Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz is a Polish mathematician, alpinist and was a vice-president of the European Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee from January 2007 until mid-2009. Janusz Onyszkiewicz was born in Lwów, he graduated in mathematics from Warsaw University. He became a famous mathematician and an alpinist in the 1970s along with his wife Alison Chadwick-Onyszkiewicz. In the 1980s, he became the spokesman for the anti-communist Solidarity movement, he became popular among foreign journalists because of his fluent English. After the introduction of martial law in Poland on 13 December 1981, he was interned. After the fall of communism in 1989, Onyszkiewicz became a member of the Polish Sejm, he served all subsequent terms from May 1989 until 2001. In the spring of 1990, Onyszkiewicz and Bronisław Komorowski became the first civilian vice-ministers of defence in the communist-dominated Ministry of Defence. Onyszkiewicz was Minister of Defence twice, in the cabinets of Hanna Suchocka and Jerzy Buzek.
He was a member of the Obywatelski Klub Parlamentarny the Democratic Union and the Freedom Union. Today, he is a member of the continuation of Democratic Union. In 1999, Onyszkiewicz was awarded the Manfred Wörner Medal by the German Minister of Defence. On 13 June 2004, Onyszkiewicz was elected to the European Parliament as a candidate of Democratic Union in the 10th constituency receiving 50 155 votes. On 20 July 2004 he was elected a Vice-President of the European Parliament. Onyszkiewicz is Chairman of the ICDT's International Board of Directors. Onuszkiewicz's page for elections to the European Parliament European Parliament Election, 2004
Bronisław Piotr Piłsudski, brother of Józef Piłsudski, was a Polish cultural anthropologist who conducted research on the indigenous people like Ainu and Nivkhs on Sakhalin Island. In the 21st century, there are few Ainu left on Sakhalin, the largest Ainu population is the one on the Japanese island of Hokkaido. Bronisław and his brother Józef Piłsudski lived in Vilnius in 1874, where they continued self-education for three years. After their mother's death in 1886, they left for Saint Petersburg. Bronisław Piłsudski passed an examination at a local university. Bronisław, for his involvement with a socialist in a plot to assassinate Alexander III of Russia in 1887 together with Vladimir Lenin's brother Alexander Ulyanov, was sentenced to fifteen years at hard labor on Sakhalin island, he used his time there to conduct research. While on Sakhalin in 1891, he met ethnographer Lev Sternberg, he was sent to the southern part of the island. The rest of his prison sentence was changed to ten years of internal exile because he had settled without permission of the Russian authorities.
Three years he was given a grant by the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences to study the Ainu. That year he settled in an Ainu village, fell in love with an Ainu woman, Chufsanma married her and had a son and daughter and Kiyo, with her, his wife was a niece of Chief Bafunkei of the village of Ai in Sakhalin. In 1903 he recorded the Ainu language. From these original recordings an Ainu dictionary of over a thousand words was made, translated into over ten languages. Piłsudski wrote down the myths, culture and customs of the Ainu, he built an elementary school in the village where he taught Russian language and mathematics to the local children. The schools were open only in the slack season of the farm. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War broke out. Due to the rumour that if one spoke Russian he would be conscripted to the Russian Army, the locals began refusing to learn Russian. Ainus were prepared to cooperate with the Japanese after they landed on Sakhalin. A local told Bronisław. Chief Bafunkei told Piłsudski to return to Poland.
Piłsudski reluctantly agreed with him. He moved to Japan by himself, where he was befriended by Ōkuma Shigenobu, Futabatei Shimei, Torii Ryūzō, Katayama Sen, others, helped an organisation of anti-imperial Russian refugees. Among them Futabatei Shimei became Bronisław's close friend, he affectionately describes Bronisław as "an'odd ball', so kind-hearted and innocent like a child that he would always insist in a excited tone that he needed to do something to help Ainus and that it was his destiny to do that despite the fact that he was always a'complete broke' then". In the same year, he arrived in Kraków, Austria-Hungary, after traveling from Japan via the United States; when there was upheaval preceding World War I, he escaped to Switzerland. In 1917 he left for Paris, where he worked at the Paris office of Polish National Committee, founded by Roman Dmowski, the political archrival of Bronisław's younger brother Józef Piłsudski. On 17 May 1918 he drowned in the Seine River near le Pont Neuf.
On 21 May 1918 his body was found near le Pont Mirabeau. His death was thought to be a suicide. All the descendants of his son and daughter live in Japan today as Japanese citizens; as Józef Piłsudski had daughters only, the direct paternal descendent of the entire Piłsudski family Kazuyasu Kimura is Bronisław's one living male descendant, who resides in Yokohama. List of Poles Ainu flag Polish Museum, Rapperswil "Piłsudski, Bronisław," Encyklopedia Powszechna PWN, Warsaw, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, vol. 3, 1975, p. 521. "Piłsudski, Bronisław," Encyklopedia Polski, Kraków, Wydawnictwo Ryszard Kluszczyński, 1996, ISBN 83-86328-60-6, p. 505. Bronisław Piłsudski's life and work Large volume of documents related to Bronisław Piłsudski from Józef Piłsudski Institute of America
Order of Polonia Restituta
The Order of Polonia Restituta is a Polish state order established 4 February 1921. It is conferred on both military and civilians as well as on foreigners for outstanding achievements in the fields of education, sport, art, national defense, social work, civil service, or for furthering good relations between countries; the Order of Polonia Restituta is sometimes regarded as Poland's successor to the Order of the Knights of Saint Stanislaus and Martyr, known as the Order of Saint Stanislaus, established in 1765 by Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, to honor supporters of the Polish crown. When Poland regained its independence from the German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russian Empire in 1918, the new Polish government abolished the activities of the Order of Saint Stanislaus in the country, due to the claimed abuses of its initial rules by the Russians, who awarded their version to those who - according to the dominant view in newly independent Poland - had been responsible for the destruction of Poland and Polish culture.
Instead, the Order of Polonia Restituta was established on 4 February 1921 with Marshal Józef Piłsudski as first Grand Master, with the proclaimed aim of once again rewarding the noble values that it original stood for. The Marshal awarded the first recipients on 13 July 1921; the order became Poland's main honour bestowed on foreigners, awarded by the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. After World War II both the Polish government-in-exile and the Communist People's Republic of Poland, aligned with the Warsaw Pact, awarded the order, though the versions differed slightly. Despite communist control, the order's prestige remained safe and it was given to many people who were hardly model communists; the order was saved from abuse as it was passed over in favor of more traditional communist awards. During this time, the Order of Merit of Poland became the favored award for foreigners. On 22 December 1990 the Polish government-in-exile returned the rights to its version of the order to the new Polish state.
Invalid awards have been revoked and today the remaining communist versions of the order hold the same status as any other issues. Founded by the Polish Republic on 4 February 1921 as a secondary award to the Order of the White Eagle, the Order of Polonia Restituta, or the Order of the Restored Poland, has been alleged as an intended Polish successor to the Polish Order of Saint Stanislaus; the new Polonia Restituta order use the same ribbon as the old Saint Stanislaus order and their decorations are similar. The goal was to preserve the tradition of the Order of Saint Stanislaus and its association with Polish history while changing the name which had become associated with Poland's oppression under the Russian Tsars. Among Polish civilian awards, the Order is second only to the awarded Order of the White Eagle; the order entitled its recipient to a state pension. As such nominees for the award are evaluated by a special committee responsible for upholding the honor of the order; the Chapter of Polonia Restituta is composed of a Grand Master and eight members appointed by him, who serve five year terms.
Upon becoming elected the President of Poland, the office-holder is automatically awarded the order and becomes the Grand Master of the Order Chapter. The names of new recipients are published in the Monitor Polski, a publication required to provide announcements of legal decisions to the public. Order of Polonia Restituta has five classes, categorized according to the Constitution of Poland, Article 138, as follows: Order of Polonia Restituta First Class, Krzyż Wielki, the Grand Cross, referred to as the Grand Cordon. Order of Polonia Restituta Second Class, Krzyż Komandorski z Gwiazdą, the Commander's Cross with Star. Order of Polonia Restituta Third Class, Krzyż Komandorski, the Commander's Cross. Order of Polonia Restituta Fourth Class, Krzyż Oficerski, the Officer's Cross. Order of Polonia Restituta Fifth Class, Krzyż Kawalerski, the Knight's Cross; the badge of the order is a gold Maltese cross enamelled in white. The obverse central disc bears a white eagle on red background, the Coat of Arms of Poland, surrounded by a blue ring bearing the words "Polonia Restituta".
The reverse central disc bears the year 1918. It is worn on a ribbon, red with a white stripe near the edges, as a sash on the right shoulder for Grand Cross, around the neck for Commander with Star and Commander, on the left chest with rosette for Officer, on the left chest without rosette for Knight; the star of the order is an eight-pointed silver star with straight rays. The central disc is in white enamel, bearing the monogram "RP" and surrounded by a blue ring bearing the Latin words "Polonia Restituta". Order of Saint Stanislaus
University of Liverpool
The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England. Founded as a college in 1881, it gained its royal charter in 1903 with the ability to award degrees and is known to be one of the six original'red brick' civic universities, it comprises three faculties organised into schools. It is a founding member of the Russell Group, the N8 Group for research collaboration and the university management school is AACSB accredited. Ten Nobel Prize winners are amongst its alumni and past faculty and the university offers more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects, its alumni include the CEOs of GlobalFoundries, ARM Holdings, Tesco and The Coca-Cola Company. It was the world's first university to establish departments in oceanography, civic design and biochemistry at the Johnston Laboratories. In 2006 the university became the first in the UK to establish an independent university in China, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, making it the world's first Sino-British university.
For 2017-18, Liverpool had a turnover of £543.9 million, including £95.6 million from research grants and contracts. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in England. Graduates of the university are styled with the post-nominal letters Lpool, to indicate the institution; the university has a strategic partnership with Laureate International Universities, a for-profit college collective, for University of Liverpool online. The partnership provides the technical infrastructure to deliver courses worldwide; the university was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool, admitting its first students in 1882. In 1884, it became part of the federal Victoria University. In 1894 Oliver Lodge, a professor at the university, made the world's first public radio transmission and two years took the first surgical X-ray in the United Kingdom; the Liverpool University Press was founded in 1899, making it the third oldest university press in England. Students in this period were awarded external degrees by the University of London.
Following a royal charter and act of Parliament in 1903, it became an independent university with the right to confer its own degrees called the University of Liverpool. The next few years saw major developments at the university, including Sir Charles Sherrington's discovery of the synapse and William Blair-Bell's work on chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. In the 1930s to 1940s Sir James Chadwick and Sir Joseph Rotblat made major contributions to the development of the atomic bomb. From 1943 to 1966 Allan Downie, Professor of Bacteriology, was involved in the eradication of smallpox. In 1994 the university was a founding member of the Russell Group, a collaboration of twenty leading research-intensive universities, as well as a founding member of the N8 Group in 2004. In the 21st century physicists and technicians from the University of Liverpool were involved in the construction of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, working on two of the four detectors in the LHC. In 2004, Sylvan Learning known as Laureate International Universities, became the worldwide partner for University of Liverpool online.
The university has produced ten Nobel Prize winners, from the fields of science, medicine and peace. The Nobel laureates include the physician Sir Ronald Ross, physicist Charles Barkla, physicist Martin Lewis Perl, the physiologist Sir Charles Sherrington, physicist Sir James Chadwick, chemist Sir Robert Robinson, chemist Har Gobind Khorana, physiologist Rodney Porter, economist Ronald Coase and physicist Joseph Rotblat. Sir Ronald Ross was the first British Nobel laureate in 1902; the University is associated with Professors Ronald Finn and Sir Cyril Clarke who jointly won the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award in 1980 and Sir David Weatherall who won the Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science in 2010. These Lasker Awards are popularly known as America's Nobels. Over the 2013/2014 academic year, members of staff took part in numerous strikes after staff were offered a pay rise of 1% which unions equated to a 13% pay cut since 2008; the strikes were supported by both the university's Guild of Students and the National Union of Students.
Some students at the university supported the strike. The university is based around a single urban campus five minutes walk from Liverpool City Centre, at the top of Brownlow Hill and Mount Pleasant. Occupying 100 acres, it contains 192 non-residential buildings that house 69 lecture theatres, 114 teaching areas and research facilities; the main site is divided into three faculties: Life Sciences. The Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Ness Botanical Gardens are based on the Wirral Peninsula. There was a marine biology research station at Port Erin on the Isle of Man until it closed in 2006. Fifty-one residential buildings, on or near the campus, provide 3,385 rooms for students, on a catered or self-catering basis; the centrepiece of the campus remains the University's original red brick building, the Victoria Building. Opened in 1892, it has been restored as the Victoria Gallery and Museum, complete with cafe and activities for school visits Victoria Gallery and Museum, University of Liverpool.
In 2011 the university made a commitment to invest £660m into the'Student Experience', £250m of which will be spent on Student Accommodation. Announced so far have been two large On-Campus halls of residences (the first of which, Vine Court, opened September 2012, new Veterinary Science facilities, a £10m refurbishment of the Liverpool Guild of Students. New Central Teaching Laboratories for physics, earth sciences, chemistry an
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
White Waltham Airfield
White Waltham Airfield is an operational general aviation aerodrome located at White Waltham, 2 nautical miles southwest of Maidenhead, in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. This large grass airfield is best known for its association with the Air Transport Auxiliary from 1940 to 1945 and has a significant history of pre-war flying training, war-time and post-war RAF use and post-war use as flight test centre by the Fairey and Westland aircraft companies. In the mid 1950s it was HQ RAF Home Command, it is now owned and is the home of the West London Aero Club. The airfield was set up in 1928 when the de Havilland family bought 196 acres of grassland to house the de Havilland Flying School. In 1938 the airfield was taken over by the government, during the Second World War was the home of the Air Transport Auxiliary between its formation in early 1940 and disbandment on 30 November 1945; the ATA staged a unique Air Display and Air Pageant at White Waltham on 29 September 1945, opened by Lord Beaverbrook and featured a memorable static park of Allied and German aircraft and the flying included Alex Henshaw displaying a Seafire Mk45.
After the war, the airfield was used by Fairey Aviation and Westland Helicopters, which assembled and tested aircraft built at their Hayes factory. These included the Fairey FB-1 Gyrodyne, Fairey Jet Gyrodyne, Fairey Ultralight, Fairey Rotodyne & Westland Scout & Westland Wasp; the prototype Fairey Gannet was first flown from Aldermaston but production aircraft were completed and first flown at White Waltham too and an example is stored at the airfield. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was taught to fly at White Waltham in 1952, flying a de Havilland Chipmunk belonging to HQ RAF Home Command Communications Squadron of the Royal Air Force; this squadron was based at the airfield from 1950 until 1959. The airfield stayed under RAF control until 1982; until 2007 it was the base of Thames Chiltern Air Ambulance helicopter. 150 light aircraft are based at the airfield which, with three runways, is the largest grass airfield in civilian use in Europe. The airfield holds Civil Aviation Authority Public Use Aerodrome Licence Number P773, that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flight training.
On 24 June 1989, the Fairey Hangar, on the north side of the airfield, was the venue for one of the largest acid house raves to be held at that time. The Sunrise Midsummer Party was attended by over 11,000 ravers, attracted about 1,000 vehicles; this caused 3-mile tailbacks on the approach to the airfield. The Sun newspaper ran a headline "Ecstasy Airport" the next day; the home quarters of Carter's Steam Fair are adjacent to the airfield. In October 2010, the airfield was turned into a 1950s London Heathrow Airport for the filming of the 2011 film My Week with Marilyn. White Waltham Airfield featured as the fictional Finchmere Airfield in the Midsomer Murders episode "The Flying Club" using footage from the annual Retrofestival held at White Waltham. On July 2017 White Waltham Airfield became the location in the Flight Simulator Flight Sim World for the Light Aircraft Pilots License given by the fictional Waltham Flying Club Sturtivant, Ray. RAF Flying Training & Support Units. Air-Britain. ISBN 0-85130-252-1.
Waltham - A Village at War 1939-45 by Dennis Tomlinson, ISBN 0-9534505-3-8'White Waltham Impressions - Photographs Taken at the ATA Pageant on Saturday 29 September' in'The Aeroplane Spotter', 18 October 1945 West London Aero Club official site Multimap aerial photo
Newnham College, Cambridge
Newnham College is a women's constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded in 1871 by a group organising Lectures for Ladies, members of which included philosopher Henry Sidgwick and suffragist campaigner Millicent Garrett Fawcett, it was the second women's college to be founded following Girton College. The history of Newnham begins with the formation of the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women in Cambridge in 1869; the progress of women at Cambridge University owes much to the pioneering work undertaken by the philosopher Henry Sidgwick, fellow of Trinity. Lectures for Ladies had been started in Cambridge in 1869, such was the demand from those who could not travel in and out on a daily basis that in 1871 Sidgwick, one of the organisers of the lectures, rented a house at 74, Regent Street to house five female students who wished to attend lectures but did not live near enough to the University to do so, he persuaded Anne Jemima Clough, who had run a school in the Lake District, to take charge of this house.
The following year, Anne Clough moved to Merton House on Queen's Road to premises in Bateman Street. Clough became president of the college. Demand continued to increase and the supporters of the enterprise formed a limited company to raise funds, lease land and build on it. In 1875 the first building for Newnham College was built on the site off Sidgwick Avenue where the college remains. In 1876 Henry Sidgwick married Eleanor Mildred Balfour, a supporter of women's education, they lived at Newnham for two periods during the 1890s. The college formally came into existence in 1880 with the amalgamation of the Association and the Company. Women were allowed to sit University examinations as of right from 1881; the demand from prospective students remained buoyant and the Newnham Hall Company built providing three more halls, a laboratory and a library, in the years up to the First World War. The architect Basil Champneys was employed throughout this period and designed the buildings in the Queen Anne style to much acclaim, giving the main college buildings an extraordinary unity.
These and buildings are grouped around beautiful gardens, which many visitors to Cambridge never discover, unlike most Cambridge colleges, students may walk on the grass for most of the year. Many young women in mid-19th century England had no access to the kind of formal secondary schooling which would have enabled them to go straight into the same university courses as the young men - the first principal herself had never been a pupil in a school. So Newnham's founders allowed the young women to work at and to a level which suited their attainments and abilities; some of them, with an extra year's preparation, did indeed go on to degree-level work. And as girls' secondary schools were founded in the last quarter of the 19th century, staffed by those, to the women's colleges of Cambridge and London, the situation began to change. In 1890 the Newnham student Philippa Fawcett was ranked above the Senior Wrangler, i.e. top in the Mathematical Tripos. By the First World War the vast majority of Newnham students were going straight into degree-level courses.
In tailoring the curriculum to the students, Newnham found itself at odds with the other Cambridge college for women, founded at the same time. Emily Davies, Girton's founder, believed passionately that equality could only be expressed by women doing the same courses as the men, on the same time-table; this meant. But the Newnham Council held its ground, reinforced by the commitment of many of its members to educational reform and a wish to change some of the courses Cambridge was offering to its men. In 1948 Newnham, like Girton, attained the full status of a college of the university; the university as an institution at first took no notice of these women and arrangements to sit examinations had to be negotiated with each examiner individually. In 1868 Cambridge's Local Examinations Board allowed women to take exams for the first time. Concrete change within the university would have to wait until the first female colleges were formed, following the foundation of Girton College and Newnham women were allowed into lectures, albeit at the discretion of the lecturer.
By 1881, however, a general permission to sit examinations was negotiated. A first attempt to secure for the women the titles and privileges of their degrees, not just a certificate from their colleges, was rebuffed in 1887 and a second try in 1897 went down to more spectacular defeat. Undergraduates demonstrating against the women and their supporters did hundreds of pounds' worth of damage in the Market Square; the First World War brought a catastrophic collapse of fee income for the men's colleges and Cambridge and Oxford both sought state financial help for the first time. This was the context in which the women tried once more to secure inclusion, this time asking not only for the titles of degrees but for the privileges and involvement in university government that possession of degrees proper would bring. In Oxford this was secured in 1920 but in Cambridge the women went down to defeat again in 1921, having to settle for the titles - the much-joked-about BA tit - but not the substance of degrees.
This time the male undergraduates celebrating victory over the women used a handcart as a battering ram to destroy the lower half of the bronze gates at Newnham, a memorial to Anne Clough. The women spent the inter-war years trapped on the threshold of the university, they could hold university posts but they