Jadavpur University

Jadavpur University is a public state university located in Kolkata in the state of West Bengal in India. It was established in 1955. University of Calcutta is one of the three universities in early modern India, the other two being Bombay and Madras University, it was set up by the British in Calcutta in 1857 as a means of spreading western philosophical thought among the elite in India. It aimed to create, in the words of Lord Macaulay, "a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect." This initiative was furthered by the passing of the Universities Act of 1904. This resulted in the reorganization of the Calcutta University's Senate and Syndicate by the nomination of more white members into them, which in turn would enable the government to control its policies; the nationalists in the freedom struggle of India dubbed the Calcutta University, another pillar of India's education movement, as "Goldighir Ghulamkhana", or the slave house of Goldighi, with reference to the lake adjacent to Calcutta University, the many graduates it churned out who were used in the British colonial era as ICS officers.

Hence, the need for setting up an institution which would impart education along nationalist lines was felt by the luminaries of the period. The real impetus, was provided by the partitioning of Bengal by Lord Curzon, the Governor-General of India, into East Bengal on the one hand and West Bengal and Odisha on the other; the young men of Bengal were amongst the most active in the Swadeshi movement, the participation of university students drew the ire of the Raj. R. W. Carlyle prohibited the participation of students in political meetings on the threat of withdrawal of funding and grants; the decade preceding these decrees had seen Bengali intellectuals calling for indigenous schools and colleges to replace British institutions. Generous sums of money were donated by Brojendra Kishore Roy Choudhury, Maharaja Suryya Kanto Acharya Choudhury and Rashbihari Ghosh, appointed the first president of the university. Aurobindo served as the first principal of the college; the organisation in its early days was intricately associated with the nascent revolutionary nationalism in Bengal at the time.

It was during his time as principal that Aurobindo started his nationalist publications Jugantar and Bande Mataram. The students' mess at the college was frequented by students of East Bengal who belonged to the Dhaka branch of the Anushilan Samiti, was known to be hotbed of revolutionary nationalism, uncontrolled or encouraged by the college. On the same day that the National Council of Education was set up, a rival organisation, the Society for Promotion of Technical Education in Bengal, was set up by Taraknath Palit; the Bengal Technical Institute came into being on 25 July 1906 under the umbrella of the SPTE, with the objective of spreading technical education among the masses in West Bengal, one of the eastern region states of India. However, by 1910 there was a merger of the two rival institutes; the Bengal Technical Institute came under the National Council of Education. The emblem of the university depicts a three-flamed lamp encircled by lotus petals; the lamp represents knowledge. The three flames represent intellectual training, cultivation of emotions and imagination, spiritual development.

The petals of the lotus on the periphery represent culture. The emblem was designed by Nandalal Bose, a key member of the Bengal School of Art, one of the great masters at Kala Bhavan; as the university celebrated its Golden Jubilee on 24 December 2005, the emblem was created to commemorate the occasion, the motto'To Know Is To Grow' was coined. This date was the centenary of the National Council of Education. Jadavpur University is semi-residential, which at present operates out of two urban campuses: one in Jadavpur and another in Salt Lake. Jadavpur University has acquired the erstwhile National Instruments Limited, becoming the first Indian university to acquire such a research unit, it is on a nine-acre plot opposite the main campus. After renovation, the new campus is expected to add much-needed space for new laboratories for the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunication Engineering, Computer Science & Engineering; the NIL campus is to be connected to the main campus by a tunnel to bypass the traffic on the busy Raja S.

C. Mullick Road. In 2013, Defence Research & Development Organisation announced plans to set up one of the country's biggest state-of-the-art research hubs and Advanced Technology Centre at the NIL campus. In the same year, CSIR announced the setting up of a research centre for big data analytics and an Inverted Innovation Centre alongside the research hub announced by DRDO. In addition to being a unitary university, it has other institutes like the J D Birla Institute, Jadavpur Vidyapith as well as the Institute of Business Management, Jadavpur University affiliated to it, which operate out of independent campuses. While these institutes have their own independent curriculum as well as examination systems, the final degree is offered by Jadavpur University. Internationally, Jadavpur University ranked 601-650 by the QS World University Rankings of 2018, 125 in Asia and 74 among BRICS nations, it was ranked 601-800 in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2018, 127 in Asia and 99 among BRICS & Emerging Economies University Rankings in 2017.

It was ranked 772 in the world by U. S. News & World Report; the university was ranked 543rd in the world by CWTS Leiden Ranking in

Bernard Anselme

Bernard Anselme was the Minister-President of the Walloon Region of Belgium from 11 May 1988 to 7 January 1992. Bernard Anselme was born on 3 November 1945 in Wallonia to a postal worker. After his father was transferred to Libramont-Chevigny, Anselme studied humanities from 1957 to 1963, ending his education in the humanities at Namur in 1963. In 1968, Anselme received a degree in political science and administration from Université Libre de Bruxelles in Brussels. During his time in Brussels, Anselme became involved in the Young FGTB, becoming its assistant secretary in 1964, its secretary in 1968 and serving as its president from 1968 to 1970. Between 1969 and 1972, Anselme served as the Special Adviser to the Minister for Community Relations, from 1972 to 1977 served as an adviser to the President of the Walloon Economic Council, Alfred Delourme. In 1977, Anselme became the Member for Namur, serving in various positions before serving as Wallonia's Secretary of State from 1979 to 1980. In 1985, as a member of Wallonia's regional parliament, Anselme authored a decree establishing Namur as the capital of the Walloon Region.

In 1988, Anselme became the Minister-President of the Walloon Region, a position he retained until 7 January 1992. From 1994 to 1999 Anselme served as the Minister for Internal Affairs for the Walloon Region, followed by a few months in the position of Minister for Social Affairs. On 1 January 2001 Anselme became the Mayor of Namur. In October 2006, following the formation of a coalition between the Christian Democrats and Liberals, Anselme's Socialist Party was ousted from government for the first time in 30 years. Anselme announced his intention to resign from politics following the election defeat, but was convinced to stay in municipal politics, he sits as a Namur municipal councillor

Clemons v. Department of Commerce

Clemons v. Department of Commerce was a lawsuit filed in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of Mississippi on September 17, 2009, unsuccessfully appealed to the United States Supreme Court, that challenged the constitutionality of the law setting membership in the United States House of Representatives at 435 members; the case, in brief, asked the court to decide three major points: Does the Constitution’s requirement of one person, one-vote apply to the interstate apportionment of the U. S. House of Representatives? Does the current level of inequality violate this standard? Does Congress need to increase the size of the House to remediate this inequality? Based on the principle of one person, one-vote, the suit cited a lack of compliance with Article I, Section 2 and Amendment XIV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution that "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers" and asked that the court declare the current apportionment system to be unconstitutional.

On July 7, 2010, the three-judge panel in the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of Mississippi ruled that Congress has discretion to set the size of the United States House of Representatives if significant voter inequality results; the plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal to the United States Supreme Court on August 26, 2010. On November 17, 2010, the government filed a motion to dismiss the case or affirm the lower court decision; the appellants' Reply Brief was filed November 2010, completing the cycle of filings. The court considered the case in the conference of December 10, 2010. On December 13, 2010, the complaint was vacated and remanded with instructions to dismiss for lack of jurisdiction; this leaves the case as if it never occurred, leaving open the possibility of a future lawsuit to the same effect, but throwing out the extensive legal analysis done by both parties. United States congressional apportionment United States congressional apportionment#Controversy and history Baker v. Carr Reynolds v. Sims