SS Cars was a British manufacturer of sports saloon cars from 1934 until wartime 1940, from March 1935 of a limited number of open 2-seater sports cars. From September 1935 their new models displayed a new name SS Jaguar. By its business, founded in 1922, was run by and owned by William Lyons. Lyons had been partner with 1922 co-founder William Walmsley until Walmsley sold his shareholding in January 1935; the company that owned the business, S. S. Cars Limited, bought the shares of Swallow Coachbuilding Limited as of 31 July 1934 and the Swallow company was liquidated before S. S. issued shares to the public in January 1935. This was the time. S. S. Cars Limited changed its name to Jaguar Cars Limited 23 March 1945. There is doubt about the source of the SS name. Sir John Black of Standard-Triumph when asked said. William Lyons when asked was noncommittal, but he was at the time in the company of suppliers of chassis for his run of the mill production bodies, he concurred. The Swallow Sidecar Company, trading name for the company Walmsley & Lyons co-founded by William Lyons and William Walmsley, progressively developed into a coachbuilder from its 1922 start, first making stylish sidecars for motorcycles.
In May 1927, Swallow advertised that it would make 2-seater bodies on Austin and Morris chassis and running gear supplied through any authorised dealer. Their first full page advertisement appeared in the Autocar magazine in October 1927 to fit with the Olympia Motor Show; the next year Swallow relocated to the heart of the British motor industry. In the winter of 1928-1929 they moved bit by bit from Cocker Street Blackpool to a disused munitions factory on a rutted track, the future Swallow Road, off Holbrook Lane, Coventry, they returned to Blackpool each year for the Works Day Out. In 1929 John Black of Standard Motor Company and William Lyons teamed up to realise their long standing dream to produce a one of a kind sports car; this "First SS" was a sleek boat-tail open 2-seater. Its flowing design and streamlining pointed to an obvious attempt at making a fast car with the intention of venturing into racing; this car is believed to have been shipped to Australia in the late 1940s. While the initial link with John Black's Standard was developed, bodies continued to be built on Austin, Standard and lastly Wolseley Hornet chassis.
At Motor Show time in October 1931, Swallow launched a car of its own, the SS 1, displayed a prototype, all while the aforementioned little Wolseley Hornet Special continued alongside. "This car has its little knot of admirers around it every minute of the day, from the point of view of general interest it is the most serious rival to the Rover Scarab. It is made by the Swallow Coachbuilding people on a chassis specially built for them by Standard, featuring a six-cylinder side-valve engine of 15hp, but it is the body, the big attraction. Its long low lines with no running boards and the head only a matter of four feet above the ground create an impression of speed and gracefulness, quite worthy of comparison with the Lagondas and Delages, it is with a distinct shock that one notices the price is only £310. The radiator is quite different from the ordinary Standard type being specially designed to conform with the body lines and fitted with a chromium plated fluted front, it is set off with a futuristic emblem and the filler cap is tucked out of sight under the bonnet.
The Rudge-Whitworth wire wheels are racing type, the wheel base being 9 ft 4 in and the track 4 ft 1 in The coachbuilt body has a sliding roof of new design with leather-grained head and large travelling trunk at the rear. The cycle type wings are domed the side valances being deep so that the necessity for running boards is obviated The interior of the car is beautifully finished, the cabinet work being done in atrractive polished sycamore grained to resemble the back of a fiddle; the upholstery is in furniture hide The particular model shown is finished in apple green and black and is a beauty in every sense of the term." Under the guidance of the chairman, William Lyons, the company survived the depression years of the 1930s by making a series of beautifully styled cars offering exceptional value for money although some enthusiasts criticised them at the time for being "more show than go". The engines and chassis supplied by the Standard Motor Company were fitted with Swallow bodies styled under Lyons supervision.
The first of the SS range of cars available to the public was the 1932 SS 1 with 2-litre or 2½-litre side-valve, six-cylinder engine and the SS 2 with a four-cylinder 1-litre side-valve engine. Available as coupé or tourer a saloon was added in 1934, when the chassis was modified to be 2 inches wider; the first of the open two-seater sports cars came in March 1935 with the SS 90, so called because of its claimed 90 mph top speed. This car used the 2½-litre side-valve, six-cylinder engine in a short-chassis "cut and shut" SS 1 brought down to an SS 2's wheelbase, only 23 were made. Harry Weslake was set to work on engine development. Bill Heynes came to be chief engineer from Hillman — before that Humber. Weslake's new cylinder head was manufactured for SS by Standard; the Weslake head and twin RAG carburetters were fitted to the last year's production of SS 1 and SS 2 cars. To counteract the "more show than go" criticism of their SS90 Lyons had engaged William Heynes as chief engineer and Harry Weslake for engine tuning.
Weslake was asked to redesign the 2½-litre 70 bhp side-valve engine to achieve 90 bhp. His answer was an overhead-valve design that produced 102 bhp and it was this engine that launched th
A roadster is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. An American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles; the roadster was a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500, in the 1950s and 1960s. This type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars; the term "roadster" originates in the United States, where it was used in the nineteenth century to describe a horse suitable for travelling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include tricycles. In 1916, the United States Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as: "an open car seating two or three, it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck." Due to it having a single row of seats, the main seat for the driver and passenger was further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car. Roadsters had a hooded dashboard.
In the United Kingdom the preferred terms were "open two-seater" and "two-seat tourer". Since the 1950s, the term "roadster" has been used in the United Kingdom, it is noted that the optional 4-seat variant of the Morgan Roadster would not be technically considered a roadster. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, or other weather protection. By the 1920s they were appointed to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, side curtains. Roadster bodies were offered on automobiles of all sizes and classes, from mass-produced cars like the Ford Model T and the Austin 7 to expensive cars like the Cadillac V-16, the Duesenberg Model J and Bugatti Royale. 1920s to 1950s roadsters By the 1970s "roadster" could be applied to any two-seater car of sporting appearance or character. In response to market demand they were manufactured as well-equipped as convertibles with side windows that retracted into the doors. Popular models through the 1960s and 1970s were the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB and Triumph TR4.
1950s to 1980s roadsters The highest selling roadster is the Mazda MX-5, introduced in 1989. The early style of roadster with minimal weather protection is still in production by several low-volume manufacturers and fabricators, including the windowless Morgan Roadster, the doorless Caterham 7 and the bodyless Ariel Atom. 1990s to present day roadsters The term roadster was used to describe a style of racing cars competing in the AAA/USAC Championship Cars series from 1952 to 1969. The roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car; this allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset, beneficial on oval tracks. One story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a "roadster" is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500, they had it covered in a corner of their shop. If they were asked about their car they would try and obscure its importance by saying that it was just their "roadster". After the Indianapolis racer was made public, the "roadster" name was still attached to it.
Frank Kurtis built the first roadster to race and entered it in the 1952 Indianapolis 500. It was driven by Bill Vukovich; the Howard Keck owned team with Vukovich driving went on to win the 1953 and 1954 contests with the same car. Bob Sweikert won the 1955 500 in a Kurtis. A. J. Watson, George Salih and Quinn Epperly were other notable roadster constructors. Watson-built roadsters won in 1956, 1959 - 1964 though the 1961 and 1963 winners were close copies built from Watson designs; the 1957 and 1958 winner was the same car built by Salih with help by Epperly built with a unique placement of the engine in a'lay down' mounting so the cylinders were nearly horizontal instead of vertical as traditional design dictated. This gave a lower center of gravity and a lower profile. Roadsters had disappeared from competition by the end of the 1960s, after the introduction, subsequent domination, of rear-engined machines. In 1965 Gordon Johncock brought the Wienberger Homes Watson to the finish in fifth place, the last top-ten roadster finish and the final time that a roadster finished the full distance of the race.
The last roadster to make the race was built and driven by Jim Hurtubise in the 1968 race and dropped out early. Hurtubise attempted to run the same car in 1969 but, while making his qualifying run at a good speed, the engine failed on the last of the four laps. Other classes of racing cars were built with the offset drive train and were referred to as roadsters; some pavement midgets roadsters raced into the early 1970s but never were dominant. Barchetta, a related two-seater body style designed for racing Convertible, the general term to describe vehicles with retractable roofs and retractable side windows Roadster utility Tonneau cover, a protective cover for the seats in an open car Media related to Roadsters at Wikimedia Commons
Fender skirts, known in Australia and the United Kingdom as spats, are pieces of bodywork on the fender that cover the upper portions of the rear tires of an automobile. Fender skirts are implemented for both aerodynamic reasons. Rather than air flowing into and being trapped in the rear wheel well, it flows smoothly over the bodywork, they are detachable to allow for tire changes and installation of snow chains. Automakers have experimented with front wheel fender skirts, as on the 1950–1954 Nash Rambler, but with success limited by the fact that the front wheels must pivot for steering, extending out from the side of the vehicle slightly. In GM parts accessories books, fender skirts are known as fender shields. First described as "pants", they were used for the streamlining effect by Frank Lockhart on a 1928 Stutz land speed record attempt car. Factory production of fender skirts began with the 1932 Graham-Paige. Aesthetically streamlined designs were copied to mass-produced models; the innovations introduced by Amos Northup, such as the V'd radiators, fender skirts, sloping beaver-tails, became common after 1933.
However, by the 1970s, fender skirts began to disappear from mass market automobiles. Fender skirts remained for some time longer on a few cars large American luxury cars. Fender skirts were paired with whitewall tires; the extent of the skirt varied, before the 1950s it was common for all but the bottom of the rear tire to be covered, while by the 1960s fender skirts only covered some of the top of the tire, were absent on cars other than top line models. For example, up until 1976, the Chevrolet Caprice, Oldsmobile 98, Buick Electra, Pontiac Bonneville and the Cadillac Fleetwood, DeVille and Calais models used fender skirts; the Cadillac Eldorado models sported fender skirts from 1971 thru 1974. Starting in 1977 only the Pontiac Bonneville retained the use of fender skirts on General Motors downsized cars. In 1980 the Oldsmobile returned. By 1985 fender skirts would disappear from all standard General Motors cars. In 1989, fender skirts were used again on the Cadillac front wheel drive Fleetwood models until 1993.
In 1993, Cadillac again incorporated fender skirts into the design of the re-styled rear drive Fleetwood, this design would last until 1996. The General Motors EV1 had fender skirts later. In European automobile design, Citroën notably used fender skirts on nearly all models produced between 1950 and 1990, most prominently in the DS, 2CV, Ami, GS, SM, BX and CX; as of 2015, the last mass-produced car with fender skirts was the 1999-2006 Honda Insight, although they are available for some new cars as aftermarket accessories. Some cities, such as Los Angeles, have fender skirts on municipal buses for safety purposes, as they can prevent items in the road from slipping under the tires. In 2013, the limited production Volkswagen XL1 reintroduced fender skirts on modern cars
Jaguar XJ is a series of full-size luxury cars produced under the Jaguar marque by British motor car manufacturer Jaguar Cars since 1968 across four basic platform generations with various updated derivatives of each. Since 1970 they have been Jaguar's flagship; the original model was the last Jaguar saloon to have had the input of Sir William Lyons, the company's founder, the model has been featured in countless media and high-profile appearances. The current Jaguar XJ was launched in 2009, it is one of the cars used by the British royal family and an armoured version is used for transporting the UK Prime Minister. The original first-generation XJ ran for a total of 24 years, with two major facelifts in 1973 and 1979. Retrospectively these are known as "Series" XJs among the Jaguar enthusiast community; the XJ6, using 2.8-litre and 4.2-litre straight-six cylinder versions of Jaguar's renowned XK engine, replaced most of Jaguar's saloons – which, in the 1960s, had expanded to four separate ranges.
Apart from the engines, other main assemblies carried over from previous models were the widest version of Jaguar's IRS unit from the Mark X and the subframe mounted independent front suspension first seen in the 1955 2.4-litre with new anti-dive geometry. An upmarket version was marketed under the Daimler brand as the Daimler Sovereign, continuing the name from the Daimler version of the Jaguar 420; the car was introduced in September 1968. Power-assisted steering and leather upholstery were standard on the 2.8 L De Luxe and 4.2 L models and air conditioning was offered as an optional extra on the 4.2 L. Daimler versions were launched in October 1969, in a series of television advertisements featuring Sir William. In these spots, he referred to the car as "the finest Jaguar ever". An unusual feature, inherited from the Mark X and S-Type saloons, was the provision of twin fuel tanks, positioned on each side of the boot / trunk, filled using two separately lockable filler caps: one on the top of each wing above the rear wheel arches.
Preliminary reviews of the car were favourable, noting good ride quality. In March 1970 it was announced that the Borg-Warner Model 8 automatic transmission, which the XJ6 had featured since 1968, would be replaced on the 4.2-litre-engined XJ6 with a Borg-Warner Model 12 unit. The new transmission now had three different forward positions accessed via the selector lever, which enabled performance oriented drivers to hold lower ratios at higher revs to achieve better acceleration. "Greatly improved shift quality" was claimed for the new system. Around this time minor changes were made as well, such as moving the rear reflectors from beside to below the rear lights. In 1972 the option of a long-wheelbase version, providing a 4" increase in leg room for passengers in the back, became available; the XJ12 version was announced in July 1972, featuring simplified grille treatment, powered by a 5.3 L V12 engine. The car as presented at that time was the world's only mass-produced 12-cylinder four-door car, with a top speed "around 140 mph" as the "fastest full four-seater available in the world today".
Although it had been the manufacturer's intention from launch that the XJ would take the twelve-cylinder engine, its installation was nonetheless a tight fit, providing adequate cooling had evidently been a challenge for the engineers designing the installation. Bonnet/hood louvres such as those fitted on the introduced twelve-cylinder E Type were rejected, but the XJ12 featured a complex "cross-flow" radiator divided into two separated horizontal sections and supported with coolant feeder tanks at each end: the engine fan was geared to rotate at 1¼ times the speed of the engine rpm, subject to a limiter which cut in at a speed of 1,700 rpm; the fuel system incorporated a relief valve that returned fuel to the tank when pressure in the leads to the carburetters exceeded 1.5 psi to reduce the risk of vapour locks occurring at the engine's high operating temperature, while the car's battery, benefited from its own thermostatically controlled cooling fan. 3,235 of these first generation XJ12s were built.
A badge-engineered version, the Daimler Double-Six, was introduced in 1972, reviving the Daimler model name of 1926–1938. Referred to as the "Series II", the XJ line was facelifted in autumn 1973 for the 1974 model year; the 4.2 L I-6 XJ6 and the 5.3 L V12 XJ12 were continued with an addition of a 3.4 L version of the XK engine available from 1975. The Series II was offered with two wheelbases, but at the 1974 London Motor Show Jaguar announced the withdrawal of the standard wheelbase version: subsequent saloons/sedans all featured the extra 4 inches of passenger cabin length hitherto featured only on the long-wheelbase model. By this time the first customer deliveries of the two-door coupe, which retained the shorter standard-wheelbase were only months away. Visually, Series II cars are differentiated from their predecessors by raised front bumpers to meet US crash safety regulations, which necessitated a smaller grille, complemented by a discreet additional inlet directly below the bumper.
The interior received a substantial update, including simplified heating and a/c systems to address criticisms of the complex and not effective Series I system. In April 1975, the North American Series II got a revised set of front bumpers
Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. There are many different types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, about 745.7 watts, the metric horsepower, 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses, it was expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit; the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. In 1702, Thomas Savery wrote in The Miner's Friend: So that an engine which will raise as much water as two horses, working together at one time in such a work, can do, for which there must be kept ten or twelve horses for doing the same.
I say, such an engine may be made large enough to do the work required in employing eight, fifteen, or twenty horses to be maintained and kept for doing such a work… The idea was used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines; this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined; the wheel was 12 feet in radius. Watt judged. So: P = W t = F d t = 180 l b f × 2.4 × 2 π × 12 f t 1 m i n = 32, 572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft⋅lbf/min, rounded to an 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min. Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony and thus arrived at the 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min figure. Engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute.
John Desaguliers had suggested 44,000 foot-pounds per minute and Tredgold 27,500 foot-pounds per minute. "Watt found by experiment in 1782 that a'brewery horse' could produce 32,400 foot-pounds per minute." James Watt and Matthew Boulton standardized that figure at 33,000 foot-pounds per minute the next year. A common legend states that the unit was created when one of Watt's first customers, a brewer demanded an engine that would match a horse, chose the strongest horse he had and driving it to the limit. Watt, while aware of the trick, accepted the challenge and built a machine, even stronger than the figure achieved by the brewer, it was the output of that machine which became the horsepower. In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published correspondence in Nature summarizing measurements and calculations of peak and sustained work rates of a horse. Citing measurements made at the 1926 Iowa State Fair, they reported that the peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp and observed that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both the 19th and 20th centuries and consistent with a work rate of about 4 times the basal rate expended by other vertebrates for sustained activity.
When considering human-powered equipment, a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely. The Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt produced a maximum of 3.5 hp 0.89 seconds into his 9.58 second 100-metre dash world record in 2009. When torque T is in pound-foot units, rotational speed is in rpm and power is required in horsepower: P / hp = T / × N / rpm 5252 The constant 5252 is the rounded value of /; when torque T is in inch pounds: P
A sedan — saloon — is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.
A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Reputable etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the same experts report that the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when a new Studebaker model was described by its manufacturers as a sedan.
The same American dictionary provides this description: "Sedan an enclosed automobile for four or more people, having two or four doors". There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as broughams in the United Kingdom, they were berlinas in France and Italy. Both names are still used there for sedans. There is an unsubstantiated claim that the body of a particular 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first motor vehicle, a sedan, it was a two-door two-seater vehicle with an extra external seat for a footman/mechanic. Georgano claims the earliest usage matching a modern definition of a sedan was a 1911 Speedwell sedan manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. Super saloon is used to describe a high performance saloon car where sports saloon would have been used in the past.
Saloon has been used by British car manufacturers in the United States, for example, the Rolls-Royce Park Ward. In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks; these names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German sedans are berlines or limousines and limousines are stretch-limousines. In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model.
Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car; the top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The fashion may have delayed the introduction of unibody construction. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later.
The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car, manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of beauty, high performance, competitive pricing established the model as an icon of the motoring world; the E-Type's 150 mph top speed, sub-7-second 0 to 60 mph acceleration, monocoque construction, disc brakes, rack-and-pinion steering, independent front and rear suspension distinguished the car and spurred industry-wide changes. The E-Type was based on Jaguar's D-Type racing car, which had won the 24 Hours of Le Mans three consecutive years beginning 1955, employed what was, for the early 1960s, a novel racing design principle, with a front subframe carrying the engine, front suspension and front bodywork bolted directly to the body tub. No ladder frame chassis, as was common at the time, was needed and as such the first cars weighed only 1315kg. On its release in March 1961 Enzo Ferrari called it "the most beautiful car made".
In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in The Daily Telegraph online list of the world's "100 most beautiful cars" of all time. Outside automotive circles, the E-type received prominent placement in Diabolik comic series, Austin Powers films and the television series Mad Men; the E-Type was designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form and as a two-seater convertible "roadster". A "2+2" four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released several years later. Model updates of the E-Type were designated "Series 2" and "Series 3", over time the earlier cars have come to be referred to as "Series 1." As with other hand made cars of the time, changes were incremental and ongoing, which has led to confusion over what a Series 1 car is. This is of more than academic interest, as Series 1 E-Types—and Series 1 roadsters have values far in excess of Series 2 and 3 models.
Some transitional examples exist. For example, while Jaguar itself never recognised a "Series 1½" or "Series 1.5," over time, this sub-category has been recognised by the Jaguar Owners Club of Great Britain and other leading authorities. The "pure" 4.2-litre Series 1 was made in model years 1965–1967. The 4.2-litre Series 1 has serial or VIN numbers 1E10001 - 1E15888, 1E30001 - 1E34249. The Series 1.5 left hand drive roadster has serial numbers 1E15889 - 1E18368, with the hardtop version of the Series 1.5 having VIN numbers 1E34250 - 1E35815. Series 1.5 cars were made in model year 1968. The Series 1 cars, which are by far the most valuable fall into two categories: Those made between 1961 and 1964, which had 3.8-litre engines and partial synchromesh transmissions, those made between 1965-1967, which increased engine size and torque by around 10%, added a synchronised transmission, provided new reclining seats, an alternator in place of the prior dynamo, an electrical system switched to negative earth, other modern amenities, all while keeping the same classic Series 1 styling.
The 4.2-litre Series 1 E-Types replaced the brake servo of the 3.8-litre with a more reliable unit. "The 4.2 became the most desirable version of the famous E-Type due to their increased power and usability while retaining the same outward appearance as the earlier cars."As of the end of 2014, the most expensive regular production Jaguar E-Types sold at auction included a 4.2-litre Series 1 roadster, with matching numbers, original paint and interior, under 80,000 original miles, a history of being in the original buyer's family for 45 years and a 1961 "flat floor" Series 1, selling for $528,000 in 2014. Special run racing lightweights go for far more still. For example, a 1963 E-type Lightweight Competition advertised as original and with lots of patina, one of just twelve that were built, sold for $7,370,000 at the 2017 Scottsdale, Arizona auctions. Being a British-made car of the 1960s, there are some rather rare sub-types of Series 1 E-Types at the beginning and end of the Series 1 production.
For example, the first 500 Series 1 cars had flat floors and external bonnet latches. At the close of the Series 1 production run, there were a small number of cars produced that are identical in every respect to other Series 1 units, except that the headlight covers were removed for better illumination, it is not known how many of these Series 1 cars were produced, but given that 1,508 Series 1 roadsters were produced worldwide for 1967, combined with the fact that these examples were made in just the last several months of Series 1 production, means that these, like the flat floor examples that began the Series 1 production run, are the lowest volume Series 1 variant, save of course for the special lightweights. Worldwide, including both left and right hand drive examples, a total of 7,828 3.8-litre Series 1 roadsters were built, with 6,749 of the 4.2-litre Series 1 roadsters having been manufactured. While the 1968 Series 1.5 cars maintained the essential design of th