Edgar Faure was a French politician, essayist and memoirist. Faure was born in Languedoc-Roussillon, to a French army doctor, he was nearsighted yet a brilliant student since his youth, earning a bachelor's degree at 15, a law degree at 19 in Paris. At 21 years of age he became a member of the bar association, the youngest lawyer in France to do so at the time. While living in Paris, he became active in Third Republic politics, he joined the Radical Party. During the German occupation of World War II, he joined the French Resistance in the Maquis, in 1942, he fled to Charles de Gaulle's headquarters in Algiers, where he was made head of the Provisional Government of the Republic's legislative department. At the end of the war, he served as French counsel for the prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials. In 1946, he was elected to the French Parliament as a Radical. While the popularity of his party declined to less than 10% of the total vote, none of the other parties was able to gain a clear majority.
Therefore, early on, his party played a disproportionately important role in the formation of French governments, he led the cabinet in 1952 and from 1955 to 1956. Faure was a leader of the more conservative wing of the party, opposing the party's left, under Pierre Mendès-France. Faure's views changed during the Fourth Republic, after initial opposition to the Fifth Republic, he became a Gaullist. De Gaulle's party, the Union for the New Republic, sent him on an unofficial mission to the People's Republic of China in 1963. In government he served in successive ministries: Agriculture, National Education, Social Affairs, he declined to be a candidate at the 1974 presidential election, but supported Valéry Giscard d'Estaing against the Gaullist candidate, Jacques Chaban-Delmas. He had the reputation of a careerist and the nickname of "weathercock", he replied with humour, "it is not the weathercock. He was a member of the National Assembly for the département of Jura from 1946 to 1958, for the départment of Doubs from 1967 to 1980.
He presided over the French National Assembly from 1973 to 1978. He was defeated by Chaban-Delmas. Faure was a senator from 1959 to 1967 for Jura and again, for Doubs. In 1978, he became a member of the Académie française. On the regional and local levels, Edgar Faure was mayor of Port-Lesney from 1947 to 1971 and from 1983 to 1988 and the mayor of Pontarlier between 1971 and 1977, he played a key role during the creation and first years of the Assembly of European Regions, becoming his first president in 1985 and staying in that position until 1988. He was buried at Cimetière de Paris. In 1931 Faure married Lucie Meyer, a daughter of a silk merchant one month his senior, they spent their one-month-long honeymoon in the Soviet Union. Governmental functions President of the Council: January–February 1952 / February–December 1955 Secretary of State for Finances: 1949–1950 Minister of Budget: 1950–1951 Minister of Justice: 1951–1952 Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs: 1953–1955 Minister of Foreign Affairs: January–February 1955 Minister of Finance, Economic Affairs and Planning: May–June 1958 Minister of Agriculture: 1966–1968 Minister of National Education: 1968–1969 Minister of State, Minister of Social Affairs: 1972–1973Electoral mandates President of the National Assembly of France: 1973–1978 Member of the National Assembly of France for Doubs: Elected in 1967, 1968, but he remains minister / 1973–1980 Member of the National Assembly of France for Jura: 1946–1958 Senator of the Jura: 1959–1966 Senator of the Doubs: 1980–1988 President of the Regional Council of Franche-Comté: 1974–1981 / 1982–1988 Mayor of Port-Lesney: 1947–1970 / 1983–1988 Mayor of Pontarlier: 1971–1977 President of the General council of the Jura: 1949–1967 General councillor of the Jura: 1967–1979 He published the following books: Le serpent et la tortue, Juillard, 1957 La disgrâce de Turgot, Gallimard, 1961 La capitation de Dioclétien, Sirey 1961 Prévoir le présent, Gallimard, 1966 L'éducation nationale et la participation, Plon, 1968 Philosophie d'une réforme, Plon, 1969 L'âme du combat, Fayard, 1969 Ce que je crois, Grasset, 1971 Pour un nouveau contrat social, Seuil, 1973 Au-delà du dialogue avec Philippe Sollers, Balland, 1977 La banqueroute de Law, Gallimard, 1977 La philosophie de Karl Popper et la société politique d'ouverture, Firmin Didot, 1981 Pascal: le procès des provinciales, Firmin Didot, 1930 Le pétrole dans la paix et dans la guerre, Nouvelle revue critique 1938 Mémoires I, "Avoir toujours raison, c'est un grand tort", Plon, 1982 Mémoires II, "Si tel doit être mon destin ce soir", Plon, 1984 Discours prononcé pour la réception de Senghor à l'Académie française, le 29 mars 1984 Edgar Faure – President of the Council and Minister of Finance Georges Bidault – Vice President of the Council and Minister of National Defense Henri Queuille – Vice President of the Council Robert Schuman – Minister of Foreign Affairs Pierre Pflimlin – Minister for the Council of Europe Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury – Minister of Armaments Charles Brune – Minister o
Sceaux is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.7 km from the center of Paris. Sceaux is famous for the Château de Sceaux, set in its large park, designed by André Le Nôtre, measuring 2 km2; the original château was transformed into a School of Agriculture during the Revolution and lost much of its luster. It was demolished at the beginning of the 19th century following its sale by the French government. Sceaux castle was built by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the minister of finance to Louis XIV and purchased by Louis' illegitimate son, the duke of Maine in 1699, his duchesse held court in a glittering salon at Sceaux in the first decades of the eighteenth century. The present château, rebuilt between 1856 and 62 in a Louis XIII style, is now the museum of Île-de-France open for visits. Housing costs are high, higher than in many districts of Paris with streets facing the Parc de Sceaux. Sceaux is one of the richest cities of France, according to the INSEE. Sceaux is served by three stations on Paris RER line B: Sceaux and Parc de Sceaux.
The latter station is located at the border between the commune of Sceaux and the commune of Antony, on the Antony side of the border. It is close to Paris-Orly Airport. Sceaux is connected to the A86 motorway; the commune offers a developed network of buses which are used by the Scéens. The commune has the following primary schools: Public preschools/nurseries: des Blagis, du Centre, Clos-Saint-Marcel, du Petit-Chambord Public elementary schools: des Blagis, du Centre, Clos-Saint-Marcel One private preschool and elementary school: Écoles maternelle et élémentaire Sainte-Jeanne-d’ArcSceaux hosts two cités scolaires, combined junior high schools and public high schools/sixth-form colleges, the lycée Marie Curie and the lycée Lakanal; the lycée Marie Curie was named after the famous scientist, married in, lived in, was interred in Sceaux with her husband Pierre Curie. The lycée Lakanal was named after a French politician, an original member of the Institut de France, Joseph Lakanal and has remained one of the most prestigious and hardest schools of Île-de-France.
The school offers a middle school and ranked "classes préparatoires" undergraduate training. Famous French scientists and writers have graduated from lycée Lakanal, such as Nobel Prize winners Maurice Allais, Jean Giraudoux, Alain-Fournier and Frédéric Joliot-Curie. There is a public vocational senior high, Lycée des métiers Florian. There is Externat Sainte-Jeanne-d'Arc; the Faculté Jean Monnet, the college of Law and Management of University of Paris-XI, the Institut Universitaire de Technologie of this university are located in Sceaux. The Bibliothèque municipale de Sceaux is the communal library. Sceaux is home to one active national theater, the théâtre des Gémeaux, located in the quartier des Blagis, part of the "Scène Nationale" network of the major theaters in France; the théâtre des Gémeaux attracts viewers from all over Paris. Its main event is the Spring dance festival with an international program of the highest quality; the commune has a small movie theater, the Trianon, where international movies are released in their respective language and subtitled in French.
The theater is known for showing independent films and hosting special events. In 2006, a debate revolving around ecology was organized and Al Gore's An Inconvenient Truth was shown. Various music events take place at Sceaux; the classical Music Festival established by Alfred Loewenguth in 1969, takes place in the Orangery built by Jules Hardouin-Mansart for the Marquis de Seignelay in 1686, in the Park at Sceaux. The Park houses an open air opera every summer at the end of June; the Parc de Sceaux was the location of Madonna's Parisian first visit with her Who's That Girl World Tour 29 August 1987, breaking the record of 131.000 people. In the classic French O-Level textbook series for English-speaking pupils, Le Francais d'Aujourd-hui, the Bertillon family move out to Sceaux from inner-city Paris during the course of the book's main narrative; the Parc de Sceaux is home to a population of red squirrels estimated to number between 100 and 120. Royal Leamington Spa Brühl Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department Ligne de Sceaux The works of Maxime Real del Sarte INSEE Sceaux official website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Pierre Joseph Auguste Messmer was a French Gaullist politician. He served as Minister of Armies under Charles de Gaulle from 1960 to 1969 – the longest serving since Étienne François, duc de Choiseul under Louis XV – and as Prime Minister under Georges Pompidou from 1972 to 1974. A member of the French Foreign Legion, he was considered as one of the historical Gaullists, died aged 91 in the military hospital of the Val-de-Grâce in August 2007, he was elected a member of the Académie française in 1999. Pierre Joseph Auguste Messmer was born in Vincennes in 1916, he graduated in 1936 in the language school ENLOV and the following year at the Ecole nationale de la France d'outre-mer. He became a senior civil servant in the colonial administration and became a Doctor of Laws in 1939. In the outbreaks of World War II, he was sous-lieutenant of the 12th regiment of Senegalese tirailleurs, refused France's capitulation after the defeat, he hijacked in Marseille an Italian cargo, along with Jean Simon, sailed first to Gibraltar London and engaged himself in the Free French Forces as a member of the 13th Demi-Brigade of the French Foreign Legion.
Messmer participated to the campaign in Eritrea, in Syria, in Libya, participating to the Battle of Bir Hakeim, in the Tunisia campaign. He fought at the Battle of El Alamein in Egypt, he joined in London General Koenig's military staff and participated in the landings in Normandy in August 1944 and the Liberation of Paris. Named Compagnon de la Libération in 1941, he received the Croix de guerre with six citations after the Liberation, as well as the medal of the Resistance. After World War II, he returned to the colonies and was a prisoner of war of the Vietminh, during two months in 1945, after the outbreaks of the First Indochina War, he was named the following year general secretary of the interministerial committee for Indochina and head of staff of the high commissary of the Republic. Messmer began his high-level African service as governor of Mauritania from 1952 to 1954, served as governor of Ivory Coast from 1954 to 1956. In 1956 he returned to Paris in the staff of Gaston Defferre, Minister of Overseas Territories who enacted the Defferre Act granting to colonial territories internal autonomy, a first step towards independence.
Still in 1956 Messmer was nominated as governor general of Cameroun, where a civil war had started the preceding year following the outlawing of the independentist Union of the Peoples of Cameroon in July 1955. He initiated a decolonization process and imported the counter-revolutionary warfare methods theorized in Indochina and implemented during the Algerian War. Visiting de Gaulle in Paris, he was implicitly granted permission for his change of policies in Cameroon, which exchanged repression for negotiations with the UPC. A "Pacification Zone" – the ZOPAC was created on 9 December 1957, englobing 7,000 square km controlled by seven infantry regiments. Furthermore, a civilian-military intelligence apparatus was created, combining colonial and local staff, assisted by a civilian militia. Mao Zedong's people's war was reversed, in an attempt to separate the civilian population from the guerrilla. In this aim, the local population was rounded-up in guarded villages located on the main roads, controlled by the French Army.
Messmer served as high commissioner of French Equatorial Africa from January 1958 to July 1958, as high commissioner of French West Africa from 1958 to 1959. From 1959 to 1969, under Charles de Gaulle's presidency and in the turmoil of the Algerian War, he was Minister of Armies, he was confronted with the 1961 Generals' Putsch, reorganized the Army and adapted it to the nuclear era. Messmer gave permission for former Algerian War veterans to fight in Katanga against the newly independent Congo and United Nations peacekeeping forces, he confided to Roger Trinquier that it was de Gaulle's ambition to replace the Belgians and control a reunited Congo from Élisabethville. Along with the Minister of Research, Gaston Palewski, Messmer was present at the Béryl nuclear test in Algeria, on 1 May 1962, during which an accident occurred. Officials and Algerian workers escaped as they could without wearing any protection. Palewski died in 1984 of leukemia, which he always has attributed to the Beryl incident, while Messmer always remained close-mouthed on the affair.
De Gaulle said of Messmer." " In May'68, he advised de Gaulle against the use of the military. Messmer became a personality of the Gaullist Party and was elected deputy in 1968, representing Moselle département. A member of the conservative wing of the Gaullist movement, he criticized the "New Society" plan of Prime Minister Jacques Chaban-Delmas, thus won the trust of Georges Pompidou, elected President in 1969, he quit the government after de Gaulle's resignation and founded the association Présence du gaullisme. He occupied cabinet positions again in the 1970s, serving first as Minister of state charged of the Overseas Territories in 1971 as Prime Minister from July 1972 to May 1974, he succeeded in this function to Jacques Chaban-Delmas, who had adopted a parliamentary reading of the Constitution, which Messmer opposed in his investiture speech. Messmer had been chosen by Pompidou as a guarant of his fidelity to de Gaulle, his cabinet included personalities close to Pompidou, such as Jacques Chirac, named Minister of Agriculture.
Due to President Georges Pompidou's illness, he dealt with the everyday administration of the country and adopted a conservative stance opposed to Chaban-Delmas' pr
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Gironde is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France. It is named after a major waterway; the Bordeaux wine region is in the Gironde. Gironde is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Gascony. From 1793 to 1795, the department's name was changed to Bec-d'Ambès to avoid the association with the revolutionary party, the Girondists. Gironde is part of the current region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and is surrounded by the departments of Landes, Lot-et-Garonne and Charente-Maritime and the Atlantic Ocean on the west. With an area of 10,000 km², Gironde is the largest department in metropolitan France. If overseas departments are included, Gironde's land area is dwarfed by the 83,846 km² of French Guiana. Gironde is well known for the Côte d'Argent beach, Europe's longest, attracting many surfers to Lacanau each year, it is the birthplace of Jacques-Yves Cousteau who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.
The Great Dune of Pyla in Arcachon Bay near Bordeaux is the tallest sand dune in Europe. The President of the General Council is Jean-Luc Gleyze of the Socialist Party. Cantons of the Gironde department Communes of the Gironde department Arrondissements of the Gironde department Bordeaux wine regions General Council website Prefecture website Gironde at Curlie Tourism Office website
First French Empire
The First French Empire the French Empire,Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III. On 18 May 1804, Napoleon was granted the title Emperor of the French by the French Sénat and was crowned on 2 December 1804, signifying the end of the French Consulate and of the French First Republic; the French Empire achieved military supremacy in mainland Europe through notable victories in the War of the Third Coalition against Austria, Prussia and allied nations, notably at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. French dominance was reaffirmed during the War of the Fourth Coalition, at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt in 1806 and the Battle of Friedland in 1807.
A series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence to much of Western Europe and into Poland. At its height in 1812, the French Empire had 130 departments, ruled over 70 million subjects, maintained an extensive military presence in Germany, Italy and the Duchy of Warsaw, counted Prussia and Austria as nominal allies. Early French victories exported many ideological features of the French Revolution throughout Europe: the introduction of the Napoleonic Code throughout the continent increased legal equality, established jury systems and legalised divorce, seigneurial dues and seigneurial justice were abolished, as were aristocratic privileges in all places except Poland. France's defeat in 1814, marked the end of the Empire. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte was confronted by Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès—one of five Directors constituting the executive branch of the French government—who sought his support for a coup d'état to overthrow the Constitution of the Year III.
The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, Talleyrand. On 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control, they dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul, he thus became the most powerful person in France, a power, increased by the Constitution of the Year X, which made him First Consul for life. The Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea, to continue its development until Napoleon's Moscow campaign. Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, was thought to prepare a new campaign in the East; the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce.
He extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, added this Italian territory to his Cisalpine Republic. He laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope; when he recognised his error of raising the authority of the pope from that of a figurehead, Napoleon produced the Articles Organiques with the goal of becoming the legal protector of the papacy, like Charlemagne. To conceal his plans before their actual execution, he aroused French colonial aspirations against Britain and the memory of the 1763 Treaty of Paris, exacerbating British envy of France, whose borders now extended to the Rhine and beyond, to Hanover and Cuxhaven. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the old aristocracy. On 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with the exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France; this action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif.
A general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life. Pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the "Recess of 1803", which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to France's side. William Pitt the Younger, back in power over Britain, appealed once more for an Anglo-Austro-Russian coalition against Napoleon to stop the ideals of revolutionary France from spreading. On 18 May 1804, Napoleon was given the title of "Emperor of the French" by the Senate. Note 3In four campaigns, the Emperor transformed his "Carolingian" feudal republican and federal empire into one modelled on the Roman Empire; the memories of imperial Rome were for a third time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne, used to modify the historical evolution of France. Though the vague plan for an invasion of Great Britain was never executed, the Battle of Ulm and the Battle of Austerlitz overshadowed the defeat of Trafalgar, the camp at Boulogne put at Napoleon's disposal the best military resources he had commanded, in the form of La Grande Armée.
In the War of the Third Coalition, Napoleon swept away the remnants of the old Holy Roman Empire and created in southern Germany the vassal states of Bavaria