and his deputy Mcebisi Jonas were dismissed, with Malusi Gigaba appointed as the new Finance Minister. The reshuffle affected 10 cabinet ministers, 5 of whom were dismissed, and 10 deputy ministers. The reshuffle was strongly criticised by Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa and other senior ANC and SACP leaders, and led to increased calls for Zuma to resign, including opposition calls for a motion of no confidence and impeachment. The SACP's Second Deputy General Secretary Solly Afrika Mapaila indicated that ANC members of Parliament should themselves raise the prospect of a vote of no confidence in the President. Shortly after the removal of Pravin Gordhan, ratings agency Standard and Poor's downgraded South Africa's sovereign debt to BB+, commonly known as junk status. Partly in response to the dismissal of the Gordhan marches and protests were held on 7 April 2017 in South Africa's major cities with a total of 60,000 protesters taking part. The largest of the protests occurred in Cape Town with an estimated 12,000 to 80,000 participants and Pretoria with an estimated 25,000 joining protests at the Union Buildings.
2017 motion of no confidence
On 7 August 2017, Speaker Baleka Mbete announced that she would permit a motion of no confidence in Zuma's government to proceed in the National Assembly via secret ballot. It was the eighth motion to be brought against Zuma in his presidency and the first to be held via secret ballot. After the vote was held the next day, the motion was defeated 198–177, with 25 abstentions. Around 20 ANC MPs voted in favor of the measure.
Succession and resignation
From 2015, Jacob Zuma was understood to favour his ex-wife, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, to succeed him both as President of the African National Congress and as President of South Africa, in order to retain his control of the ANC and the state through her, and to avoid prosecution for still pending criminal charges. In December 2017, Dlamini-Zuma was defeated by Cyril Ramaphosa in the election for the ANC Presidency at the ANC Conference at Nasrec, Johannesburg.
Following the end of Zuma's term as ANC President, pressure grew for Zuma to be replaced as President of South Africa. The annual State of the Nation Address scheduled for 8 February was postponed indefinitely 2 days beforehand. After a week of discussions within ANC structures and between Ramaphosa and Zuma, the ANC announced on 13 February that Zuma had been requested to resign, but had refused, and that the ANC was therefore "recalling" him from the Presidency. Facing a motion of no confidence in Parliament scheduled for 15 February, Jacob Zuma announced his resignation with immediate effect in a late night address on 14 February. In July 2018 City Press reported elements in the South African National Defence Force and State Security Agency had been unsuccessfully lobbied to launch a revolt to prevent Zuma's removal as President of the country during this period.
On 15 February, the National Assembly held an indirect presidential election, electing Ramaphosa unopposed. Ramaphosa was sworn in, and delivered the State of the Nation Address the following day.
Zuma was invited to attend the first State of the National Address by the new President of South Africa Cyril Ramaphosa along with former South African Presidents F.W De Klerk and Thabo Mbeki, but did not attend. He did attend a farewell cocktail party in his honour hosted by President Cyril Ramaphosa for his contribution to South Africa during the nine years of his presidency.
On the 6th of April 2018, Zuma made his first appearance in the Durban Magistrates Court for charges of corruption.. On 8th June 2018, Zuma appeared before the KwaZulu Natal High Court. His court was postponed to 27th July 2018 after his legal team requested for more time to seek clarity on his legal fees funding.
Alleged abuses by bodyguards
In 2010, Zuma's bodyguards were implicated in multiple incidents involving members of the public and journalists.
In February, a Cape Town student, Chumani Maxwele, was detained by police after allegedly showing Zuma's motorcade a "rude gesture". Maxwele, an active ANC member, was released after 24 hours, having provided a written apology to police, which he later claimed was coerced. He also claimed that his home had been raided by plain-clothes policemen, and that he had been forced into the vehicle at gunpoint. Maxwele later instituted legal action against the police, and a complaint was filed on his behalf to the Human Rights Commission. The incident led to a heated dispute when it was discussed in Parliament.
In March, journalist Tshepo Lesole was forced to delete pictures of Zuma's convoy from his camera by police, and two photographers were detained by police when photographing Zuma's Johannesburg home. Sky News reporter Emma Hurd claimed she had been pushed, manhandled and "groped" by Zuma's bodyguards in 2009.
"Shoot the Boer" song
"The Spear" painting
In 2012, Zuma was featured in a satirical painting by Cape Town-based artist Brett Murray, who depicted him in his painting The Spear, in a pose similar to Lenin, but with his genitals exposed. The ANC responded by threatening court action against the gallery showing the painting, and further demanding that the image should be removed from online sources. The subsequent aggressive sharing of the image through social networks can be considered a form of the Streisand effect. On 22 May 2012, the painting was vandalised while it was hanging in an art gallery in Johannesburg. The face and genitals of Zuma were painted over.
Panama Papers revelations
Clive Khulubuse Zuma, the nephew of Jacob Zuma, was named in the Panama Papers as a result of his links to oilfields in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Shortly after president Jacob Zuma met with DRC president Joseph Kabila, Khulubuse Zuma's company Caprikat Limited secured a R100 billion rand oil deal in the DRC.
- Gertrude Sizakele Khumalo (MaKhumalo), whom he met in 1959 and married shortly after his release from prison in 1973. They have no children.
- Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, a cabinet minister from 1994 to 2012, with whom he has four daughters, Msholozi (born 1982), Gugulethu Zuma-Ncube (born 1985), Thuli (born 1987), and Thuthukile Zuma (born 28 April 1989). They divorced in June 1998.
- Kate Mantsho (born 2 September 1956), from Mozambique, with whom he had five children, Mxolisi (b. 1980, married Phindile Luthuli in Durban in 2008, betrothed to Swazi princess Ziyanda Dlamini ), twins Duduzile and Duduzane (b. 1984), Phumzile (b. 1989) and Vusi (born 1993, died 2 July 2018 ). She committed suicide on 8 December 2000 and is buried in Heroes' Acre at Westpark Cemetery in Johannesburg.
- Nompumelelo Ntuli (MaNtuli), married on 8 January 2008. Ntuli, born 1975, is a resident of KwaMaphumulo near Stanger and has three children. The first two are Thandisiwe and Sinqobile.
- Thobeka Stacie Madiba (born Mabhija, her mother's name), married 4 January 2010, with whom he has three children. Zuma paid lobola to her clan in 2007. Their first child was born in October 2007. She has another of Zuma's out-of-wedlock children living with her. Mabhija grew up in Umlazi, where she matriculated at Umlazi Commercial High School. She has worked at Standard Bank, Ithala, Cell C and SA Homeloans in La Lucia. She owns a house in Durban North. In 2016, the BBC credited her for campaigning for the rights of girls at risk of forced or child-age marriage.
- Gloria Bongekile Ngema, married on 20 April 2012. The wedding took place in Nkandla and was attended by Zuma's three other wives. Following a traditional ceremony known as umgcagco, the bridal party participated in a traditional Zulu competitive celebratory dance. Ngema has one son with Zuma, Sinqumo.
In June 2012, activists, including some from the ANC itself, complained about the amount the state paid to support Zuma's wives, especially in the context of the country's widespread poverty. In 2009–10 Zuma received a budget of £1.2m for "spousal support", almost twice the amount paid during the terms in office of Thabo Mbeki and Kgalema Motlanthe, leading to suggestions that only Zuma's first wife should receive state support.
- He has another son, Edward, born 1977, with Minah Shongwe, sister of Judge Jeremiah Shongwe, who asked to be recused from Zuma's rape trial because of the liaison.
- He has two daughters, born 18 January 1998 and 19 September 2002, with Pietermaritzburg businesswoman Priscilla Nonkwaleko Mhlongo. In March 2017 Mhlongo was named as one of the speakers in a covert recording in which she was alleged to have outlined a plan for illegally defrauding the province of kwaZulu-Natal of a proportion of its school meals budget, apparently with Zuma's knowledge.
- There are reports of four other children – three from a woman from Johannesburg and one from a woman from Richard's Bay.
- Zuma had a child with 24 year old Nonkanyiso Conco, born on Zuma's birthday, April 12 2018. They plan to marry, with lobola negotiations under way.
In January 2010, The Sunday Times reported that Sonono Khoza, the daughter of Irvin Khoza, gave birth to Zuma's 20th child on 8 October 2009, a daughter called Thandekile Matina Zuma. Zuma confirmed that he had paid inhlawulo, acknowledging paternity. He protested the publishing of the child's name, saying it was illegal exploitation of the child. He denied that the incident had relevance to the government's AIDS programme (which promotes marital fidelity as a mechanism for preventing the disease), and appealed for privacy. On 6 February, Zuma said he "deeply regretted the pain that he caused to his family, the ANC, the alliance and South Africans in general." The office of the presidency's comment was that it was a private matter, and the ANC defended Zuma, saying it saw no links between its policies on HIV/AIDS and Mr Zuma's personal life. ANC Youth League leader Julius Malema said "We are Africans and sitting here all of us, Zuma is our father so we are not qualified to talk about that". Malema said the ANCYL would emphasise its HIV programme and "one boyfriend, one girlfriend" stance in an awareness campaign across the country. ANC Women's League deputy president Nosipho Dorothy Ntwanambi said: "it is not right to have an extramarital affair if you have committed to yourself to a marriage. But under the Customary Marriages Act, if the first wife agrees, and if all these issues are discussed with her, we can't do anything." On 5 February, the ANC acknowledged the widespread disapproval by saying that the experience had "taught us many valuable lessons", and they had listened to the people. COSATU, an ANC alliance partner, passed no judgment but hoped that it will be "a matter on Zuma's conscience" Vavi reiterated Zuma's appeal then that he be accorded his "right to privacy" and the child protected from undue publicity.
Helen Zille of the Democratic Alliance said Zuma contradicted his public message of safe sex to South Africans, who have a high incidence of AIDS and HIV infection. She said it was wrong to say it was purely a private matter, and elected public officials had to embody the principles and values for which they stand. The African Christian Democratic Party said Zuma was undermining the government's drive to persuade people to practise safe sex to combat HIV and AIDS. while the Congress of the People (COPE) said Zuma could no longer use African cultural practices to justify his "promiscuity". Independent Democrats leader Patricia de Lille, said Zuma was asking people "to do as I say and not as I do".
Jacob Zuma Foundation
Zuma started the Jacob Zuma Foundation to send children to school and build houses for people living in poverty. The chairperson of the Foundation is Dudu Myeni, who is also the chairperson of South African Airways.
Honours and awards
- Nelson Mandela Award for Outstanding Leadership from the Medical University of South Africa, awarded in Washington, D.C. (1998)
- During a visit to the United Kingdom in 2010, Jacob Zuma was made an honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath.
- Imo Merit Award, the highest award in the Imo State of Nigeria conferred on those who have made a difference in the development of their communities. (15 October 2017)
- University of Zululand (2001), Honorary Doctor of Administration
- University of Fort Hare (2001), Honorary Doctor of Literature/Letters
- Medical University of Southern Africa (2001), Honorary Doctor of Philosophy
- University of Zambia (UNZA) Great East Campus (2009), Honorary Doctor of Law
- Peking University (2012), Honorary Professor of International Relations
- The Passion of Jacob Zuma, 2009 French documentary by Jean-Baptiste Dusséaux and Matthieu Niango
- Motherland, 2010 documentary directed by Owen 'Alik Shahadah
- Berger, Sebastien (5 January 2009). "ANC's Jacob Zuma to marry for fifth time". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "SA's Zuma marries his third wife". BBC News. 4 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "South Africa's polygamous president marries fourth wife". BNO News. 20 April 2012. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- Laing, Aislinn (20 June 2012). "Jacob Zuma faces losing £1.2 million support for four wives". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Zuma sworn in as SA's fourth democratic President". SABC. Archived from the original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
- Mbuyazi, Nondumiso (13 September 2008). "JZ receives 'death threat'". The Star. p. 4. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- Gordin, Jeremy (31 August 2008). "So what are Msholozi's options?". Sunday Tribune. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- Lander, Alice (19 December 2007). "Durban basks in Zuma's ANC victory". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
- "Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma". The Presidency. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
- SA News/Staff Reporter (22 May 2014). "Jacob Zuma elected president". iafrica.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "SA's Mbeki says he will step down". London, UK: BBC News. 20 September 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2008.
- Conway-Smith, Erin (18 December 2012). "Jacob Zuma re-elected as head of ANC". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Budget 2018 is Zuma's Costly Legacy". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Herman, Paul (18 December 2017). "Ramaphosa wins ANC presidency – AS IT HAPPENED". News24. Archived from the original on 18 December 2017.
- "Time's up: Jacob Zuma has resigned". Mail & Guardian. 14 February 2018. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018.
- Gordin, J: Zuma, A Biography, page 1. Jonathan Ball, 2008.
- The Trials of Jacob Zuma Archived 16 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine., BBC, 15 December 2017.
- Gordin, J: Zuma, A Biography, pg 4. Jonathan Ball, 2008.
- "The disastrous legacy of South Africa's President Jacob Zuma". The Economist. 14 February 2018. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018.
- "The Jacob Zuma Page". ANC. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "Biography of Jacob ZUMA". African Success. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Smith, David (20 April 2009). "Jacob Zuma the chameleon brings South Africans joy and fear". The Guardian. London, UK. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017.
- Beresford, David (22 February 2009). "Zuma's missing years come to light". The Times. UK. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009.
- "Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma". SA History Online. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- "Fifa gives Zuma his ref's certificate". SouthAfrica.info. 30 June 2009. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
- Trewhela, Paul (15 February 2009). "Jacob Zuma in exile: three unexplored issues". Archived from the original on 28 February 2009.
- Gevisser, Mark (2007). Thabo Mbeki: The Dream Deferred.
- "Jacob Zuma profile". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "Statement of the African National Congress Following the Resignation of the President of the Republic of South Africa, Comrade Jacob Zuma". IOL. 14 February 2018. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018.
- "A closer look at Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma". IOL. 6 May 2009.
- "Tutsis boycott Burundi talks". BBC. 27 July 2004. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009.
- "Ngcuka accused of 'derailing justice'". 24 August 2003. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- "Encrypted Fax". Archived from the original on 2016-09-16. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
- Fowler, Andrew (7 April 2009). "Jacob Zuma". ABC News.
- "Shaik sentenced to 15 years in prison". SABC news. 6 August 2005. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
- Berger, Guy (22 November 2006). "Suckers for the sound bite". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 22 November 2006.
- "Shaik Judgment in full (HTML)". Archived from the original on 22 March 2009.
- "Deputy president sacked". Mail & Guardian. 14 June 2005. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018.
- "Zuma corruption trial struck off the roll". SABC news. 20 September 2006. Archived from the original on 26 October 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2006.
- Oellermann, Ingrid (4 August 2008). "Zuma's long path to court". Archived from the original on 17 February 2018.
- "A timeline of Jacob Zuma's presidency". IOL. 15 February 2018. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018.
- "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa". Archived from the original on 15 July 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- Zigomo, Muchena (13 September 2008). "S. African judge dismisses Zuma corruption case". The China Post. Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "news.bbc.co.uk, SA court rejects Zuma graft case". BBC News. 12 September 2008. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- James Orr and agencies (12 September 2008). "South African court clears way for Zuma presidential run". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- Burgis, Tom (12 September 2008). "Court clears Zuma to run for president". Financial Times.
- "Full Zuma judgment". News24. 13 September 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008.
- Johns, Lynnette (6 September 2008). "Judges think they're descendants of God".
- "STATE-Versus-JACOB GEDLEYIHLEKISA ZUMA – A LITIGATION COOKBOOK" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2011.
- "Mbeki challenges court ruling to defend reputation". AFP. 23 September 2008. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- Lourens, Carli (23 September 2008). "bloomberg.com, South Africa's Mbeki Plans to Challenge 'Improper' Court Ruling". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- John, Mark; Kulikov, Yuri (12 January 2009). "Court upholds NDPP appeal in Zuma case". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 April 2017.
- Gordin, Jeremy. "Jacob Zuma: Jeremy Gordin analysis", Dispatch Now 24/7, 8 April 2009.
- "Mpshe reveals contents of Ngcuka, McCarthy tapes". Mail & Guardian. 6 April 2009. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- "Mpshe: Zuma decision not an acquittal". Mail & Guardian. 6 April 2009. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009.
- Du Plessis, Carien (2 April 2009). "Is NPA entitled to drop Zuma charges?". Cape Times. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009.
- "DA files for judicial review". Archived from the original on 8 April 2009.
- "The Spy Who Saved Zuma". Archived from the original on 26 April 2009.
- "News – Politics: Mpshe showing contempt for law: Zille". Independent Online. South Africa. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
- Mandy Wiener (19 August 2009). "Eyewitness News: Zuma doing good job, new poll reveals". Ewn.co.za. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Decision to drop Zuma corruption charges 'irrational', set aside – As it happened". news24.com. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
- Bateman, Barry. "SCA upholds High Court decision on Zuma charges". ewn.co.za. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017.
- "NPA gives Zuma November deadline to say why he shouldn't be prosecuted". timeslive.co.za. 20 October 2017. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
- Simao, Paul (28 July 2006). "Left rallies to support embattled Zuma". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 September 2011.
- Pearce, Justin (10 October 2005). "Analysis: SA's Zuma in the dock". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 December 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- "Riding on Zulu empathy". Mail & Guardian. 18 November 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- "Acquitted Zuma will be 'unbeatable'". Mail & Guardian. 3 November 2005. Archived from the original on 26 December 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- "Zuma rape case judge stands down". BBC News. 13 February 2006. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- Amy Musgrave (13 February 2006). "Zuma judge recuses himself from trial". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 March 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- "The trouble with JZ". Mail & Guardian. 20 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- Tabane, Rapule (21 April 2006). "SACP divided on Zuma". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "Accuser insulted as Zuma hailed at court". IOL. 14 February 2006. Archived from the original on 25 February 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- "Zuma's rape accuser questioned". BBC News. 6 March 2007. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- "S. African denies rape allegation at trial". Boston Globe. 3 April 2006. Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- "SA's Zuma showered to avoid HIV". BBC. 5 April 2006. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- "The State Versus Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma" (PDF). High Court of South Africa (Witwatersrand Local Division). 8 May 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015.
It is totally unacceptable that a man should have unprotected sex with any person other than his regular partner and definitely not with a person who to his knowledge is HIV positive. I do not even want to comment on the effect of a shower after having had unprotected sex. Had Rudyard Kipling known of this case at the time he wrote his poem "If" he might have added the following: "And if you can control your body and your sexual urges, then you are a man my son."
- Robinson, Vicki; Table, Rapule; Haffajee, Ferial (28 April 2006). "23 days that shook our world". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- Meldrum, Andrew (9 May 2006). "Acquitted Zuma ready to fight for presidency". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "ANC moves to allay succession paranoia". IOL. 1 June 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2007.[permanent dead link]
- "Zuma defamation claim 'largest in SA history'". IOL. 4 July 2006. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018.
- "Friends of Jacob Zuma Trust". Friendsofjz.co.za. 29 June 2005. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Jacob Zuma: Former South African president faces corruption trial". BBC. 16 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- Wills, Zapiro with Mike. "The back story to the most controversial cartoon in SA history". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 2018-08-17.
- "I stand by my judgment – judge who threw out Zuma corruption case". CityPress. Retrieved 2018-08-18.
- "How a lone cameraman 'dented' SABC's credibility". Mail & Guardian. 19 August 2005. Archived from the original on 12 September 2005. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- ANC rank-and-file vote for change Archived 5 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. IOL
- Zuma finds favour among his ANC comrades Archived 5 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. IOL
- Zuma says he is ready to govern Archived 5 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. IOL
- Williams, Juanita (18 December 2007). "Fireworks greet new ANC president". IOL. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018.
- "New charges for S Africa's Zuma". BBC News. 28 December 2007. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007.
- "Zuma wins second term". City Press. 18 December 2012. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "South Africa: Mbeki resignation effective Thursday". News24. SAPA. 22 September 2008. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "news.bbc.co.uk, Motlanthe: South Africa's 'safe' hands". BBC News. 25 September 2008. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Zuma: I only want one term". Independent Online. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Bearak, Barry (10 March 2009). "Waiting to Helm South Africa: President or Convict? Or Both?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Zuma looks to Ngcobo as new chief justice". Mail & Guardian. 6 August 2009. Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- "Zuma abused his power: opposition". The Times. 10 August 2009. Archived from the original on 14 August 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
- "Zuma to name new Chief Justice". Times LIVE. 1 October 2009. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "South Africa opposition call for probe into Jacob Zuma". BBC News. 8 March 2010. Archived from the original on 11 March 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "ANC distances itself from spokesman's statement on Zuma". Times LIVE. 9 March 2010. Archived from the original on 12 March 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "News – Front Page: Zuma under fire after late declaration". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "President Jacob Zuma on death of former President Nelson Mandela". The Presidency. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "President Jacob Zuma announces the passing of Madiba". SABC. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "South African president Jacob Zuma booed at Mandela memorial". The Telegraph. 31 March 2013. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "The boos for Jacob Zuma represent Mandela's success". Al Jazeera. 16 December 2013. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014.
- "ANC united behind Zuma". Independent Online. 18 January 2014. Archived from the original on 21 January 2014.
- "Stand down request for Zuma". Independent Online. 26 January 2014. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014.
- "Zuma re-elected SA president". IOL News. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- Ipsos MORI (9 February 2017), Ipsos – Beyond Populism – Mari Harris (South Africa), archived from the original on 10 March 2017, retrieved 27 April 2017
- Hazem al-Sabbagh. "President al-Assad receives congratulatory cable from South African President Zuma". Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "Zuma blames Europe again for migrant crisis Archived 17 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine.". IOL News. 26 September 2015.
- McGreal, Chris (15 December 2007). "South Africa in turmoil as Mbeki heads for defeat". The Guardian. UK.
- Wines, Michael (17 December 2007). "Leadership Battle Grips South Africa's Dominant Party". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 July 2016.
- "Mbeki defends 'quiet diplomacy' on Zim". Financial Gazette. 21 November 2003.
- Lodge, Tom (27 October 2004). "Quiet diplomacy in Zimbabwe: a case study of South Africa in Africa" (PDF). Paper delivered to the African Studies Centre, Leiden. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- "Cosatu demand democracy in Zimbabwe, International Labor Rights Forum". Laborrights.org. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "dead link". Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- "The West Is Bent out of Shape". Der Spiegel. 20 December 2006. Archived from the original on 10 August 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- "Zuma blasts Mbeki's Zimbabwe quiet diplomacy". Zimbabwe Metro. 16 December 2007. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2007.
- Wines, Michael (17 December 2007). "Leadership Battle Grips South Africa's Dominant Party". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 July 2016.
- "Zuma condemns Zimbabwe poll delay". BBC. 9 April 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- "ZIMBABWE: Mugabe is losing the region's support". IRIN (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs). 11 April 2008. Archived from the original on 18 April 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- "Zuma: Zimbabwe is out of control". Mail & Guardian Online. 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- "Mugabe has overstayed welcome, Zuma". The Zimbabwe Times. 9 July 2008. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
- "Nkandla report: Payback time, Zuma". Mail & Guardian. 29 November 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013.
- Smith, David (29 November 2013). "Jacob Zuma accused of corruption 'on a grand scale' in South Africa". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016.
- Jones, Barbara (24 November 2012). "UK gives £19million aid to South Africa – its president spends £17.5million on his palace". Daily Mail. Archived from the original on 21 January 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Ackroyd, Bianca (19 March 2014). "Damning Nkandla report finds Zuma must pay for upgrades". eNCA. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016.
- Amogelang Mbatha; Michael Cohen (3 February 2016). "Zuma Blinks Again: Home-Cost Concession Signals Waning Power". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016.
- Thamm, Marianne (31 March 2016). "Nkandla ConCourt ruling: President Zuma and National Assembly in breach of Constitution". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "We stand firmly behind Zuma – ANC Women's League". News24. 31 March 2016. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- Munusamy, Ranjeni (1 April 2016). "Nkandla Judgment: The Mastery of the Concourt vs The Invincibility of Jacob Zuma=". www.dailymaverick.co.za. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- Poplak, Richard. "Trainspotter: Zuma, the ANC, and the art of quantum spinning". www.dailymaverick.co.za. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Gwede Mantashe: ANC welcomes the president's apology". EWN. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "'Zuma's Violation of the Constitution Was Not Serious' Mthembu". www.enca.com. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "South Africa's Jacob Zuma survives Nkandla impeachment vote". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Letsoalo, Matuma. "Why ANC MPs rejected the Zuma impeachment motion". The M&G Online. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Ramaphosa and Gordhan voted in favour of Zuma, list shows". Business Day Live. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Wicks, Jeff (11 April 2016). "Cope to boycott Parliament over ANC response to ConCourt's Nkandla ruling". News24. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- Friedman, Steven. "Courts have done their bit, now it's up to politics". Business Day Live. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Matshiqi, Aubrey. "Internal ANC politics will dictate leader's fate". Business Day Live. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Butler, Anthony. "Key actors do not want president to go just yet". Business Day Live. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "SACP not satisfied with Zuma's apology". IOL. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Zuma booed as more party faithful call for action against him". Business Day Live. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Kathrada tells Zuma: Step down". IOL. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- "Ahmed Kathrada asks Zuma to resign Read it in full". News24. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Post ConCourt Nkandla ruling bombshell: Trevor Manuel joins the calls for Zuma's resignation". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Trainspotter: #ZumaMustFall Take Two, this time for real". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "'Propaganda media' spreading lies about Zuma ex political prisoner group". News24. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- "GO, CLERICS URGE ZUMA". Weekend Argus. 9 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- "Zuma like PW Botha, says ANC veteran". Business Day Live. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- Hunter, Qaanitah (12 April 2016). "ANC Gauteng has resolved that Zuma must resign". Rand Daily Mail. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- Letsoalo, Matuma. "Gauteng ANC: Zuma must step down". The M&G Online. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- "ZUMA'S FAITHFUL HIT BACK". Sunday Tribune. 10 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- "Gupta brothers linked to Zuma scandal leave SA". Business Day Live. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "THICK END OF THE WEDGE: Zuma's only exit plan is unravelling under pressure". Business Day Live. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Munusamy, Ranjeni (11 April 2016). "Gone Guptas: 'We must crush the head of the snake' – EFF". www.dailymaverick.co.za. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
- du Preez, Max (12 April 2016). "We need to prepare an exit strategy for Zuma". News24. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- "Zuma allies 'break ranks' with him over Guptas". Rand Daily Mail. 1 February 2016. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- Wild, Franz (17 December 2015). "Gupta family seen as symbol of Zuma's failing rule". Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- "Who are the Guptas?". BBC. 14 May 2013. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Munusamy, Ranjeni (1 February 2016). "Keeping Up with the Guptas: What's behind the anti-Saxonwold revolt". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- "'Zupta must fall' – and EFF walks out". News24. 11 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- Hartley, Wyndham; Marrian, Natasha (11 February 2016). "Chaos as EFF once again delays speech and then stages walkout". Business Day. Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- "Parliament must deal with 'state capture' – DA". News24.com. 27 March 2016. Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "Zuma defends relationship with Guptas – report". News24.com. 23 March 2016. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- Letsoalo, Matuma (9 December 2015). "Nhlanhla Nene removed as finance minister". Mail and Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- CAROL PATON (12 November 2015). "SAA tests Nene". Business Day. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- "Nene sacked as Finance Minister, replaced by David van Rooyen". East Coast Radio. 10 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- "Nene 'said no to Myeni, Bashir and Zuma'". Business Day. 22 January 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- "SA, Russia agree to -billion nuclear deal". Mail and Guardian. 23 September 2014. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Inside Zuma's possible R4b private jet". News24. 9 November 2015. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- Areff, Ahmed (10 December 2015). "Four possible reasons why Nene was fired". News24. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Why Zuma sacked Nene according to the EFF and DA". Businesstech.co.za. 9 December 2015. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Named: Van Rooyen's two Gupta "advisors" who almost hijacked SA Treasury". Biznews. 15 February 2016. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Shivambu, Floyd (21 December 2015). "Floyd Shivambu: Here's why Zuma fired Nene, deployed backbencher Van Rooyen". Biznews. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Pressly, Donwald (22 February 2016). "Previously silent Ramaphosa opens up on Zuptas, "state capture" strategy". Biznews. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Lincoln Reader, Simon (11 March 2016). "London not foggy on Zuma's deflection ploys". Business Day. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Heystek, Magnus (5 January 2016). "2015: SA's Annus Horribilis". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- Mantshantsha, Sikonathi (10 December 2015). "Zuma fires finance minister Nene, rand crashes to record R15,38/US$". Financial Mail. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- Pete Guest (9 December 2015). "Zuma Replaces Finance Minister Nene After Downgrade". Forbes. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- Azar Jammine (13 December 2015). "Zuma's blunder on Nene costs SA billions – when will taxpayers call enough?". Fin24. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- Thanduxolo Jika; Ron Derby; Peit Rampedi (20 December 2015). "Behind Zuma's U-turn: 'SA will go bust'". Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "David Van Rooyen Replaced By Pravin Gordhan As Finance Minister". Marie Claire. 14 December 2015. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- SONGEZO ZIBI (22 December 2015). "SAA is an invaluable case study for democratic accountability". Business Day. Archived from the original on 24 December 2015. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- Andrew England (14 December 2015). "South Africa's Zuma counts cost of fiasco over finance minister". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 18 February 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
- Letsoalo, Matuma (12 January 2016). "Ramaphosa: There's a lot of love between me and Zuma". Mail and Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- Munusamy, Ranjeni (14 December 2015). "Zuma climbs down, Gordhan takes up SA's rescue mission". The Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "President Jacob Zuma has fired finance minister Pravin Gordhan". Mail & Guardian. 30 March 2017. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Onishi, Norimitsu; Chanmarch, Sewell (31 March 2017). "Firing of South Africa's Finance Minister Widens a Political Rift". New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017.
- "ANC MPs shouldn't wait for opposition to act against Zuma – SACP". 702. 4 April 2017. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- "SA's sovereign credit rating downgraded to junk status". Times Live. 3 April 2017. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017.
- "WRAP: '60 000' marchers call for Zuma to fall". News24. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Live blog: Anti-Zuma protesters take to the streets in day of action". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "#Zumamustfall: Thousands march calling for Zuma to step down". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "BREAKING: Zuma survives vote of no confidence". news24.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2017.
- "Dlamini-Zuma touted as next president". The Citizen. 11 April 2016. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- Tau, Steven (29 April 2017). "Zuma wants to continue controlling ANC using ex-wife – analyst". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- du Preez, Max (2 May 2017). "Could it be Gerrie Nel vs Jacob Zuma?". News24. Archived from the original on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- Paul Herman (18 December 2017). "Ramaphosa wins ANC presidency – AS IT HAPPENED". Archived from the original on 18 December 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- Marrian, Natasha; Magubane, Khulekani (6 February 2018). "State of nation address postponed". Business Day. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018.
- de Klerk, Aphiwe; Macanda, Siphe (13 February 2018). "ANC confirms it has recalled Jacob Zuma". TimesLive. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018.
- "Jacob Zuma resigns as president of South Africa". News24. 14 February 2018. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- "LIVE: 'I seek to serve with humility, faithfulness and dignity' – President Ramaphosa". News24. 15 February 2018. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- "News – Politics: PIC: Zuma cops lock up jogger (Page 1 of 2)". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Zuma jogger to sue police". Times LIVE. Archived from the original on 1 March 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Zuma jogger case to go to HRC". Times LIVE. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "News – Crime & Courts: MPs blast arrest of jogger". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Mail & Guardian 'disturbed' by Zuma house incident - IOL Business Report". iol.co.za. 18 March 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- "Zuma's bodyguards groped me: reporter". Times LIVE. 19 March 2010. Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Complaint laid against Zuma – The Zuma Era | IOL News". Independent Online. South Africa. 24 February 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- SABC (24 February 2012). "SABC News.com – Rightwing movement to lay hate speech charge against Zuma:Friday 24 February 2012". Sabc.co.za. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Stephen, Grootes (19 May 2012). "Zuma portrait saga goes to court". Eyewitness News. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- "Just Hanging Out". 6000 Miles from Civilization. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
- "Jacob Zuma painting vandalised in South Africa gallery". BBC News. 22 May 2012. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "The Power Players: Clive Khulubuse Zuma". ICIJ. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- "The Panama papers and the Zuma link". News24. 4 April 2016. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016.
- Zuma charmed wives and nation The Australian
- "Zuma to wed on Saturday". M&G. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008.
- Smith, David (29 July 2014). "Jacob Zuma accused of nepotism after giving daughter ministry position". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 17 July 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Pillay, Verashni (4 January 2010). "All the president's women". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Molele, Charles (15 December 2007). "So who will the Zuma First Lady be?". The Times. UK. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011.
- "Zuma's big, fat swazi wedding". news24. Archived from the original on 29 October 2017.
- "Jacob Zuma's son Vusi dies".
- "Tributes as Kate Zuma buried". news24. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2004.
- All the president's children Archived 6 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. M&G
- "Zuma's ladies". The Post. 23 December 2007. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013.
- Khumalo, Sipho (9 January 2009). "Zuma's bride-to-be 'a glamorous beauty'". IOL.
- South Africa President Jacob Zuma to marry third wife Archived 4 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. BBC
- Madiba-Zuma’s palace on the hill Archived 31 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. M&G
- In pictures: African champions against child marriage Archived 29 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. BBC, 26 May 2016
- Oliphant, Lumka (13 January 2008). "Zuma's 'fiancée' hospitalised". News24. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Zuma has a love child with judge's sister Archived 5 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. IOL
- Now Zuma's KZN love kids revealed IOL
- "'Shocking Nkandla plot recording' raises intrigue". The Citizen. 2 March 2017. Archived from the original on 30 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- "5 Things We Know So Far About Jacob Zuma's 7th Bride – Nonkanyiso Conco". HuffPost South Africa. 2018-04-21. Retrieved 2018-04-21.
- Govender, Prega (31 January 2010). "Zuma fathers baby with Irvin Khoza's daughter". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 2 February 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
- Zuma and Khoza 'are married' IOL
- Zuma confirms love-child IOL
- Zuma 'deeply regrets' love-child pain Archived 9 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. M&G
- Zuma love-child: No comment Archived 4 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. News24
- ANC defends Jacob Zuma over 'love-child' claims Archived 2 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. BBC
- Love-child talk 'disrespectful' Archived 4 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. News24
- SA has 'right to know about love-child' Archived 3 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. News24
- JZ broke sex pact IOL
- Zuma flouts safe sex campaign, says COPE IOL
- Zuma should apologise, says Zille Archived 5 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. M&G
- Zuma sex report 'a PR nightmare' IOL
- MEDUNSA Trust. "Nelson Mandela Award Honors Charles A. Heimbold Jr. for Commitment to African HIV/AIDS Pandemic". www.prnewswire.com (Press release). Archived from the original on 11 November 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- "Royal banquet for South African President Jacob Zuma". BBC. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- "Nigeria honours Zuma with giant statue". Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
- "Jacob Zuma". whoswho. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- "UNZA confers honorary Doctor of Law degree on Zuma". Lusaka Times. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- "Ceteris Paribus – Director biographical note:". RIFF – Rome independent film festival. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- Foster, Douglas (June 2009). "Jacob's Ladder". The Atlantic. 303 (5): 72–80. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Russell, Alec (2009). After Mandela: the Battle for the Soul of South Africa. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-192601-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jacob Zuma.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jacob Zuma|
- Profile at the African National Congress
- Zuma: Road to the presidency
- Jacob Zuma at Who's Who Southern Africa
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Jacob Zuma on IMDb
- Works by or about Jacob Zuma in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- "Jacob Zuma collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- People by Jacob Zuma , at People's Assembly
- Full text of the judgement against Schabir Shaik, Zuma's financial advisor
- Supreme Court judgment upholding 2009 ruling
| Deputy President of South Africa
| President of South Africa
|Party political offices|
| President of the African National Congress