Jaguar Mark VIII
The Jaguar Mark VIII is a luxury four-door sports sedan introduced by the Jaguar company of Coventry at the 1956 London Motor Show. The car shared its 10-foot wheelbase with its predecessor, the Jaguar Mark VII, which outwardly it resembled. However, the interior fittings were more luxurious than those of the Mark VII. Distinguishing visually between the models is facilitated by changes to the front grille, the driving or fog lamps being moved from the front panel to the horizontal panel between bumper & front panel, larger rear lamps and most a curved chrome trim strip below the waistline which allowed the factory to offer a variety of two-tone paint schemes. In addition the new car had rear spats that were cut back to display more of the rear wheels and featured a one-piece curved windscreen, where the Mark VII had incorporated a two-piece front screen of flat glass; the Mark VIII inherited from its predecessor the 3442 cc straight-six engine which it shared with the Jaguar XK140 that appeared two years earlier.
In the Mark VIII, a modified cylinder head known as the'B' type was used. Although introduced subsequent to the'C' type competition head this naming made more sense than might at first appear. The'B' type head used the larger valves of the'C' type head, with the smaller intake port diameter of original XK cylinder head, introduced on the MK VII, now referred to as the'A' type; the combination of larger valves with the original intake port diameters allowed faster gas flow at low and medium speeds to promote better low and medium range torque. As the MK VIII was not to be revved as high as the C-Type racers and the XK 140's equipped with the'C' type head the reduction in flow at high rpm's was not seen to be a disadvantage. Engines equipped with the'A' type head were advertised at 160 bhp. The'B' type head was painted a light green on the 3.4 litre engines to identify it. The modified head supported by twin SU carburetors, employing a manual four-speed transmission, meant that advertised engine output was now increased to 190 bhp: the claimed top speed in excess of 106 mph was considered impressive, given the car's bulk.
Transmission options included a Borg Warner three-speed automatic box. After a two-year production run of 6,227 units the Mark VIII was replaced by the Jaguar Mark IX. A Mark VIII, crewed by Dunning and Cash, won first place in the Automatic Transmission class in the 1958 Australian Mobilgas Economy Run, a fuel economy contest in which cars were required to cover 1,224 miles in two and a half days
The Motor was a British weekly car magazine founded on 28 January 1903 and published by Temple Press. It was launched as Motorcycling and Motoring in 1902 before the title was shortened. From the March 14, 1964 issue the magazine name was Motor. In 1988 the journal was absorbed by its long-standing rival Autocar, which became, from the September 7 issue, Autocar & Motor. Six years with the September 21, 1994 issue, the name reverted to Autocar
The Jaguar XK120 is a sports car manufactured by Jaguar between 1948 and 1954. It was Jaguar's first sports car since the SS 100, which ceased production in 1940; the XK120 was launched in open two-seater or roadster form at the 1948 London Motor Show as a testbed and show car for the new Jaguar XK engine. The display car was the first prototype, chassis number 660001, it looked identical to the production cars except that the straight outer pillars of its windscreen would be curved on the production version. The sports car caused a sensation, which persuaded Jaguar founder and Chairman William Lyons to put it into production. Beginning in 1948, the first 242 cars wore wood-framed open 2-seater bodies with aluminium panels. Production switched to the 1cwt or 112 lb heavier all-steel in early 1950; the "120" in the name referred to the aluminium car's 120 mph top speed, which made it the world's fastest production car at the time of its launch. In 1949 the first production car, chassis number 670003, was delivered to Clark Gable.
The XK120 was available in three versions or body styles, first as an open 2-seater described in the US market as a roadster as a fixed head coupé from 1951 and as a drophead coupé from 1953, all two-seaters and available with Left or Right Hand Drive. A smaller-engined version with a 2-litre 4 cylinder engine, designated the XK100, intended for the UK market was cancelled prior to production. On 30 May 1949, on the empty Ostend-Jabbeke motorway in Belgium, a prototype XK120 timed by the officials of the Royal Automobile Club of Belgium achieved an average of runs in opposing directions of 132.6 mph with the windscreen replaced by just one small aero screen and a catalogued alternative top gear ratio, 135 mph with a passenger-side tonneau cover in place. In 1950 and 1951, at Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, a banked oval track in France, open XK120s averaged over 100 mph for 24 hours and over 130 mph for an hour. In 1952 a fixed-head coupé took numerous world records for speed and distance when it averaged 100 mph for a week.
XK120s were highly successful in racing and rallying. The first 242 production XK120s, hand-built with aluminium bodies on ash framing mounted on a steel chassis copied from the Jaguar Mark V chassis using many of the same parts, were constructed between late 1948 and early 1950. To meet demand, beginning with the 1950 model year, all subsequent XK120s were mass-produced with pressed-steel bodies. Aluminium doors and boot lid were retained; the DHC and FHC versions, more luxuriously appointed than the exposed open cars, had wind-up windows and wood veneers on the dashboard and interior door caps. With a high-temperature, high-strength aluminum alloy cylinder head, hemispherical combustion chambers, inclined valves and twin side-draft SU carburetors, the dual overhead-cam 3.4 L straight-6 XK engine was advanced for a mass-produced unit of the time. Using 80 octane fuel a standard 8:1 compression ratio developed 160 bhp. Most of the early cars were exported; the Jaguar factory's access to 80 octane fuel allowed it to provide cars with the higher compression ratio to the press, enabling journalists to test the model's optimum performance in Belgium, on a long, straight stretch of road between Jabbeke and Ostend.
The XK engine's basic design modified into 3.8 and 4.2 litre versions, survived until 1992. All XK120s had independent torsion bar front suspension, semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear, recirculating ball steering, telescopically adjustable steering column, all-round 12-inch drum brakes which were prone to fade; some cars were fitted with Alfin brake drums to help overcome the fade. The open two-seater's lightweight canvas top and detachable sidescreens stowed out of sight behind the seats, its doors had no external handles. There was an interior pull-cord accessed through a flap in the sidescreens when the weather equipment was in place; the windscreen could be removed for aeroscreens to be fitted. The drophead coupé had a padded, lined canvas top, which folded onto the rear deck behind the seats when retracted, roll-up windows with opening quarter lights; the flat glass two-piece windscreen was set in a steel frame, integrated with the body and painted the same colour. Dashboards and door-caps in both the DHC and the closed coupé were wood-veneered, whereas the open cars were leather-trimmed.
All models had removable spats covering the rear wheel arches. On cars fitted with optional centre-lock wire wheels, the spats were omitted as they gave insufficient clearance for the chromed, two-eared Rudge-Whitworth knockoff hubs. Chromium-plated wire wheels were optional from 1953. Factory standard 6.00 × 16 inch cross ply tyres were fitted on 16 × 5K solid wheels, with 185VR16 Pirelli Cinturato radial tyres available as a option. In addition to wire wheels, upgrades on the Special Equipment version included increased power, stiffer suspension and dual exhaust system; the Motor magazine road-tested an XK120 in November 1949. This pre-production car, chassis number 660001, road-registered as HKV 455, was the first prototype built, it was the 1948 London Motor Show display model, had been driven by Prince Bira in the 1949 Silverstone Production Car Race. When tested, it had the 8:1 compression ratio, was fitted with an undertray, ran with h
In automobiles, power steering is a device that helps drivers steer by augmenting steering effort of the steering wheel. Hydraulic or electric actuators add controlled energy to the steering mechanism, so the driver can provide less effort to turn the steered wheels when driving at typical speeds, reduce the physical effort necessary to turn the wheels when a vehicle is stopped or moving slowly. Power steering can be engineered to provide some artificial feedback of forces acting on the steered wheels. Hydraulic power steering systems for cars augment steering effort via an actuator, a hydraulic cylinder, part of a servo system; these systems have a direct mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the linkage that steers the wheels. This means that power-steering system failure still permits the vehicle to be steered using manual effort alone. Electric power steering systems use electric motors to provide the assistance instead of hydraulic systems; as with hydraulic types, power to the actuator is controlled by the rest of the power-steering system.
Other power steering systems have no direct mechanical connection to the steering linkage. Systems of this kind, with no mechanical connection, are sometimes called "drive by wire" or "steer by wire", by analogy with aviation's "fly-by-wire". In this context, "wire" refers to electrical cables that carry power and data, not thin wire rope mechanical control cables; some construction vehicles have a two-part frame with a rugged hinge in the middle. Opposing hydraulic cylinders move the halves of the frame relative to each other to steer; the first power steering system on an automobile was installed in 1876 by a man with the surname of Fitts, but little else is known about him. The next power steering system was put on a Columbia 5-ton truck in 1903 where a separate electric motor was used to assist the driver in turning the front wheels. Robert E. Twyford, a resident of Pittsburgh, included a mechanical power steering mechanism as part of his patent issued on April 3, 1900 for the first four-wheel drive system.
Francis W. Davis, an engineer of the truck division of Pierce-Arrow, began exploring how steering could be made easier, in 1926 invented and demonstrated the first practical power steering system. Davis moved to General Motors and refined the hydraulic-assisted power steering system, but the automaker calculated it would be too expensive to produce. Davis signed up with Bendix, a parts manufacturer for automakers. Military needs during World War II for easier steering on heavy vehicles boosted the need for power assistance on armored cars and tank-recovery vehicles for the British and American armies. Chrysler Corporation introduced the first commercially available passenger car power steering system on the 1951 Chrysler Imperial under the name "Hydraguide"; the Chrysler system was based on some of Davis' expired patents. General Motors introduced the 1952 Cadillac with a power steering system using the work Davis had done for the company twenty years earlier. Charles F. Hammond from Detroit filed several patents for improvements of power steering with the Canadian Intellectual Property Office in 1958.
Most new vehicles now have power steering, owing to the trends toward front wheel drive, greater vehicle mass, wider tires, which all increase the required steering effort. Heavier vehicles, as are common in some countries, would be difficult to maneuver at low speeds, while vehicles of lighter weight may not need power assisted steering at all. Hydraulic power steering systems work by using a hydraulic system to multiply force applied to the steering wheel inputs to the vehicle's steered road wheels; the hydraulic pressure comes from a gerotor or rotary vane pump driven by the vehicle's engine. A double-acting hydraulic cylinder applies a force to the steering gear, which in turn steers the roadwheels; the steering wheel operates valves to control flow to the cylinder. The more torque the driver applies to the steering wheel and column, the more fluid the valves allow through to the cylinder, so the more force is applied to steer the wheels. One design for measuring the torque applied to the steering wheel has a torque sensor – a torsion bar at the lower end of the steering column.
As the steering wheel rotates, so does the steering column, as well as the upper end of the torsion bar. Since the torsion bar is thin and flexible, the bottom end resists being rotated, the bar will twist by an amount proportional to the applied torque; the difference in position between the opposite ends of the torsion bar controls a valve. The valve allows fluid to flow to the cylinder. Since the hydraulic pumps are positive-displacement type, the flow rate they deliver is directly proportional to the speed of the engine; this means that at high engine speeds the steering would operate faster than at low engine speeds. Because this would be undesirable, a restricting orifice and flow-control valve direct some of the pump's output back to the hydraulic reservoir at high engine speeds. A pressure relief valve prevents a dangerous build-up of pressure when the hydraulic cylinder's piston reaches the end of its stroke; the steering booster is arranged so that should the booster fail, the steering will continue to work.
Loss of power steering can affect the handling of a vehicle. Each vehicle owner's manual gives instr
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a
Goodwood Circuit is a historic venue for both two- and four-wheeled motorsport in the United Kingdom. The 3.8 kilometres circuit is situated near Chichester, West Sussex, close to the south coast of England, on the estate of Goodwood House, encircles Chichester/Goodwood Airport. This is the racing circuit dating from 1948, not to be confused with the separate hillclimb course located at Goodwood House and first used in 1936; the racing circuit began life as the perimeter track of RAF Westhampnett airfield, constructed during World War II as a relief airfield for RAF Tangmere. The first race meeting took place on 18 September 1948, organised by the Junior Car Club and sanctioned by the Duke of Richmond and Gordon; the winner of the first race was P. de F. C. Pycroft, in his 2,664 c.c. Pycroft-Jaguar, at 66.42 m.p.h. Stirling Moss won the 500cc race, followed by Eric Brandon and "Curly" Dryden, all in Coopers. Goodwood became famous for its Glover Trophy non-championship Formula One race, Goodwood Nine Hours sports car endurance races run in 1952, 1953 and 1955, the Tourist Trophy sports car race, run here 1958-1964.
The cars that raced in those events can be seen recreating the endurance races at the Goodwood Revival each year in the Sussex trophy and the Royal Automobile Club Tourist Trophy. Goodwood has, over the years, played host to many famous drivers: Mike Hawthorn and Graham Hill had their first single seat races there, Roger Penske visited in 1963, Jim Clark and Jack Sears competed in 1964; the accident that ended Stirling Moss's International career happened at St. Mary's Corner in 1962. Donald Campbell demonstrated his Bluebird CN7 Land Speed Record car at Goodwood in July 1960 at its initial public launch, again in July 1962, before being shipped to Australia—where it broke the record in 1964; the car was a 30-foot-long Bristol Siddeley turbine-powered 4,500 hp streamliner, with a theoretical top speed of 450 to 500 miles per hour. The laps of Goodwood were at "tick-over" speed, because the car had only four degrees of steering lock, with a maximum of 100 mph on the straight on one lap. Goodwood saw its last race meeting for over 30 years in 1966, because the owners did not want to modify the track with chicanes to control the increased speeds of modern racing cars.
The last event was a club meeting organised by the British Automobile Racing Club on 2 July 1966. The circuit claimed the life of McLaren-founder Bruce McLaren in a testing accident on 2 June 1970; the accident happened on Lavant Straight, when a rear bodywork failure on McLaren's M8D car caused it to spin and leave the track, hitting a structure on the infield at over 100 mph while travelling sideways. Goodwood is noted for its annual Festival of Speed and Goodwood Revival events; the Goodwood Festival of Speed is an annual hill climb, held in late June or early July not on the circuit, but in the nearby grounds of Goodwood House. It features modern motor-racing vehicles. In 2010, the event had over 176,000 visitors over four days. Following the success of the Festival of Speed hill climb, racing returned to the Goodwood circuit in 1998; the Goodwood Revival is a three-day festival held each September for the types of cars and motorcycles that would have competed during the circuit's original period, 1948–1966.
Historic aircraft help to complete the vintage feel. In 2008, a crowd of 68,000 people attended the event on the main Sunday - 9,000 more than in 2007; the track is now used for classic races, track days, try-out days. Nearly everyone dresses up in vintage outfit from mods and rockers to racing drivers and just smart period clothes. In 2009, the Mongol Rally, a charity fundraising car rally to Mongolia, moved its starting point from Hyde Park, London to Goodwood. Entrants are on show to the public in the paddock before beginning the rally with a parade lap of the circuit; the National Finals of the Greenpower schools electric car racing challenge takes place at Goodwood each year. The Greenpower challenge is a nationwide series of electric vehicle endurance races for schools, who build their own 24 volt single-seater racing cars. There is a corporate version of the race, featuring teams like Lola, Jaguar Land Rover, Bentley Motors and Prodrive. The'Breakfast Club' was introduced in March 2006; this is a semi regular free to enter, open-to-all monthly gathering of drivers and riders who come to view each other's cars, bikes etc.
Each meeting is themed with striking examples of the days theme paraded on the start finish straight. The circuit hosted the 1982 UCI Road World Championships for cycle racing, notable for the men's professional race, which saw a late breakaway by the American rider Jacques Boyer being closed down by a pack led by Boyer's teammate Greg LeMond; the circuit was used as a filming location in the series Downton Abbey. Brighton Speed Trials British Automobile Racing Club Firle Hill Climb Gurston Down Motorsport Hillclimb Lewes Speed Trials Thruxton Circuit in Thruxton, Hampshire Brooklands circuit in Weybridge, Surrey Goodwood 500 Owners Association Greenpower
Jaguar S-Type (1963)
Not to be confused with the retro styled 1999-2008 Jaguar S-Type The Jaguar S-Type is a saloon car produced by Jaguar Cars in the United Kingdom from 1963 to 1968. Announced 30 September 1963 it was a technically more sophisticated development of the Mark 2, offering buyers a more luxurious alternative without the size and expense of the Mark X; the S-Type sold alongside the Mark 2, as well as the Jaguar 420 following its release in 1966. The Jaguar Mark 2 was sold throughout most of the 1960s, it had a live rear axle and was powered by the XK six-cylinder engine first used in the Jaguar XK120 of 1948. In the Mark 2 the engine was available in 3.4 and 3.8-litre capacities. In 1961 Jaguar launched two new models; the full size Jaguar Mark X saloon used Jaguar's new independent rear suspension and a triple SU carburettor version of the 3.8-litre XK engine. The other new car for 1961 was the Jaguar E-Type sports car, which shared the same 3.8-litre engine as the Mark X and a scaled-down version of the independent rear suspension.
Having released the Mark X with its many technical refinements, Jaguar boss Sir William Lyons expected the Mark 2 would need updating with similar features if it was to retain its place in the market. Accordingly, work began on developing the S-Type as soon as development work was finished on the Mark X; the S-Type was a major redevelopment of the Mark 2. It used a mid-scale version of the Mark X independent rear suspension to replace the Mark 2's live rear axle and featured longer rear bodywork, among other styling and interior changes; the S-Type was available with either 3.4 or 3.8-litre XK engines but only in twin carburettor form because the triple carburettor setup would not fit into what was still the Mark 2 engine bay. By the time of the S-Type's release in 1963, the Mark 2 remained an unexpectedly strong seller despite its age. Although the Mark X was selling less well than hoped in its intended market of the USA, Sir William decided to retain all three models in the Jaguar range concurrently.
The Mark X was renamed "420G" in 1966 and was joined by another new model, the 4.2-litre 420. The 420 was developed to replace the S-Type but because some demand remained for the S-Type, all four saloon models remained on sale until the arrival of the Jaguar XJ6 in 1968; the XJ6 replaced all but the 420G in the Jaguar range. No new engines were developed for the S-Type, it was first released with the SU HD-8 twin-carburettor variant of the 3.8-litre XK engine, the same as that which powered the 3.8-litre Mark 2. The 3.8-litre was the only engine offered on S-Types sold into the US market. The lower powered 3.4-litre S-Type used the same 3.4-litre engine as the Mark 2. It was released a few months after the 3.8S and was not made available at any stage on Jaguar's press demonstrator fleet in the UK. Whereas the 3.4-litre version remained the most popular engine option for the Mark 2, the 3.8-litre S-Type outsold the 3.4 S in the ratio 3 to 2, this despite the 3.8 S being discontinued in mid-1968, a couple of months before the 3.4S.
Despite the S-Type's weight gain of 152 kg over the Mark 2, no changes were deemed necessary to the Dunlop four-wheel disc braking system. Major changes were made to the S-Type's steering system; the Burman power steering system in the Mark 2, with its 4.3 turns lock-to-lock, was regarded as being excessively low geared and lacking in road feel. In the S-Type it was replaced by a higher-geared Burman unit of 3.5 turns lock-to-lock, which linked the input shaft and hydraulic valve by a torsion spring to improve its "feel". The heating and ventilating system of the Mark 2 was not considered adequate for the more upmarket S-Type and was replaced with an improved system. Separate control of ventilation direction was provided for both front seat passenger. Warm air could be directed to the rear passengers through an outlet situated on the propeller shaft tunnel cover between the two front seats. A key element of the Mark X that Jaguar wanted to include in the S-Type was its sophisticated, by widely acclaimed, Jaguar independent rear suspension.
The suspension was a revelation at the time of its introduction, remained the benchmark against which others were judged until the 1980s. A double wishbone setup, it uses the driveshaft as the upper wishbone, it carries the drive, braking and damping units in a single fabricated steel crossbridge, isolated from the bodyshell by rubber blocks. Including this suspension in the S-Type necessitated the development of a new crossbridge suitable for its 54 inches track, coming as it did between the 58 inches track of the Mark X and 50" track of the E-Type; the S-Type used the same subframe mounted, coil sprung, twin wishbone front suspension as the Mark 2. Sir William wanted to introduce some of the Mark X's sleeker and sharper lines into the S-Type but with limited time and money available, most effort was applied to restyling the rear bodywork; the S-Type was given extended rear bodywork similar to that on the Mark X, which gave it a much larger boot than the Mark 2. Minor changes were made to the frontal styling of the car in an attempt to balance the longer rear styling, but the overall effect at the front was still rounded.
The only change made to the center section was to flatten and extend the rear roof line, which made the car look larger and helped to give rear seat passengers more headroom. The styling of the S-Type was regarded by many of those who worked on it as being not altogether successful; the mismatch between the horizontal lines of its rear styling and the rounded front was least flattering when viewing the c