Monocoque structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an object's external skin, similar to an egg shell. The word monocoque is a French term for "single shell" or "single hull". First used in boats, a true monocoque carries both tensile and compressive forces within the skin and can be recognised by the absence of a load-carrying internal frame. Few metal aircraft can be regarded as pure monocoques, as they use a metal shell or sheeting reinforced with frames riveted to the skin, but most of the wooden aircraft are described as monocoques though they incorporate frames. By contrast, a semi-monocoque is a hybrid combining a tensile stressed skin and a compressive structure made up of longerons and ribs or frames. Other semi-monocoques, not to be confused with true monocoques, include vehicle unibodies, which tend to be composites, inflatable shells or balloon tanks, both of which are pressure stabilised; the term is misused as a marketing term for structures built up from hollow components.
Early aircraft were constructed using frames of wood or steel tubing, which could be covered with fabric such as Irish linen or cotton. The fabric made a minor structural contribution in tension but none in compression and was there for aerodynamic reasons only. By considering the structure as a whole and not just the sum of its parts, monocoque construction integrated the skin and frame into a single load-bearing shell with significant improvements to strength and weight. To make the shell, thin strips of wood were laminated into a three dimensional shape. One of the earliest examples was the Deperdussin Monocoque racer in 1912, which used a laminated fuselage made up of three layers of glued poplar veneer, which provided both the external skin and the main load-bearing structure; this produced a smoother surface and reduced drag so that it was able to win most of the races it was entered into. This style of construction was further developed in Germany by LFG Roland using the patented Wickelrumpf form licensed by them to Pfalz Flugzeugwerke who used it on several fighter aircraft.
Each half of the fuselage shell was formed over a male mold using two layers of plywood strips with fabric wrapping between them. The early plywood used was prone to damage from delamination. While all-metal aircraft such as the Junkers J 1 had appeared as early as 1915, these were not monocoques but added a metal skin to an underlying framework; the first metal monocoques were built by Claudius Dornier. He had to overcome a number of problems, not least was the quality of aluminium alloys strong enough to use as structural materials, which formed layers instead of presenting a uniform material. After failed attempts with several large flying boats in which a few components were monocoques, he built the Zeppelin-Lindau V1 to test out a monocoque fuselage. Although it crashed, he learned a lot from its construction; the Dornier-Zeppelin D. I was built in 1918 and although too late for operational service during the war was the first all metal monocoque aircraft to enter production. In parallel to Dornier, Zeppelin employed Adolf Rohrbach, who built the Zeppelin-Staaken E-4/20, which when it flew in 1920 became the first multi-engined monocoque airliner, before being destroyed under orders of the Inter-Allied Commission.
At the end of WWI, the Inter-Allied Technical Commission published details of the last Zeppelin-Lindau flying boat showing its monocoque construction. In the UK, Oswald Short built a number of experimental aircraft with metal monocoque fuselages starting with the 1920 Short Silver Streak in an attempt to convince the air ministry of its superiority over wood. Despite advantages, aluminium alloy monocoques would not become common until the mid 1930s as a result of a number of factors, including design conservatism and production setup costs. Short would prove the merits of the construction method with a series of flying boats, whose metal hulls didn't absorb water as the wooden hulls did improving performance. In the United States, Northrop was a major pioneer, introducing techniques used by his own company and Douglas with the Northrop Alpha. In motor racing, the safety of the driver depends on the car body which must meet stringent regulations and only a few cars have been built with monocoque structures.
An aluminum alloy monocoque chassis was first used in the 1962 Lotus 25 Formula 1 race car and McLaren was the first to use carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers to construct the monocoque of the 1981 McLaren MP4/1. In 1992 the McLaren F1 became the first production car with a carbon-fiber monocoque; the term monocoque is misapplied to unibody cars. Commercial car bodies are never true monocoques but instead use the unibody system, which uses box sections and tubes to provide most of the strength of the vehicle, while the skin adds little strength or stiffness; some armoured fighting vehicles use a monocoque structure with a body shell built up from armour plates, rather than attaching them to a frame. This reduces weight for a given amount of armour. Examples include the German TPz Fuchs and RG-33. French industrialist and engineer Georges Roy attempted in the 1920s to improve on the bicycle-inspired motorcycle frames of the day, which lacked rigidity; this limited their handling and therefore performance.
He applied for a patent in 1926, at the 1929 Paris Automotive Show unveiled his new motorcycle, the Art-Deco styled 1930 Majestic. Its new type of monocoque body solved the p
The E-segment is the second largest of the European segments for passenger cars, is described as "executive cars". It is equivalent to the full-size car category used in the United States and the executive car category used in Europe. E-Segment is a niche in Europe. Most E-segment cars are sedans/saloons, however several models are produced in a wagon/estate body style; the three highest selling E-segment cars in Europe are the Mercedes-Benz E-class, BMW 5 Series and Audi A6. The three highest selling cars in the equivalent category in the United States are the Dodge Charger, Chevrolet Impala and Chrysler 300. Car classifications Executive car Full-size car
Executive car is a British term for a large car, equivalent to the European E-segment classification. Executive cars are larger than compact executive cars, smaller than luxury saloons / full-size sedans; the term has been adopted by Euro NCAP, a European organization founded to test for car safety. The term was coined in the 1960s to describe cars targeted at successful professionals and middle-to-senior managers, it was used by businesses as an incentive for employees in senior roles and to exploit Britain and Europe's tax schemes as a company owned vehicle. Early executive cars offered engines with displacements of 2.0–3.5 L, compared with 1.6–2.4 L for an equivalent sized— but less luxurious— "large family car". Prior to the 1990s, executive cars were sedans, however in recent years they have been produced in other body styles, such as estates, four-door coupes and fastback sedans. In general, executive cars are 4-door sedans; some manufacturers seek to differentiate their offerings by making them as estate variants, or with 5-door hatchback bodies—in particular Rover, Saab and Citroën have been known to prefer such body styles, with Ford offering such models through the 1990s, Audi and BMW have offered such body styles for their executive cars.
Until the 1990s, some models were available as 2-door coupés. One of the first Chinese-built executive cars was the 2006 Roewe 750, based on the Rover 75. In 2012, the Roewe 950 was introduced, a re-bodied version of the 2010 Buick LaCrosse. Several overseas brands have produced long wheelbase versions of cars for the Chinese market, due to the preference Chinese owners have for being driven by a chauffeur. Examples include the "XF L" version of the 2016 Jaguar XF, the "Li" version of the 2017 BMW 5 Series and other models from Audi, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo. In France, executive cars are known as "Grande Routière", a class of comfortable long distance cars that first emerged on the French market in the 1930s. Peugeot began producing large cars in the early 1900s. Following the Peugeot 601 being discontinued in 1935, Peugeot ceased production of large cars until the Peugeot 604 was introduced in 1975; the 604 was replaced by the Peugeot 605 in 1989, which in turn was replaced by the Peugeot 607 in 1999.
Following the end of the 607's production run in 2010, Peugeot no longer produces any executive cars. Citroën's first large car was the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant. In 1955, the Traction Avant was replaced by the iconic Citroën DS, replaced in 1974 by the Citroën CX and the 1989 Citroën XM; the XM was discontinued in 2000 and for five years Citroën did not produce an executive car. The 2005 Citroën C6 was produced until 2012, Citroën has not produced any executive cars since. Renault entered the executive car segment in 1975 with the Renault 20/30 models, they were replaced, by the Renault 25 which featured a fastback rear end. In 1992, the 25 was replaced by the Renault Safrane; the Safrane was replaced by the Renault Vel Satis hatchback in 2002 and Renault has not produced any executive cars since the Vel Satis ended production in 2009. The equivalent class for cars in Germany is "Obere Mittelklasse" as defined by the German federal authorities. Luxury cars larger than this are referred to as Oberklasse.
Mercedes-Benz has produced large luxury cars since the early 1900s. Following World War II, Mercedes Benz's first all-new models were the Mercedes-Benz W120 executive cars; this lineage continues through to the present and has been marketed as the Mercedes-Benz E-Class since 1993. The Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class four-door fastback was added to the company's model range in 2004, with a shooting brake body style produced from 2012-2017. BMW's first large luxury car was the 1936-1941 BMW 326. After a hiatus of 21 years, BMW's next executive car models were the 1962 New Class Sedans. In 1972, the New Class was replaced by the BMW 5 Series. Over the seven generations of 5 Series, it has been produced in sedan and four-door fastback body styles; the first large luxury car produced by Audi was the Audi 100, released in 1968. The Audi 100 was replaced by the Audi A6 in 1994. In 2010, the Audi A7 four-door fastback model range was added; the Ford Granada is an executive car produced by Ford Europe from 1972-1994.
Fiat's first large luxury car was the Fiat 24-32 HP, introduced in 1903. Other large luxury Fiats produced before World War II include the Fiat 510, Fiat 520, Fiat 527 and Fiat 2800. In 1959, the Fiat 1800 and 2100 executive sedans and station wagons were introduced; these models were replaced by the Fiat 2300 in 1969. FIAT's last executive car was the Fiat 130, produced from 1969-1977. Lancia produced several large luxury cars prior to World War II, including the Lancia Lambda, Lancia Artena and Lancia Aprilia; the Lancia Flavia was an executive car began production in 1961 and was replaced by the Lancia 2000 in 1971. The 2000 was replaced by the Lancia Gamma, released in 1976. In 1984, the Gamma was replaced by the Lancia Thema the Lancia Kappa in 1994; the Lancia Thesis, produced from 2001-2009 is the last executive car produced by Lancia. From 2011-2015, the Chrysler 300 has been sold in Europa as the Lancia Thema. Maserati's first executive is the Maserati Ghibli, in production since 2013. Toyota has been producing large luxury cars.
The Crown remains in production today and is in its fifteenth generation. In 1991, the Toyota Aristo executive car began production and s
Jaguar XK6 engine
The Jaguar XK6 is an inline 6-cylinder dual overhead camshaft engine produced by Jaguar Cars between 1949 and 1992. Introduced as a 3.4-litre, it earned fame on both the road and track, being produced in five displacements between 2.4 and 4.2-litres for Jaguar passenger cars, with other sizes being made by Jaguar and privateers for racing. A de-rated version was used in certain military vehicles built by Alvis and Daimler. Prior to World War II, SS Cars used three engines produced by the Standard Motor Company: a 1.5-litre 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines of 2.5 and 3.5 litres. Sir William Lyons and his engine designers. Rather than developing prototype engines after the war, it is claimed that Jaguar's wartime engine developments went far beyond mere discussion and design, extending to the construction and testing of several prototype engines as early as 1943; the initial aim was to produce a series of engines of higher than normal output that would be able to stay ahead of the competition without revision for many years and which Sir William insisted had to "look good".
In 1942-43, a range of configurations was considered and it was concluded that, for good breathing and high bmep, the new engines would need vee-opposed valves operating in hemispherical combustion chambers. Two configurations of this type were selected for comparison in 1943 and the prototypes named "XG" and "XF"; the XG 4-cylinder of 1,776 cc, first tested in October 1943, was based on the 1.5-litre Standard block and used its single cam-in-block to operate the opposed valves via a complicated crossover pushrod arrangement, similar to that of the pre-war BMW 328. The XF 4-cylinder of 1,732 cc used the now familiar dual overhead cam configuration and was first tested in November 1944; the XG was found to suffer from excessive pushrod and rocker noise and gas flow figures through its vertical valve ports did not equal those of the horizontal ports on the XF. Therefore, from these two options, the DOHC XF layout was selected. 4-cyl engine development progressed as follows: XG Pushrod engine 73 x 106 x 4 1776 cc May to Nov 1944 XF 75 x 98 x 4 1732 cc Nov 1944 to Jun 1945 XK1 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Oct 1945 to Nov 1946 XK2 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Feb to Sep 1946 XK3 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Dec 1946 to Feb 1947 XK4 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Nov 1946 to Dec 1947 Gardner Engine 1970 cc 1948 XK Number 1 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1949-1952 XK Number 2 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1950-1952 XK 5-bearing crank 1970 cc 1953By September 1947 a 3.2-litre 6-cylinder version had been produced, called the "XJ 6-cylinder", intended to replace both Standard-based 6-cylinder units.
Testing showed the need for higher torque at low speeds than this engine could produce and hence it was'stroked' to 3,442 cc to form the "XK 6-cylinder", which saw its debut in an open two-seat XK120 sports car at the 1948 London Motor Show. Following this the XK6 powered a number of other models in subsequent years; the XG prototype soldiered on as a component testbed until 1948. There existed an "XK 4-cylinder" of 1,790 cc first tested in October 1945 and remaining under development alongside the XK 6-cylinder units. At the time of William Heynes' paper presented to the IMechE in February 1953, the XK 4-cylinder was still referred to as being under development, it was only dropped as a possible production engine in 1953, by which time it had been realised that Jaguar's image in the market had moved beyond the need for a replacement for the old 1.5-litre Standard 4-cylinder unit. Because the 6-cylinder XK prototypes were found to be so much more refined than the 4-cylinder versions, in 1951 a 1,986 cc 6-cylinder version of the XK 6-cylinder was built to see if it would suffice as a smaller scale engine.
By 1954 this had grown to 2,483 cc and it was this short-block version of the XK 6-cylinder, fitted to the new compact Jaguar 2.4-litre released in that year. None of the 4-cylinder prototypes advanced to production but Lt. Col. Goldie Gardner's speed record team did fit a 1970 cc version to the MG streamliner EX-135 in 1948 to take the 2,000 cc class record at 177 mph, on the Jabbeke motorway in Belgium. There are some misleading claims of an intervening "XJ" 4-cyl prototype but it seems the only person who referred to them as such was William Heynes in a paper presented to the IMechE in 1953. Heynes stated there were many 4-cyl variants following the XF but it was he alone who loosely grouped them as XJ; the last mention of XF was in July 1945 and the first mention of XK was in October of the same year. This doesn't give much room for a series of XJ engines. There are no mentions of XJ in the archive. If there is a XJ, the first one is to have been referred to as XK1 internally. There were three others of nominally 1790 cc capacity called XK2, XK3 & XK4.
It is these are what Heynes referred to as "XJ". The
Jaguar Mark VII
The Jaguar Mark VII is a four-door luxury car produced by Jaguar Cars of Coventry from 1951 to 1956. Launched at the 1950 British International Motor Show as the successor to the Jaguar Mark V, it was called the Mark VII because there was a Bentley Mark VI on the market. A version of the Jaguar Mark V with the XK engine had been designated as the Mark VI, but it is thought that only two were built. In its original 1950 form the Mark VII could exceed 100 mph, in 1952 it became the first Jaguar to be made available with an optional automatic transmission. Mark VIIs were successful in rallying; the Mark VII chassis came from the Jaguar Mark V and the wheelbase remained the same at 10 feet. The new model's body looked more streamlined, with integrated headlights and mudguards, a two-piece windscreen, longer rear overhang; as on the Mark V, the rear wheels were covered by removable spats. Whereas the Mark V had a prewar pushrod engine developed by the Standard Motor Company, the Mark VII was powered by the newly developed XK engine.
First seen in production form in the 1948 XK120, the 3442 cc DOHC straight-six provided 160 bhp, the same as in the XK120, the saloon's claimed top speed was over 100 mph. When the car was being developed Jaguar thought it would find most of its customers overseas because UK car tax at that time penalised buyers of larger-engined cars; however it went into production just as Britain's postwar economic austerity began to ease, in 1951 the car's enthusiastic reception in both the British and American markets prompted Jaguar to relocate production to larger premises, at the Browns Lane plant, built for wartime production as a shadow factory and was now available for immediate use. The published performance figures for the Mark VII were based on the standard 8:1 compression ratio, but as this was unsuitable for the UK market's low-octane Pool petrol a 7:1 engine was optional. British motoring magazines tested the car's performance with the higher compression ratio, using the Ostend to Brussels autoroute in Belgium, where 80 octane fuel was available.
A Mark VII tested by The Motor in 1952 had a top speed of 101 mph, accelerated from 0–60 mph in 13.7 seconds and returned 17.6 miles per imperial gallon. The test car cost £1693 including taxes. In 1952 the Mark VII became the first Jaguar to be offered with automatic transmission. By the time the model was upgraded to M specification in 1954, 20,908 had been produced; the Mark VII M was launched at the British International Motor Show in October 1954. Although the engine continued with the same capacity and 8:1 compression ratio, it was uprated to 190 bhp, giving the car a claimed top speed of 104 mph; the four-speed manual gearbox was standard, while the Borg Warner automatic, hitherto available only on exported Mark VIIs, now became optional for British buyers. Distinguishing the Mark VII M from its predecessor, circular grilles over the horns were installed below the headlights in place of the former integrated auxiliary lamps, which were moved further apart and mounted on the bumper. Both bumpers now wrapped further around the sides of the car.
In 1956, with the advent of the Suez Crisis Britain anticipated fuel rationing, bubble cars appeared on the streets. Jaguar switched focus to their smaller saloons, neither the Mark VII M nor any of its powerful but fuel-thirsty successors would match the production volumes of the original Jaguar Mark VII. Before it was superseded by the Mark VIII, the Mark VII M achieved 10,061 sales during its two-year production run. Both variants of the Mark VII won race victories, an M version won a Monte Carlo Rally. In 1954 Jaguar built a lightweight Mark VII M which, although intended for racing, never participated in contemporary events. Road-registered KRW 621, it had magnesium body panels, D-type engine, Dunlop disc brakes and modified suspension. Factory-entered Mark VIIs won the Daily Express International Trophy Production Touring Car race at Silverstone five years running, twice took the top three places. Stirling Moss won in 1952 and 1953. In January 1956 a Mark VII M driven by Ronnie Adams, Frank Biggar, Derek Johnstone won the Monte Carlo Rally.
In August 1956, at Road America, in Elkhart Lake, Paul Goldsmith's Mark VII averaged 59.2 mph to win a 100-mile NASCAR Grand National race for cars up to 3500 cc. Schrader, Halwart: Typenkompass Jaguar - Personenwagen seit 1931, Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-613-02106-4 Stertkamp, Heiner: Jaguar - Die komplette Chronik von 1922 bis heute, 2. Auflage, Heel-Verlag, ISBN 3-89880-337-6
Roy Francesco Salvadori was a British racing driver and team manager. He was born in Essex, to parents of Italian descent, he graduated to Formula One by 1952 and competed until 1962 for a succession of teams including Cooper, Vanwall, BRM, Aston Martin and Connaught. A competitor in other formulae, he won the 1959 24 Heures du Mans in an Aston Martin with co-driver Carroll Shelby. In 47 starts he achieved two F1 Championship podium finishes: third place at the 1958 British Grand Prix and second place at that year's German Grand Prix, won non-championship races in Australia, New Zealand and England. In 1961 he was lying second in the United States Grand Prix. At the end of 1962 he retired from F1, stopped racing altogether a couple of years to concentrate on the motor trade, he returned to the sport in 1966 to manage the Cooper-Maserati squad for two seasons, retired to Monaco. With his ambition thwarted by World War II, Salvadori began his career in 1946, racing purely for pleasure, in minor events, in a MG and an ex-Brooklands offset Riley racer before stepping up to an ex-Tazio Nuvolari Alfa Romeo P3 in 1947.
It was with this car, he raced in the 1947 Grand Prix des Frontières, where late into the race, his Alfa would remain stuck in top gear. Despite this, Salvadori still cruised home to record an impressive fifth place, he decided to become a professional racing driver, drove a number of different makes as his career progressed. In the May 1951 BRDC International Trophy race at Silverstone, Salvadori had a serious accident when his Frazer Nash Le Mans Replica somersaulted two and a half times, ejecting him into the hay bales, he was in a critical condition, suffering a fractured skull and other severe injuries which left him so close to death he was given the last rites. Salvadori knew his limitations, realized that chasing the likes of Stirling Moss at circuits like steeply cambered, high-banked Dundrod or Pescara, with its blind bends and flat-out blinds, was futile, verging on suicidal. Through he wasn't alone in that, he became known as "King of the Airfields", accumulating wins at Silverstone and flat English airfield tracks.
Salvadori twice won the Oulton Park's International Gold Cup where there were plenty of trees to hit and a lake to plunge into, which he did once driving a Jaguar Mk. II 3.8 saloon. Nor was the Le Mans Mulsanne Straight at night a place for the careless or nervous he scored his most notable success there in an Aston Martin DBR1/300 in 1959. Salvadori's association with tractor magnate David Brown and his Feltham-built Aston Martin sports cars, GTs and F1 underscored his career; however he recovered sufficiently to make his first entry into Grand Prix racing in 1952 when he drove a two-litre four cylinder Ferrari 500 in the British Grand Prix for G. Caprara, finishing eighth, three laps down, he would continue to race the Ferrari, winning the Joe Fry Memorial Trophy. For the 1953 season, Salvadori joined the Connaught team and competed in five Grands Prix with the Connaught "A type" but retired from all of them. However, he did secured a number of non-championship victories during the season. Between 1954 and 1956 Salvadori drove a Maserati 250F in Formula One for Syd Greene's Gilby Engineering team, taking a numerous good results in predominantly non-championship F1 races, with one entry for Officine Alfieri Maserati in the Großer Preis der Schweiz where he did not start and the car was driven by Sergio Mantovani.
It was in the 1956 RAC British Grand Prix at Silverstone when only a 250F mounted Moss shaded him and a possible victory was lost to a fuel line problem, marked him out as a potential top-level driver. However, he remained active in domestic motor sport and in sports cars for Aston Martin. Since his Championship debut in 1952, Salvadori would experience retirement after retirement. Out of the ten races contested between 1953 and 1956, he would retire early in every single one of them, but this all change in 1957, when he signed with Cooper achieving only one fifth place at RAC British Grand Prix. However, 1958 was his most successful season, finishing fourth in the World Drivers' Championship for Cooper, behind Mike Hawthorn, Stirling Moss and Tony Brooks. Over the course of the season, he would earn two podium finishes, including a second place in the Großer Preis von Deutschland; however he was not retained by Cooper for 1959 but drove a entered Cooper, as well as the works Aston Martin, in which he achieved two sixth-place finishes.
The Aston Martin was a traditional front engined car, soon outclassed by the Cooper rear engined concept. He did, win the London Trophy at Crystal Palace with a Formula Two Cooper; the Aston Martin team continued into 1960 but again without success and Salvadori continued with the entered Cooper. For 1961, Salvadori moved to Reg Parnell's Yeoman Credit Racing team as partner to John Surtees, competing in five Grands Prix and achieving three sixth-place finishes with the team's 1.5-litre Cooper T53-Climax. The Cooper now had strong competition in the form of Colin Chapman's Lotus cars, but Salvadori was catching Innes Ireland for the lead in the United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen when the engine failed, he continued with Parnell for 1962, now under the Bowmaker Racing Team name with the Lola Mk4-Climax, but eight attempts yielded seven retirements and one failure to start. 1962 was Salvadori's last season in Formula One. Th
The Daimler Company Limited, until 1910, the Daimler Motor Company Limited, was an independent British motor vehicle manufacturer founded in London by H. J. Lawson in 1896, which set up its manufacturing base in Coventry; the company bought the right to the use of the Daimler name from Gottlieb Daimler and Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft of Cannstatt, Germany. After early financial difficulty and a reorganisation of the company in 1904, the Daimler Motor Company was purchased by Birmingham Small Arms Company in 1910, which made cars under its own name before World War II. In 1933, BSA made it a subsidiary of Daimler. Daimler was awarded a Royal Warrant to provide cars to the British Monarch in 1902. Daimler used alternative technology: the Knight engine which it further developed in the early twentieth century and used from 1909 to 1935, worm gear final drive fitted from 1909 until after the Second World War, their patented fluid flywheel used in conjunction with a Wilson preselector gearbox from 1930 to the mid-1950s.
In the 1950s, Daimler tried to widen its appeal with a line of smaller cars at one end and opulent show cars at the other, stopped making Lanchesters, had a publicised removal of their chairman from the board, developed and sold a sports car and a high-performance luxury saloon and limousine. In 1960, BSA sold Daimler to Jaguar Cars, which continued Daimler's line and added a Daimler variant of its Mark II sports saloon. Jaguar was merged into the British Motor Corporation in 1966 and British Leyland in 1968. Under these companies, Daimler became an upscale trim level for Jaguar cars except for the 1968-1992 Daimler DS420 limousine, which had no Jaguar equivalent despite being Jaguar-based; when Jaguar Cars was split off from British Leyland in 1984 it retained the Daimler company and brand. In 1990 Ford Motor Company bought Jaguar Cars and under Ford it stopped using the Daimler marque in 2007. Jaguar Cars remained in their ownership, from 2000 accompanied by Land Rover, until they sold both Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors in 2008, who created Jaguar Land Rover as a subsidiary holding company for them.
In 2013, Jaguar Cars was merged with Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover Limited, the rights to the Daimler car brand were transferred to the newly formed British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover. Engineer Frederick Richard Simms was supervising construction of an aerial cableway of his own design for the Bremen Exhibition in 1889 when he saw tiny railcars powered by Gottlieb Daimler's motors. Simms, born to English parents in Hamburg and raised by them there, became friends with Daimler, an Anglophile who had worked from autumn 1861 to summer 1863 at Beyer-Peacock in Gorton, Manchester. Simms introduced Daimler’s motors to England in 1890 to power launches. In an agreement dated 18 February 1891, he obtained British and Empire rights for the Daimler patents; that month, Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft lent Simms a motorboat with a 2 hp engine and an extra engine. In June 1891 Simms had set up a London office at 49 Leadenhall Street and founded Simms & Co consulting engineers. In May 1892, the motorboat, which Simms had named Cannstatt, began running on the Thames from Putney.
After demonstrating a motor launch to The Honourable Evelyn Ellis, Simms's motor launch business grew but became endangered when solicitor Alfred Hendriks was found to have been illegally taking money from the company. Hendriks severed his connections with Simms & Co. in February 1893. Simms' Daimler-related work was moved into a new company, The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited, formed on 26 May 1893. Following the success of Daimler-powered Peugeots and Panhards at the 1894 Paris–Rouen competition, Simms decided to open a motor car factory the UK's first motor company. On 7 June 1895, Simms told the board of the Daimler Motor Syndicate that he intended to form The Daimler Motor Company Limited to acquire the British rights to the Daimler patents and to manufacture Daimler engines and cars in England; that month, he arranged for the syndicate to receive a ten percent commission on all British sales of Daimler-powered Panhard & Levassor cars. At the same meeting, Simms produced the first licence to operate a car under the Daimler patents.
It was for a 3½ hp Panhard & Levassor, bought in France by The Honourable Evelyn Ellis, who had three Daimler motor launches moored by his home at Datchet. On 3 July, after Ellis bought the licence, the car was landed at Southampton and driven by Ellis to Micheldever near Winchester where Ellis met Simms and they drove together to Datchet. Ellis drove it on to Malvern; this was the first long journey by motorcar in Britain. Simms referred to the car as a "Daimler Motor Carriage". In 1895, Simms announced plans to form The Daimler Motor Company Limited and to build a brand-new factory, with delivery of raw materials by light rail, for 400 workmen making Daimler engines and motor carriages. Simms asked his friend Daimler to be consulting engineer to the new enterprise. Works premises at Eel Pie Island on the Thames where the Thames Electric and Steam Launch Company, owned by Andrew Pears of Pears Soap fame, had been making electrically powered motor launches, were purchased to be used to service Daimler-powered motor launches.
Investor Harry John Lawson had set out to use The British Motor Syndicate Limited to monopolise motor car production in Britain by taking over every patent he could. As part of this goal, Lawson approached Simms on 15 October 1895, seeking the right to arrange the public flotation of the proposed new company and to acquire a large shareholding for his British Mo