A radial tire is a particular design of vehicular tire. In this design, the cord plies are radially. Radial tire construction climbed to 100% market share in North America, following Consumer Reports finding the superiority of the radial design in 1968; the first radial tire designs were patented in 1915 by Arthur W. Savage, a tire manufacturer, inventor in San Diego, CA. Savage's patents expired in 1949. Michelin in France designed, developed and commercialized the radial tire. There is no evidence; the first Michelin X radial tire for cars was developed in 1946 by Michelin researcher Marius Mignol. Michelin owned the leading automaker Citroën, so it was able to introduce its new design, including on the new 1948 Citroën 2CV model. In 1952, Michelin developed a radial truck tire; because of its significant advantages in durability and fuel economy, this technology spread in Europe and Asia in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of the radial tire design, documenting its longer tread life, better steering characteristics, less rolling resistance, which increases gas mileage.
In 1970, Ford Motor Company produced the first American-made vehicle with radial tires as standard equipment, Michelin tires fitted to the Continental Mark III. In 1974, Charles J. Pilliod, Jr. the new CEO of Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, faced a major investment decision regarding retooling for the radial tire, following the 1973 oil crisis. Despite heavy criticism at the time, Pilliod invested in new factories and tooling to build the radial tire. Today, only Goodyear, Cooper and Specialty Tires of America remain independent among US tire manufacturers, the radial has a market share of 100%. Sam Gibara, who headed Goodyear from 1996 to 2003, has noted that without the action of Pilliod, Goodyear "wouldn't be around today." In 1974, Leopoldo Pirelli created the wide radial tire in Italy, upon a request from the Lancia rally racing team for a tire sufficiently strong enough to withstand the power of the new Lancia Stratos. At that time, racing tires were either slick tires made with the cross ply technique, or radial tires, which were too narrow to withstand the Stratos' power and did not provide enough grip.
Both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within 10 km, the slicks too stiff. Lancia asked Pirelli for a solution, in the succeeding year Pirelli made a wide tire with a reduced sidewall height like a slick, but with a radial structure. Radial technology is now the standard design for all automotive tires. Bias tires are still used on trailers due to their weight carrying ability and resistance to swaying when towed. For aircraft, the transition is happening more as tires are certified along with the airframe. A radial has less material in the sidewall, so it weighs less, runs cooler and lasts longer. For smaller planes, bias tires have stronger sidewalls. A series of plies of cord reinforces a tire. Without this, a tire would be weak; the network of cords that gives the tire strength and shape is called the carcass. Since the 1960s, all common tires have a carcass of cords of polyester, steel, or other textile materials, inlaid with several layers of rubber. In the past, the fabric was built up on a flat steel drum, with the cords at angles of about +60 and −60 degrees from the direction of travel, so they criss-crossed over each other.
They were called cross bias ply tires. The plies were turned up around the combined tread/sidewall applied; the green tire was shaped into the mold. This shaping process caused the cords in the tire to assume an S-shape from bead to bead; the angle under the tread, the crown angle, stretched down to about 36 degrees. In the sidewall region the angle was 45 degrees, in the bead it remained at 60 degrees; the low crown angle gave rigidity to support the tread and the high sidewall angle gave comfort. To increase strength, the manufacturer would increase the number of plies, the heat buildup in the tire. By comparison, radial tires lay; this design avoids having the plies rub against each other as the tire flexes, reducing the tire's rolling friction. This allows vehicles with radial tires to achieve better fuel economy than with bias-ply tires, it accounts for the "low on air" look that radial tire sidewalls have when compared to bias-ply tires. With only radial cords, a radial tire would not be sufficiently rigid at the contact with the ground.
To add further stiffness, the entire tire is surrounded by additional belts oriented closer to the direction of travel, but at some "spiral" angle. These belts can be made of polyester, or Aramid fibers such as Twaron or Kevlar. In this way, low radial tires separate the tire carcass into two separate systems: The radial cords in the sidewall allow it to act like a spring, giving flexibility and ride comfort; the rigid steel belts reinforce the tread region, giving high performance. Each system can be individually optimized for best performance. Radial tires have different characteristics of springiness from those of bias-ply tires, a different degree of slip while steering. A benefit was that cars could now be made lighter because they would not have to make up for th
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Jaguar XK120 is a sports car manufactured by Jaguar between 1948 and 1954. It was Jaguar's first sports car since the SS 100, which ceased production in 1940; the XK120 was launched in open two-seater or roadster form at the 1948 London Motor Show as a testbed and show car for the new Jaguar XK engine. The display car was the first prototype, chassis number 660001, it looked identical to the production cars except that the straight outer pillars of its windscreen would be curved on the production version. The sports car caused a sensation, which persuaded Jaguar founder and Chairman William Lyons to put it into production. Beginning in 1948, the first 242 cars wore wood-framed open 2-seater bodies with aluminium panels. Production switched to the 1cwt or 112 lb heavier all-steel in early 1950; the "120" in the name referred to the aluminium car's 120 mph top speed, which made it the world's fastest production car at the time of its launch. In 1949 the first production car, chassis number 670003, was delivered to Clark Gable.
The XK120 was available in three versions or body styles, first as an open 2-seater described in the US market as a roadster as a fixed head coupé from 1951 and as a drophead coupé from 1953, all two-seaters and available with Left or Right Hand Drive. A smaller-engined version with a 2-litre 4 cylinder engine, designated the XK100, intended for the UK market was cancelled prior to production. On 30 May 1949, on the empty Ostend-Jabbeke motorway in Belgium, a prototype XK120 timed by the officials of the Royal Automobile Club of Belgium achieved an average of runs in opposing directions of 132.6 mph with the windscreen replaced by just one small aero screen and a catalogued alternative top gear ratio, 135 mph with a passenger-side tonneau cover in place. In 1950 and 1951, at Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, a banked oval track in France, open XK120s averaged over 100 mph for 24 hours and over 130 mph for an hour. In 1952 a fixed-head coupé took numerous world records for speed and distance when it averaged 100 mph for a week.
XK120s were highly successful in racing and rallying. The first 242 production XK120s, hand-built with aluminium bodies on ash framing mounted on a steel chassis copied from the Jaguar Mark V chassis using many of the same parts, were constructed between late 1948 and early 1950. To meet demand, beginning with the 1950 model year, all subsequent XK120s were mass-produced with pressed-steel bodies. Aluminium doors and boot lid were retained; the DHC and FHC versions, more luxuriously appointed than the exposed open cars, had wind-up windows and wood veneers on the dashboard and interior door caps. With a high-temperature, high-strength aluminum alloy cylinder head, hemispherical combustion chambers, inclined valves and twin side-draft SU carburetors, the dual overhead-cam 3.4 L straight-6 XK engine was advanced for a mass-produced unit of the time. Using 80 octane fuel a standard 8:1 compression ratio developed 160 bhp. Most of the early cars were exported; the Jaguar factory's access to 80 octane fuel allowed it to provide cars with the higher compression ratio to the press, enabling journalists to test the model's optimum performance in Belgium, on a long, straight stretch of road between Jabbeke and Ostend.
The XK engine's basic design modified into 3.8 and 4.2 litre versions, survived until 1992. All XK120s had independent torsion bar front suspension, semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear, recirculating ball steering, telescopically adjustable steering column, all-round 12-inch drum brakes which were prone to fade; some cars were fitted with Alfin brake drums to help overcome the fade. The open two-seater's lightweight canvas top and detachable sidescreens stowed out of sight behind the seats, its doors had no external handles. There was an interior pull-cord accessed through a flap in the sidescreens when the weather equipment was in place; the windscreen could be removed for aeroscreens to be fitted. The drophead coupé had a padded, lined canvas top, which folded onto the rear deck behind the seats when retracted, roll-up windows with opening quarter lights; the flat glass two-piece windscreen was set in a steel frame, integrated with the body and painted the same colour. Dashboards and door-caps in both the DHC and the closed coupé were wood-veneered, whereas the open cars were leather-trimmed.
All models had removable spats covering the rear wheel arches. On cars fitted with optional centre-lock wire wheels, the spats were omitted as they gave insufficient clearance for the chromed, two-eared Rudge-Whitworth knockoff hubs. Chromium-plated wire wheels were optional from 1953. Factory standard 6.00 × 16 inch cross ply tyres were fitted on 16 × 5K solid wheels, with 185VR16 Pirelli Cinturato radial tyres available as a option. In addition to wire wheels, upgrades on the Special Equipment version included increased power, stiffer suspension and dual exhaust system; the Motor magazine road-tested an XK120 in November 1949. This pre-production car, chassis number 660001, road-registered as HKV 455, was the first prototype built, it was the 1948 London Motor Show display model, had been driven by Prince Bira in the 1949 Silverstone Production Car Race. When tested, it had the 8:1 compression ratio, was fitted with an undertray, ran with h
The Pirelli Cinturato is a Pirelli-developed car tyre, the first example of a wrap-around radial tyre structure. It was used to good effect in motorsport, most modern tyres are based upon the design; the five-times Formula One World Champion Juan Manuel Fangio called the Pirelli Cinturato "Extraordinary" and raced on it many times in the remainder of his career. First developed in 1952 under the name Pirelli Cintura, taking the name Cinturato in 1963, the tyre was composed of two or three carcass plies of cords laid at an angle of 90 degrees to the beads, a belt of several plies laid circumferentially under the tread. Without a belt, the 90-degree plies would produce a casing which would increase its sectional height on inflation; the belt, being inextensible, prevented the casing increasing in height when inflated, the inflated tyre maintained the same dimensions as in the mould in which it went through vulcanisation. The belt was kept under tension, the tread retained its flatter profile when the tyre was inflated.
The Pirelli Cinturato may be compared to a wheel in which the rim is attached to the hub by means of fine spokes. The tread and belt are in effect the rim; the inextensible belt and the radial casing cords were the combined factors which gave the Cinturato tyre its special properties. The different geometric arrangement of the Cinturato carcass resulted in greater deformation in the area of the tyre section, under load, as opposed to previous radial tyres of the period; this did not result in greater tyre casing fatigue. Rather than having the dynamic wave form behind the road contact area, it instead formed on the side wall, increasing stability whilst allowing the heat generated by cornering and braking to be dispersed. During the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s the Pirelli Cinturato was the original equipment tyre for many exotic Italian cars including Lamborghini, Alfa Romeo, Ferrari as well as for cars produced by other manufacturers worldwide, including MG, Rover Group and Lotus Cars. Many other international car manufacturers such as Jaguar and Aston Martin that were still fitting crossply tyres as standard equipment fitted Pirelli Cinturato as their radial upgrade for customers that could afford it.
By the end of 1968 Pirelli was exporting or directly manufacturing the Cinturato to or in as many as 137 countries worldwide. In 2014, the Pirelli Cinturato P7 was developed, derived from F1 technology, which had permitted Valtteri Bottas to drive his F1 car at a maximum speed of 316 km/h in fog; the first Cinturato tread pattern was the CA67, still made today in the sizes 165HR14, 155HR15, 165HR15, 185VR15 & 185VR16. Recognisable as it was fitted to so many desirable cars such as the 250GT Ferrari and Maserati 3500GT, it was the tread pattern that Jaguar fitted to its XK150, series 1 E type and MK2 Saloons and that Aston Martin fitted to their DB2, DB3, DB4, DB5 & DB6 if a customer specified they required radial tyres. The Cinturato CA67 is famously the tyre that Roger Moore had fitted to his Volvo P1800 in the series The Saint. In 1964 Pirelli developed a new extra large high performance tyre with a 205 section and a new tread pattern, designated CN72 HS; this new tyre again took the world of sportscars by storm and kept the Cinturato as the tyre of choice for sports cars such as Ferrari 330 GT 2+2, Iso Grifo, Lamborghini Miura and Maserati Ghibli.
Once again Aston Martin offered them as a radial alternative for their DBS. Towards the end of 1968 the new tyre technology was low profile tyres. Pirelli were hot on the tail with their new CN36 which came out in 1969; the CN36 had a striking tread pattern and was a favourite for the likes of the Porsche 911, Ford Escort & Ford Cortina. 1971 would see Pirelli’s introduction of another high speed tyre with their CN12 Cinturato HS. These tyres were rated to be able to withstand the exceptional power of the Lamborghini Miura SV, today their 205/70VR15 Pirelli Cinturato tyre holds a W speed rating. Pirelli, Pattern of Progress Pirelli Cinturato, H. Hacker Ltd. Pirelli and pressure table for Cinturato car tyres, Mears Caldwell Hacker Ltd. Juan Manuel Fangio driving on Pirelli Cinturato