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Jacques Prévert

Jacques Prévert was a French poet and screenwriter. His poems became and remain popular in the French-speaking world in schools, his best-regarded films formed part of the poetic realist movement, include Les Enfants du Paradis. Prévert grew up in Paris. After receiving his Certificat d'études upon completing his primary education, he quit school and went to work in Le Bon Marché, a major department store in Paris. In 1918, he was called up for military service in the First World War. After this, he was sent to the Near East to defend French interests there, he died of lung cancer in Omonville-la-Petite, on 11 April 1977. He had been working on the last scene of the animated movie Le Roi et l'Oiseau with his friend and collaborator Paul Grimault; when the film was released in 1980, it was dedicated to Prévert's memory, on opening night, Grimault kept the seat next to him empty. When Prévert was attending primary school, he at first hated writing, he participated in the Surrealist movement. Together with the writer Raymond Queneau and Marcel Duhamel, he was a member of the Rue du Château group.

He was a member of the agitprop theater company Groupe Octobre where he helped craft a left-wing cinema in support of the causes of the Popular Front. Prévert remained supportive of left-wing causes throughout his life. In 1971, he wrote a poem in support of the communist Angela Davis after her arrest. Prévert's poems were collected and published in his books: Paroles, Spectacle, La Pluie et le beau temps, Histoires and Choses et autres, his poems are about life in Paris and life after the Second World War. They are taught in schools in France, appear in French language textbooks published worldwide. Some, such as "Déjeuner du Matin", are often taught in American upper-level French classes, for the students to learn basics; some of Prévert's poems, such as "Les feuilles mortes", "La grasse matinée", "Les bruits de la nuit" and "Chasse à l'enfant" were set to music by Joseph Kosma—and in some cases by Germaine Tailleferre of Les Six, Christiane Verger, Hanns Eisler. They have been sung by prominent French vocalists, including Marianne Oswald, Yves Montand, Édith Piaf, as well as by the American singers Joan Baez and Nat King Cole.

In 1961, French singer-songwriter Serge Gainsbourg paid tribute to "Les feuilles mortes" in his own song "La chanson de Prévert". "Les feuilles mortes" was translated into German by the German Poet and Liedermacher Wolf Biermann, titled "Welke Blätter", was performed by him and others. More the British remix DJs Coldcut released their own version in 1993. Another German version has been published and covered by Didier Caesar, which he named "Das welke Laub". "Les feuilles mortes" bookends Iggy Pop's 2009 album, Préliminaires. Prévert's poems are translated into many languages worldwide. Many translators have translated his poems into English; the poet and translator Suman Pokhrel has translated some of his poems into Nepali. Prévert wrote a number of screenplays for the film director Marcel Carné. Among them were the scripts for Drôle de drame, Quai des brumes, Le Jour se lève, Les Visiteurs du soir and Children of Paradise; the last of these gains a high placing in lists of best films and earned him an Oscar nomination for best original screenplay.

His poems were the basis for a film by the director and documentarian Joris Ivens, The Seine Meets Paris, about the River Seine. The poem was read as narration during the film by singer Serge Reggiani. In 2007, a filmed adaptation of Prévert's poem, "To Paint the Portrait of a Bird," was directed by Seamus McNally, featuring T. D. White and Antoine Ray- English translation by Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Prévert had a long working relationship with Paul Grimault a member of Groupe Octobre. Together they wrote the screenplays of a number of animated movies, starting with the short "The Little Soldier", they worked together until his death in 1977, when he was finishing The King and the Mocking Bird, a second version of, released in 1980. Prévert adapted several Hans Christian Andersen tales into animated or mixed live-action/animated movies in versions loosely connected to the original. Two of these were with Grimault, including The King and the Mocking Bird, while another was with his brother Pierre Prévert.

These include compilations of his poetry but collaborations with Marc Chagall and Humanist photographers on patriotic and poignant albums of imagery of post-war Paris. Paroles Le Petit Lion, illustrated by Ylla Contes pour enfants pas sages Des Bêtes, illustrated by Ylla Spectacle Grand bal du printemps, with photographs by Izis Bidermanas Lettre des îles Baladar Tour de chant La pluie et le beau temps Histoires Les Halles: L'Album du Coeur de Paris, with photographs by Romain Urhausen Le Cirque d'Izis, with photographs by Izis Bidermanas and original artwork by Marc Chagall JON WAY Charmes de Londres, with photographs by Izis Bidermanas Prévert wrote

Giants of All Sizes

Giants of All Sizes is the eighth studio album by British alternative rock band Elbow, released on Polydor Records on 11 October 2019. The album has a darker lyrical tone than previous Elbow albums, with singer Guy Garvey's lyrics relating to Brexit, the Grenfell Tower fire tragedy and the deaths of his father and two close friends, it was praised by critics, entered the UK Albums Chart at number one, becoming the band's third consecutive chart-topping studio album. During the writing and recording of Giants of All Sizes three people close to the band died: Guy Garvey's father Don died of lung cancer in March 2018, in October 2018 two close friends of the group who lived and worked in Manchester, Scott Alexander and Jan Oldenburg, both died unexpectedly within eight days of each other; the album's liner notes carry a dedication to all three men. Garvey stated that these deaths affected the band and influenced the "darker place" that the album comes from. "Dexter & Sinister" is a reference to the left and right sides of a heraldic design – Manchester's coat of arms includes a shield with an antelope and a lion as supporters on either side, Garvey said that he now pictured the shield without the two animals, representing the fact that Alexander and Oldenburg were no longer around.

Other songs on the album touch on the subject of death. "The Delayed 3:15" tells the story of a man who committed suicide by throwing himself under a train that Garvey was travelling on between Manchester and London, causing the train to be held up while the body was retrieved. Garvey had been trying to write lyrics during the journey for the song's music, composed by guitarist Mark Potter, he noted that the spot where the suicide occurred was one of the less picturesque places along the train route, that the man had therefore seen no beauty in the act he committed. "Empires" acknowledges that someone somewhere in the world is always affected by deaths, natural disasters or job losses, describes Garvey's belief that Brexit will trigger the eventual break-up of the European Union. Another recurring theme on the album is the divisions in societies. "Dexter & Sinister"'s title alludes to the sharp division in the UK between the voters of the Leave and Remain sides in the Brexit debate. "White Noise White Heat" expresses Garvey's anger at the neglect by the authorities that led to the Grenfell Tower fire and the lack of justice for the affected families in its aftermath, stating that it was "because they were poor".

"Doldrums" describes an event in Vancouver, where Garvey was accompanying his wife Rachel Stirling while she was filming The Bletchley Circle, when he saw a well-dressed woman walk down the street past homeless men, who stepped aside to let her through, she never acknowledged them. Garvey stated that despite the album's subdued tone, the record tries to find comfort in personal relationships. "My Trouble" and "On Deronda Road" are tributes to his wife and son with the latter describing the happy memory of a bus journey Garvey made with his young son in south London, passing the Deronda Road bus stop. On closing track "Weightless" Garvey notes the similarities and connections between himself, his newborn son and his dying father, said, "Jack's arrival helped me through Dad's death, because it made Dad's death part of things, rather than the end of things, and it made my own life part of things, rather than the point of things." The album cover artwork is a stock photograph from Visual China Group licensed to Getty Images, showing a crowded Chinese swimming pool in summer.

Garvey explained to Music Week that the band had wanted to use an image that showed as many people as possible, to depict a wide range of human emotions and interactions, which could be opened out to display a larger photograph on gatefold versions of the album. The band shared the album's first single, "Dexter & Sinister", online on 1 August 2019 and made the song available to purchase as a download and as a single-sided 10" vinyl record on 2 August 2019. On 7 August 2019 it was announced that Giants of All Sizes would be released on 11 October 2019. A second single, "Empires", was made available to stream and download on 21 August 2019. "White Noise White Heat" was shared online as the album's third single on 3 October 2019. On 7 October 2019 it was announced that to celebrate National Album Day on 12 October, a special "don't skip" CD version Giants of All Sizes featuring the entire album as one single track would be available for that day only. A UK tour in March and April 2020 in support of the album was announced on 20 September 2019.

Giants of All Sizes received positive reviews from music critics, who noted the more downbeat lyrical tone and greater influence of progressive rock. Roisin O'Connor of The Independent called it "perhaps their greatest album since their Mercury Prize-winning breakthrough The Seldom Seen Kid" and "more explicit statements on social and political affairs than we're used to from Elbow"; the Guardian's Alexis Petridis called it "a succession of troubling songs", noting the references to Grenfell Tower fire and deaths of Garvey's father and two close friends, that Giants of All Sizes "digs into prog's more disruptive side, the wilful awkwardness expressed by its jarring time signatures, unpredictable shifts and knotty cramp-inducing riffs", but concluded that the album "is richer and stranger than anything they've released since their commercial breakthrough" and that the style suited them. Steven Edelstone of Paste noted that "Garvey's lyrical frustration with the outside world is accompanied by louder and heavier instrumentals than anything we've heard since The Seldom Seen

Paeonian Springs, Virginia

Paeonian Springs is an unincorporated community in Loudoun County, United States. It is located at the intersection of the Harry Byrd Highway. Paeonian Springs was established in 1890 and is served by a post office; the town is named after the Ancient Greek physician of the gods. The Paeonian Springs Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. Developers began construction of the town in 1871 and the town was established in 1890, it was developed as a resort town for citizens of Washington DC trying to escape the city in the summer. When developers advertised the town upon its completion they said it had "excellent water, mountain air and magnificent scenery"; the Washington & Ohio railroad played an integral role in the towns development for its first 50 years, making 8 stops in the town every day. By 1901 the town had three hotels, a downtown area, a village green. By 1912, it had a boardwalk, a church, two private schools, among numerous other new shops. Beginning in 1920 though the town started to decline.

This happened for a number of reasons including: the loss of the boardwalk. History of Paeonian Springs

Ryukyuan missions to Joseon

Ryukyuan missions to Joseon were diplomatic and trade ventures of the Ryūkyū Kingdom which were intermittently sent in the years 1392–1879. These diplomatic contacts were within the Sinocentric system of bilateral and multinational relationships in East Asia; the Ryukyuan King Satto established formal relations with the Joseon court. These diplomatic contacts represented a significant aspect of the international relations of mutual Ryukyuan-Joseon contacts and communication. Ryukyuan missions are recorded in late-Goryeo diplomatic history. Yi Seong-gye declared a new dynasty in 1392-1393 under the name of Joseon; the country was to be called the "Kingdom of Great Joseon". Shortly after his ascension, the new monarch sent envoys to inform the Ming court at Nanking that a dynastic change had taken place. In 1392, the envoy from the Ryūkyū Kingdom to the court of the Goryeo monarch became among the first foreign representatives to appear in the court of the new king of what would be called the Joseon Dynasty.

In this period, the historic and diplomatic material for research on relations with the Ryukyus are encompassed within the Annals of Joseon Dynasty. Envoys form the Ryūkyū Kingdom were received in 1392. Ryūkyū sent missions in 1394 and 1397. Between 1409 and 1477, the Joseon court received 13 diplomatic and trade missions from the Ryūkyū Islands. 1392 – An envoy and his retinue from the Kingdom of Ryūkyū are recorded as having been received at the Joseon court. The Joseon Wangjo Sillok records that the envoys from Ryūkyū were accorded "East fifth rank lower grade" Their retainers were accorded "sixth rank lower grade." The Ryūkyū delegation offered what are identified as pangmul, the term for gifts offered by subordinate states. 1394 – An envoy and his retinue from the Kingdom of Ryūkyū were received. 1397 – An envoy and his retinue from the Kingdom of Ryūkyū were received. Joseon missions to Ryūkyū Kingdom Ch'oe, Po and John Thomas Meskill.. Diary: a Record of Drifting Across the Sea. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

OCLC 16739180 Codesaca, Maria Silvia. "A Korean's Drift to the Ryukyus in the 15th Century." Korea Journal, Vol. 15, No. 9. Pp. 42–49. Goodrich, Luther Carrington and Zhaoying Fang.. Dictionary of Ming biography, 1368-1644, Vol. I. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231038010. M.. "An Aspect of East Asian Maritime Trade: The Exchange of Commodities between Korea and Ryukyu," in Trade and Transfer across the East Asian'Mediterranean', Angela Schottenhammer, ed. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2005. Hussain, Tariq.. Diamond Dilemma: Shaping Korea for the 21st Century.. Seoul: Random House. ISBN 978-1-430-30641-2. Okinawa, the History of an Island People. Rutland, Vermont: C. E. Tuttle Co. OCLC 39242121 Kobata and Mitsugu Matsuda.. Ryukyuan Relations with Korea and South Sea Countries: An Annotated Translation of Documents in the "Rekidai Hoan". Kyoto: Kobata Atsushi. Lee, Hyoun-jong. "Military Aid of the Ryukyus and other Southern Asian Nations to Korea: During the Hideyoshi Invasions," Journal of the Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 46.

Pp. 13–24. Robinson, Kenneth R. "The Haedong Chegukki and Korean-Ryukyuan Relations, 1389-1471: Part I," Acta Koreana, Vol. 3. Pp. 87–98. Robinson, Kenneth R. "The Haedong Chegukki and Korean-Ryukyuan Relations, 1389-1471: Part II," Acta Koreana, Vol. 4. Pp. 115–142. Toby, Ronald P.. State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1951-3 Yi, I-hwa.. Korea's Customs a Social History. Paramus, New Jersey: Homa & Sekey Books. ISBN 9781931907385. Ryukyuan Relations with Korea and South Sea Countries. Kyoto:. OCLC 221947347

Alfa Romeo 90

The Alfa Romeo 90 is an executive car produced by Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo between 1984 and 1987. Designed by Bertone and introduced at the 1984 Turin Motor Show, the 90 was pitched between the Alfa Romeo Giulietta and the Alfa Romeo Alfa 6, both of which were soon discontinued after the 90's launch; the car used the Alfetta chassis and took its engines from the larger Alfa 6. The bodywork was similar to both. One notable feature of the 90's design was small chin spoiler which extended above a certain speed to aid engine cooling, its angular lines with integrated bumpers gave the car a neat look consistent with the period, however the aerodynamics suffered with a drag coefficient of Cd=0.37. The cars design was conservative and out, with the only unusual element being the U-shaped parking brake lever; the 90 was well equipped, including electric front windows and electrically adjustable seats as standard. The luxurious Gold Cloverleaf model had electric rear windows, a trip computer, power steering, central locking, metallic paint and a digital instrument panel as standard.

The external finish was similar across the board, it being near impossible to tell the different models apart from appearance alone. The 90 was revamped in 1986 with many minor changes throughout, the most obvious exterior change being a new grille with smaller horizontal slants. Total 56,428 cars were sold over the four years of production; the 90 was made only as sedan but in 1985 Carrozzeria Marazzi developed an Alfa 90 Station Wagon prototype at the behest of Italian motoring magazine Auto Capital. The Alfa 90 has longitudinal front engine, rear mounted gearbox with differential lock, independent front suspension wishbones with torsion bar springs and rear De Dion tube, it has disc brakes on all four wheels, the rear brakes are mounted inboard. Five engines were available: two Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engines; the carburetted fours have twin Dell'Ortos with manual chokes, while the 1,962 cc was available in a fuel injected model which incorporated a novel variable valve timing system. The fuel injected engine offered somewhat less torque.

The 2.0 V6 version was dedicated to the Italian market, where up to 1993 cars with engines over 2.0-litres were subjected to a doubled 38% VAT. It was equipped with an innovative engine control unit and electronic injection system named CEM, developed by Alfa Romeo subsidiary SPICA, it manages the opening time of the injectors and the ignition depending on the angle of the butterfly valves, with one throttle body per cylinder unlike on the Bosch Jetronic used on the 2.5 V6. V6 cars receive a double-plate clutch. Practical Classics, a well-known classic car magazine, reported that only 10 Alfa Romeo 90s remain on British roads; as of June 2014, only one, a Gold Cloverleaf, is licensed with the DVLA, with a further eight on SORN. The International Alfa 90 Register

Femi Temowo

Femi Temowo is a Nigerian-born British jazz guitarist, musical director and broadcaster. He was nominated for the Best Jazz Act MOBO Award. Femi Temowo was born in the city of Nigeria. Following the death of his birth mother when he was four months old, he lived with his grandmother in Nigeria while his father emigrated to the UK. Ten years in 1986, Temowo's father returned to take his son to England, where they lived in Streatham, South London, with his siblings and step-mother, his step-mother insisted. Aside from a brief experimentation with rap, Temowo had not engaged with music. At church, when he was 17, he was taught his first guitar chords by Michael Olatuja. Temowo started experimenting with his brother's acoustic guitar and fell in love with the instrument. Temowo attended Leeds College of Music for a one-year music introduction course in 1996; that year, at the age of 20, he played in his first live jam session at the Paradise Bar in New Cross, with Shingai Shoniwa. In 1997, he began performing in London.

He embarked on a Music degree at Middlesex University and graduated in 2001. After graduating, he accompanied Phillippe, Julie Dexter, Samantha Mumba, Misteeq, with whom he toured. In 2003, Temowo met rapper Soweto Kinch at a jam session in Uncle Sam's, Hackney; the pair met as teenagers at the same venue, introduced by jazz guitarist Alan Weekes. They played the jazz standard "Caravan". By 2003, Kinch was entered in the Rising Star category in the BBC Radio Jazz Awards and International Saxophonist of the Year at the Montreux Jazz Festival and was signed to Dune Records, he invited Temowo to form a quartet with drummer Troy Miller. Temowo agreed, they recorded Kinch's debut album Conversations with the Unseen, nominated for the Mercury Prize. Temowo continued to work and tour internationally with Kinch,and played on Kinch's second album, A Life in the Day of B19: Tales of the Tower Block and third album, The New Emancipation. Amy Winehouse was seeking a musical director after the release of her debut album, when Temowo, a regular on the jazz circuit, was recommended to her.

Winehouse and Temowo met at the Spread Eagle pub in Camden in 2004 to discuss their musical ideas. Temowo worked as Winehouse's musical director and guitar accompanist throughout 2004 and 2005, touring with her twice across Europe and the UK. Temowo began to write solo material; the Black Lily was a platform which showcased female talent from Philadelphia, born in the basement of Questlove's house. The first series took place weekly at the Wetlands in New York and moved to the Five Spot in Philadelphia; the Black Lily produced Floetry, Jaguar Wright, Lady Alma, Kindred the Family Soul and Jazmine Sullivan, hosted impromptu performances from Alicia Keys, Erykah Badu, The Roots, India Arie. The concept was exported to the UK in 2003, where Temowo musically directed The Black Lily monthly nights at Cargo in Shoreditch; the Roots were hosted at London's Black Lily twice. Temowo moonlights as a broadcaster, hosting Jazz Alive twice weekly on the Premier Gospel radio station. Temowo released Quiet Storm, in September 2006 on his label, Femitone Music.

Made with a modest budget, the album was recorded in one day at The Premises Studios in Hackney. He spent nine months producing the record from home. Orin Meta which means "Three Songs" in the Yoruba language, was inspired by his study of the song culture of the early Yoruba people of his native West Africa; the record showcases his guitar style and arrangements through the Yoruba tradition of storytelling, fusing jazz harmonies and Yoruba rhythms. He spent over a year producing the record. In 2009 Courtney Pine invited Temowo to play at the first Lagos International Jazz Festival, part of the North Sea Jazz Festival; this was Temowo's first trip to Nigeria since his emigration when he was ten years old, it prompted several revisits and an exploration of the music of his heritage. Temowo explains that while connected to his Nigerian roots, he was exploring his cultural background from the perspective of someone born in Nigeria but living as a British person in the UK; the album includes appearances by Xantone Blacq, Soweto Kinch, Troy Miller, Eska Mtungwazi, Michael Olatuja, Jean Toussaint, Grant Windsor.

The Music Is the Feeling, his third album, was recorded with Karl Rasheed-Abel, Thomas Dyani, the Engines Orchestra, Troy Miller, Michael Olatuja, Ernesto Simpson. A combination of West African folk and jazz, the album evokes the music he listened to as a boy in Nigeria when he heard King Sunny Adé, Fela Kuti, Ebenezer Obey. Nine of eleven tracks included the Engines Orchestra led by saxophonist Phil Meadows, who Temowo met shortly after their formation