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Jaguar E-Type

The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car, manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of beauty, high performance, competitive pricing established the model as an icon of the motoring world; the E-Type's claimed 150 mph top speed, sub-7-second 0 to 60 mph acceleration, unitary construction, disc brakes, rack-and-pinion steering, independent front and rear suspension distinguished the car and spurred industry-wide changes. The E-Type was based on Jaguar's D-Type racing car, which had won the 24 Hours of Le Mans three consecutive years beginning 1955, employed what was, for the early 1960s, a novel racing design principle, with a front subframe carrying the engine, front suspension and front bodywork bolted directly to the body tub. No ladder frame chassis, as was common at the time, was needed and as such the first cars weighed only 1315kg. On its release in March 1961 Enzo Ferrari called it "the most beautiful car made".

In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in The Daily Telegraph online list of the world's "100 most beautiful cars" of all time. Outside automotive circles, the E-type received prominent placement in Diabolik comic series, Austin Powers films and the television series Mad Men; the E-Type was designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form and as a two-seater convertible "roadster". A "2+2" four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released several years later. Model updates of the E-Type were designated "Series 2" and "Series 3", over time the earlier cars have come to be referred to as "Series 1." As with other hand made cars of the time, changes were incremental and ongoing, which has led to confusion over what a Series 1 car is. This is of more than academic interest, as Series 1 E-Types—and Series 1 roadsters have values far in excess of Series 2 and 3 models.

Some transitional examples exist. For example, while Jaguar itself never recognised a "Series 1½" or "Series 1.5," over time, this sub-category has been recognised by the Jaguar Owners Club of Great Britain and other leading authorities. The "pure" 4.2-litre Series 1 was made in model years 1965–1967. The 4.2-litre Series 1 has serial or VIN numbers 1E10001 - 1E15888, 1E30001 - 1E34249. The Series 1.5 left hand drive roadster has serial numbers 1E15889 - 1E18368, with the hardtop version of the Series 1.5 having VIN numbers 1E34250 - 1E35815. Series 1.5 cars were made in model year 1968. The Series 1 cars, which are by far the most valuable fall into two categories: Those made between 1961 and 1964, which had 3.8-litre engines and partial synchromesh transmissions, those made between 1965-1967, which increased engine size and torque by around 10%, added a synchronised transmission, provided new reclining seats, an alternator in place of the prior dynamo, an electrical system switched to negative earth, other modern amenities, all while keeping the same classic Series 1 styling.

The 4.2-litre Series 1 E-Types replaced the brake servo of the 3.8-litre with a more reliable unit. "The 4.2 became the most desirable version of the famous E-Type due to their increased power and usability while retaining the same outward appearance as the earlier cars."As of the end of 2014, the most expensive regular production Jaguar E-Types sold at auction included a 4.2-litre Series 1 roadster, with matching numbers, original paint and interior, under 80,000 original miles, a history of being in the original buyer's family for 45 years and a 1961 "flat floor" Series 1, selling for $528,000 in 2014. Special run racing lightweights go for far more still. For example, a 1963 E-type Lightweight Competition advertised as original and with lots of patina, one of just twelve that were built, sold for $7,370,000 at the 2017 Scottsdale, Arizona auctions. Being a British-made car of the 1960s, there are some rather rare sub-types of Series 1 E-Types at the beginning and end of the Series 1 production.

For example, the first 500 Series 1 cars had flat floors and external bonnet latches. At the close of the Series 1 production run, there were a small number of cars produced that are identical in every respect to other Series 1 units, except that the headlight covers were removed for better illumination, it is not known how many of these Series 1 cars were produced, but given that 1,508 Series 1 roadsters were produced worldwide for 1967, combined with the fact that these examples were made in just the last several months of Series 1 production, means that these, like the flat floor examples that began the Series 1 production run, are the lowest volume Series 1 variant, save of course for the special lightweights. Worldwide, including both left and right hand drive examples, a total of 7,828 3.8-litre Series 1 roadsters were built, with 6,749 of the 4.2-litre Series 1 roadsters having been manufactured. While the 1968 Series 1.5 cars maintained the essential design

Grottes Pétrifiantes de Savonnières

Les Grottes Pétrifiantes de Savonnières known as the caves gouttières, are two grottoes located in Savonnières, Indre-et-Loire, France. The Romans were present in the caves, as evidenced by the discovery of pottery, manual mills, a graveyard, with seven gravestones remaining; the grottoes were formed during the Middle Ages, the stone being used to build châteaux. Centuries the caves were flooded with water creating new passages, they were visited by Bernard Palissy in 1547, an extension was discovered by a speleologist in 1947. In the 1960s, the grottoes were managed by their owner, they were added to ANECAT, have since become a popular tourist attraction. Objects are put under the grottoes' springs for six months to a year, which covers them in limestone, creating a "petrified" look

Kokoda

Kokoda is a station town in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea. It is famous as the northern end of the Kokoda Track, site of the eponymous Kokoda Track campaign of World War II. In that campaign, it had strategic significance. In the decades preceding, it had been a foothills settlement near the gold fields. Kokoda is located within the administrative divisions of Kokoda Rural LLG. Before British colonisation in the late 19th century, the area around Kokoda belonged to the Orokaiva people. In 1899 Henry Stuart-Russell was surveying a path from Port Moresby to the north coast of New Guinea, he encountered Orokaiva in the upper reaches of the Kumusi and Mambare Rivers who opposed his presence and his party subsequently shot down numerous people who had the mistaken belief that their shields could deflect bullets. Stuart-Russell found signs of gold in this area which encouraged British and Anglo-Australian miners to enter the area; the entry of these miners caused further conflict and death on both sides and the British paramilitary force in New Guinea known as the Papuan Native Constabulary was ordered to the area to enforce colonial rule.

William Armit, the Resident Magistrate of the region, arrived with his troopers killing 17 people in one village and another 24 people in subsequent patrols. He had the aim of preventing the survivors from returning to their villages for 2 years. Armit had served as an officer in the brutal Native Police based in Queensland, he died from fever not long after these punitive missions and was said to have used crucified captives for target practice while in New Guinea. In 1901, after Armit's death, further patrols by the PNC were led by his replacement in Alexander Elliot. Elliot and his troopers shot dead forty Orokaiva and left another 17 with broken legs while avenging the killings of two white miners. Elliot was warned by his superiors not to describe the killing of natives in "sporting parlance", but otherwise his actions were not disapproved of. Further punitive raids were conducted by officers Allen Walsh, Archibald Walker and Richard de Moleyns, killing around 50 natives with their newly issued Martini-Enfield rifles.

The British found that a base for the PNC and colonial control was required to subdue the region and the government station of Kokoda was founded in 1904. Government officer Henry Griffin forced local people to become laborers and carriers to construct the town and build roads in the region. If they refused Griffin would order his troopers to steal their taro plants. From Kokoda, the British and Anglo-Australian forces subdued neighbouring tribes. An amphibious landing by Japanese forces to capture Port Moresby, was frustrated by the Japanese defeat in the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942 and postponed indefinitely after the Battle of Midway; the Japanese command believed there to be a road leading through the Owen-Stanleys from Kokoda to the south coast. An invasion force was landed on the north coast near Buna and Gona from 21 July 1942. Two battles were fought in and around the village during the opening stages of the Kokoda Track campaign. Kokoda was reoccupied by Australian forces on 2 November 1942, following the Japanese withdrawal back to the north coast.

The station is linked by a rough road and a two-hour journey to the provincial capital of Popondetta. In August 2009 Kokoda airstrip was the destination for Airlines PNG Flight CG4684 that crashed whilst attempting to land. All 13 people on board were killed in the crash including nine Australian passengers who were due to trek the Kokoda Track, a Japanese passenger and three Papua New Guineans including the two pilots. Kokoda Rural LLG Kokoda Track campaign New Guinea campaign Kokoda Memorial Hospital